Tornado outbreak of April 13–15, 2019

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Tornado outbreak of April 13–15, 2019
April 13–15, 2019 tornado outbreak warnings and reports.png
Map of tornado warnings and confirmed tornadoes from the outbreak with infrared satellite imagery of the storm system from the morning of April 14
TypeTornado outbreak
FormedApril 13, 2019 (2019-04-13)
DissipatedApril 15, 2019 (2019-04-15)
Tornadoes confirmed70
Max rating1EF3 tornado
Duration of tornado outbreak240 hours, 17 minutes
Highest winds
Largest hail3 in (7.6 cm) in Bexar County, Texas on April 13
Fatalities3 fatalities (+6 non-tornadic)
Areas affectedMidwestern, Northeastern, Southeastern United States
1Most severe tornado damage; see Enhanced Fujita scale

2Time from first tornado to last tornado

Part of the Tornadoes of 2019

The tornado outbreak of April 13–15, 2019, was a significant severe weather event that affected the multiple regions of the Eastern United States. Over the course of 40 hours, 70 tornadoes touched down. The outbreak produced numerous strong tornadoes throughout portions of the Deep South, while additional significant tornadoes occurred as far north as Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. The most significant tornado of the event was a long-tracked, high-end EF3 tornado that struck Alto, Texas and killed two people. Numerous weak tornadoes were also confirmed, along with numerous reports of hail and damaging straight line winds. Damage surveys are still ongoing.

A total of nine people were killed during this outbreak of severe weather. Three fatalities occurred as a result of the tornadoes that struck Alto, Texas and Hamilton, Mississippi. In addition, six other non-tornadic fatalities were also associated with this storm event. On April 13, two children aged 3 and 8 were killed in Pollock, Texas after a tree fell on and crushed the vehicle they were riding in. In Louisiana, two more people were killed as a result of flash flooding in Monroe and Bawcomville. On April 14, a rescue worker in Alabama was struck by a vehicle while clearing debris off a roadway, killing him. An additional fatality occurred on April 15 when a tree fell on a home in Stafford, Virginia, killing an occupant.[1]

Meteorological synopsis[edit]

April 13[edit]

The first indications for an organized severe weather event came on April 9, when the Storm Prediction Center (SPC) outlined a risk area across much of the Ark-La-Tex region.[2] The following day, a broader region for severe thunderstorms was introduced, with a heightened threat level across far eastern Texas into western Mississippi.[3] A day 3 enhanced risk was outlined across those same regions on April 11, although SPC noted concerns about system timing and the availability of instability as numerous storms developed.[4] As weather models came into broad consensus with regard to the potential for discrete supercell thunderstorms and a succeeding squall line, confidence in a significant severe weather outbreak increased, prompting the SPC to issue a day 2 moderate risk across far eastern Texas, northern Louisiana, southeastern Arkansas, and far western Mississippi.[5] The moderate risk was extended eastward on the morning of April 13, and SPC forecasters contemplated issuing a high risk for portions of the area. Ultimately, however, lingering concerns about the longevity of discrete storms precluded such an upgrade.[6][7]

The synoptic scale setup was expected to come together as a vigorous upper-level trough pushed eastward across the Southwest United States into the Southern Plains, developing a closed 500mb low near the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex late on April 13. At the surface, a primary area of low pressure was forecast to develop near San Angelo, Texas, supporting a trailing cold front across central Texas as well as a lifting warm front across the Ark-La-Tex region. Within the warm sector of this low-pressure system, dew points were expected to rise into the upper-60s to near 70°F, with precipitable water values in excess of 1.5 in (38 mm) and generally low cloud bases. Steep lapse rates were forecast to contribute to mid-level Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) values of 2,500–3,000 J/kg across eastern Texas, with slightly lower values of 1,000–2,000 J/kg over portions of Louisiana and Mississippi. Intense speed and directional shear throughout the entirety of the atmosphere led to large, looping hodographs, and effective storm relative helicity values ranging from 250–600 J/kg along and south of the aforementioned warm front as depicted by forecast atmospheric soundings. The culmination of these ingredients was forecast to support an outbreak of supercell thunderstorms across the Moderate risk, with the potential for strong to violent (EF2+) tornadoes with the most sustained cells, followed by the development of an eastward-progressing squall line overnight. As the event itself unfolded, numerous supercell thunderstorms and embedded semi-discrete supercell structures overspread the threat area, resulting in numerous strong tornadoes.[7]

Progression of tornadoes and tornado warnings across the Eastern United States between April 13–April 15

April 14–15[edit]

On April 10, the SPC noted the potential for organized severe weather farther east across the United States, encompassing portions of Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, and Florida in their day 5 threat area valid for April 14.[3] Minimal changes were made in the next day's outlook,[8] before the outlook was expanded northward into the Ohio Valley, including the introduction of an enhanced risk from central Alabama and Georgia into southern Ohio.[9] Into April 14, as a line of severe thunderstorms shifted eastward across the Southern United States, this Enhanced risk was pushed north to encompass more of the Ohio Valley and portions of the Mid-Atlantic states. This included a large 5% risk area for tornadoes. There, cool morning temperatures were expected to give way to sufficient destabilization, characterized by mid-level CAPE values around 500–1,000 J/kg. Despite an intense low-level jet, dewpoints were only expected to rise into the upper 50s to near 60°F, mitigating a more substantial tornado threat as severe thunderstorm clusters were forecast to congeal into a squall line overnight. While storm mode during the event was mostly linear, several supercell thunderstorms did develop, resulting in a few significant tornadoes. Numerous circulations and semi-discrete supercell structures embedded within the line of storms produced numerous weak tornadoes as well. Tornado activity continued throughout portions of the Northeastern United States into the early morning hours of April 15 before the outbreak came to an end.[10][11]

Confirmed tornadoes[edit]

Confirmed tornadoes by Enhanced Fujita rating
EFU EF0 EF1 EF2 EF3 EF4 EF5 Total
0 23 30 15 2 0 0 70

April 13 event[edit]

List of confirmed tornadoes – Saturday, April 13, 2019[note 1]
EF# Location County / Parish State Start Coord. Time (UTC) Path length Max width Summary Refs
EF3 NW of Hearne to SSW of Marquez Milam, Robertson, Leon TX 30°53′02″N 96°41′58″W / 30.8838°N 96.6994°W / 30.8838; -96.6994 (Franklin (Apr 13, EF3)) 15:50–16:45 32.63 mi (52.51 km) 250 yd (230 m) A strong tornado caused severe damage in the town of Franklin, where numerous homes and businesses were damaged or destroyed. Many well-built frame homes sustained major structural damage, some of which were left with only interior rooms standing. Mobile homes were completely destroyed, vehicles were thrown, pieces of lumber were impaled through the exterior walls of several structures, and many trees in town were snapped and denuded. One duplex, 55 homes, 4 businesses, and two churches were destroyed in Franklin. Elsewhere along the path, minor to moderate tree and structure damage occurred. At least 12 people were injured. [12]
EF0 SSE of Hearne Robertson TX 30°43′43″N 96°32′43″W / 30.7286°N 96.5453°W / 30.7286; -96.5453 (Hearne (Apr 13, EF0)) 16:14–16:19 2.3 mi (3.7 km) 50 yd (46 m) A weak tornado was caught on video over open farmland. No damage was reported. [12]
EF1 NW of Ratcliff to SSW of Alto Houston, Cherokee TX 31°26′01″N 95°10′17″W / 31.4337°N 95.1715°W / 31.4337; -95.1715 (Tadmor (Apr 13, EF1)) 16:33–16:35 8.7 mi (14.0 km) 75 yd (69 m) This tornado snapped and uprooted trees and severely damaged a double-wide mobile home, pushing it into a wooded area. Four of its occupants were injured but later released from the hospital. [13][14]
EF2 SSW of Alto Cherokee TX 31°33′41″N 95°06′15″W / 31.56126°N 95.1042°W / 31.56126; -95.1042 (Alto (Apr 13, EF2)) 16:46–16:48 0.8 mi (1.3 km) 400 yd (370 m) This tornado initially snapped hundreds of trees before destroying two mobile homes and tearing the roof off of a house. Several vehicles were tossed and damaged as well. [14]
EF2 Alto Cherokee TX 31°38′26″N 95°04′50″W / 31.6405°N 95.0805°W / 31.6405; -95.0805 (Alto (Apr 13, EF2)) 16:52–17:00 2.5 mi (4.0 km) 400 yd (370 m) This tornado struck Alto after the previous event lifted. Several homes were significantly damaged in town, including one home that was shifted off of its foundation and largely destroyed. It then passed over the Alto ISD campus, where a gymnasium sustained collapse of a masonry exterior wall. The roofs of other structures on campus were also damaged. Trees were snapped or uprooted as well. The EF3 that hit Alto a couple hours later crossed the damage path of this tornado. [14]
EF1 E of Buffalo to SE of Jewett Leon TX 31°27′40″N 95°59′55″W / 31.461°N 95.9987°W / 31.461; -95.9987 (Leon County (Apr 13, EF1)) 17:12–17:19 11.22 mi (18.06 km) 150 yd (140 m) This tornado ripped small portions of roofing material off of two houses and snapped trees. [12]
EF2 W of Lovelady Houston TX 31°04′44″N 95°34′38″W / 31.0789°N 95.5773°W / 31.0789; -95.5773 (Lovelady (Apr 13, EF2)) 17:23–17:28 3.85 mi (6.20 km) 100 yd (91 m) A house had its metal roof torn off, with roofing scattered up to 100 yd (91 m) away. A double-wide mobile home was completely destroyed, trees were snapped and denuded, and vehicles were tossed and damaged. [13]
EF3 ENE of Crockett to NE of Reklaw Houston, Cherokee, Rusk TX 31°23′59″N 95°18′13″W / 31.3997°N 95.3037°W / 31.3997; -95.3037 (Crockett (Apr 13, EF3)) 17:56–19:00 44.4 mi (71.5 km) 880 yd (800 m) 2 deaths – See section on this tornado [13][14]
EF1 SW of Chireno Nacogdoches TX 31°28′24″N 94°22′52″W / 31.4732°N 94.3811°W / 31.4732; -94.3811 (Chireno (Apr 13, EF1)) 19:38–19:39 0.8 mi (1.3 km) 100 yd (91 m) This tornado uprooted numerous trees in a heavily wooded area. [14]
EF1 E of Newellton to N of Gilbert Tensas LA 32°10′36″N 91°13′50″W / 32.1768°N 91.2305°W / 32.1768; -91.2305 (Gilbert (Apr 13, EF1)) 21:04–21:30 17.29 mi (27.83 km) 1,230 yd (1,120 m) A large, rain-wrapped, high-end EF1 wedge tornado destroyed one mobile home while rolling a second. An empty fertilizer tank and farm equipment tires were lofted a considerable distance. An older home had its roof ripped off and several other houses suffered lesser roof damage as well. Some outbuildings and mobile homes were damaged, including a few that were pushed off their cinder blocks. Many trees were snapped or uprooted. [15]
EF1 N of Newellton Tensas LA 32°07′42″N 91°14′21″W / 32.1284°N 91.2393°W / 32.1284; -91.2393 (Newellton (Apr 13, EF1)) 21:13–21:19 4.99 mi (8.03 km) 950 yd (870 m) Trees and power poles were snapped. [15]
EF1 SW of Mound Madison LA 32°14′38″N 91°05′49″W / 32.2438°N 91.097°W / 32.2438; -91.097 (Mound (Apr 13, EF1)) 21:35–21:38 0.97 mi (1.56 km) 840 yd (770 m) Several trees were snapped or uprooted, and some tree limbs fell onto an outbuilding. [15]
EF0 SSW of Mound Madison LA 32°17′30″N 91°03′08″W / 32.2916°N 91.0522°W / 32.2916; -91.0522 (Mound (Apr 13, EF0)) 21:44–21:50 2.8 mi (4.5 km) 50 yd (46 m) Trained storm spotters observed a tornado. No damage occurred. [15]
EF2 Northeastern Vicksburg to SSW of Phoenix Warren, Yazoo MS 32°22′25″N 90°49′45″W / 32.3737°N 90.8291°W / 32.3737; -90.8291 (Vicksburg (Apr 13, EF2)) 21:57–22:43 20.37 mi (32.78 km) 700 yd (640 m) This was the first of three strong tornadoes that touched down in Vicksburg. Numerous trees were snapped or uprooted in subdivisions at the northeastern edge of town, some of which fell on homes and power lines. The most intense damage occurred farther along the path, where several power poles and numerous large trees were snapped at their bases. [15]
EF2 Southern Vicksburg Warren MS 32°18′32″N 90°53′27″W / 32.309°N 90.8909°W / 32.309; -90.8909 (Vicksburg (Apr 13, EF2)) 22:04–22:15 4.35 mi (7.00 km) 440 yd (400 m) This was the second of three strong tornadoes that touched down in Vicksburg. At the beginning of the path, plants and materials were damaged at a Walmart. A strip mall had much of its roof torn off and its front windows and doors blown outward. A large metal Taco Bell sign pole was bent over nearby. The roof of another business, the canopy of a Kroger gas station, a nearby sign, and several trees were damaged as well. [15]
EF2 Vicksburg Warren MS 32°20′01″N 90°53′00″W / 32.3335°N 90.8833°W / 32.3335; -90.8833 (Vicksburg (Apr 13, EF2)) 22:08–22:16 2.96 mi (4.76 km) 175 yd (160 m) This tornado struck Vicksburg immediately after the previous one. The roof of a home was ripped off, collapsing the front facade of the structure. A small business building suffered minor roof damage. Numerous trees were snapped and uprooted, one of which caused extensive damage to a home upon falling. [15]
EF0 NW of Bentonia Yazoo MS 32°41′57″N 90°20′49″W / 32.6992°N 90.347°W / 32.6992; -90.347 (Bentonia (Apr 13, EF0)) 23:00–23:06 2.92 mi (4.70 km) 25 yd (23 m) A few trees were snapped and uprooted. [15]
EF1 ENE of West Attala MS 33°12′59″N 89°41′35″W / 33.2165°N 89.6931°W / 33.2165; -89.6931 (West (Apr 13, EF1)) 00:06–00:07 0.51 mi (0.82 km) 50 yd (46 m) Numerous trees were snapped and a power pole was broken as well. [15]
EF0 SSE of Delhi Madison LA 32°17′34″N 91°24′13″W / 32.2927°N 91.4037°W / 32.2927; -91.4037 (Delhi (Apr 13, EF0)) 00:09–00:16 4.43 mi (7.13 km) 50 yd (46 m) A tornado debris signature was evident on radar. [15]
EF1 NW of Redwater Leake MS 32°51′08″N 89°39′06″W / 32.8523°N 89.6516°W / 32.8523; -89.6516 (Redwater (Apr 13, EF1)) 00:35–00:43 4.87 mi (7.84 km) 300 yd (270 m) Numerous trees were snapped and uprooted. [15]
EF2 W of Tylertown Pike, Walthall MS 31°06′02″N 90°16′08″W / 31.1005°N 90.2688°W / 31.1005; -90.2688 (Tylertown (Apr 13, EF2)) 01:12–01:21 4.41 mi (7.10 km) 150 yd (140 m) A strong, multiple-vortex tornado caused major tree damage as it moved through heavily forested areas. [16]
EF1 Mathiston Choctaw, Webster MS 33°30′25″N 89°06′59″W / 33.5069°N 89.1165°W / 33.5069; -89.1165 (Mathiston (Apr 13, EF1)) 02:08–02:15 2.66 mi (4.28 km) 400 yd (370 m) A tornado touched down to the south of Mathison, where a small shed was damaged and numerous trees and tree limbs were snapped. One tree fell on and destroyed a truck. Additional tree limbs were snapped in Mathison before the tornado dissipated. [15]
EF0 S of Mantee Webster MS 33°39′15″N 89°03′31″W / 33.6543°N 89.0586°W / 33.6543; -89.0586 (Mantee (Apr 13, EF0)) 02:26–02:27 0.34 mi (0.55 km) 100 yd (91 m) A weak, brief tornado uprooted several trees, with one falling on a shed. A utility pole was bent over as well. [15]
EF1 SW of Taylorsville Covington, Smith MS 31°46′07″N 89°30′22″W / 31.7685°N 89.506°W / 31.7685; -89.506 (Taylorsville (Apr 13, EF1)) 02:39–02:46 4.11 mi (6.61 km) 250 yd (230 m) One mobile home lost its skirting while a second had its porch covering and tin roof ripped off. Debris from the second home was tossed into a third mobile home, causing the door to fly open and resulting in one injury. A carport and some of the tin roof of one home was removed, while a metal shed had its roof ripped off too. [15]
EF2 SE of Sturgis to SSW of Starkville Winston, Oktibbeha MS 33°15′35″N 88°56′45″W / 33.2596°N 88.9459°W / 33.2596; -88.9459 (Starkville (Apr 13, EF2)) 02:55–03:10 8.82 mi (14.19 km) 830 yd (760 m) A tornado snapped and uprooted numerous trees, with several falling on a house, truck, and camper. More were blown down on a horse barn, which was destroyed. At peak intensity, the tornado snapped almost a dozen power poles, caused significant tree damage, and completely destroyed a mobile home. Many houses sustained roof damage due to both wind and falling trees, and a church had moderate shingle damage. [15]
EF1 Southeastern Starkville Oktibbeha MS 33°24′38″N 88°47′46″W / 33.4105°N 88.7961°W / 33.4105; -88.7961 (Starkville (Apr 13, EF1)) 03:18–03:26 4.46 mi (7.18 km) 400 yd (370 m) This tornado snapped and uprooted several trees throughout its path, including at the Mississippi State University campus. Several homes sustained roof and shingle damage, one of which had a tree fall on it. [15]
EF2 SW of Hamilton to WSW of Greenwood Springs Monroe MS 33°43′29″N 88°26′27″W / 33.7248°N 88.4409°W / 33.7248; -88.4409 (Hamilton (Apr 13, EF2)) 04:06–04:23 11.3 mi (18.2 km) 800 yd (730 m) 1 death – This strong tornado rapidly developed and intensified before striking Hamilton at high-end EF2 strength, causing major damage to homes and other structures. Several frame homes were left with only interior rooms standing, and mobile homes were destroyed, along with a fire station building. A mechanic shop, apartment complex, self-storage building, local clinic, and the Monroe County Morgue were all damaged or destroyed. Power lines were downed, and outbuildings were destroyed as well. A tree fell on a mobile home outside of Hamilton, killing the occupant. Elsewhere, minor structural damage occurred and trees were snapped or uprooted along the path. 19 people were injured. [17][18]
EF2 SE of De Kalb Kemper MS 32°40′08″N 88°32′42″W / 32.6688°N 88.5451°W / 32.6688; -88.5451 (De Kalb (Apr 13, EF2)) 04:19–04:31 8.48 mi (13.65 km) 700 yd (640 m) Numerous large trees were uprooted or snapped near their bases, some of which fell on hunting cabins and mobile homes, causing minor or moderate damage. A large outbuilding had its tin roof peeled off, with sheet metal strewn downwind and wrapped around trees. [15]
EF1 W of Greenwood Springs to E of Smithville Monroe MS 33°53′35″N 88°19′17″W / 33.8931°N 88.3215°W / 33.8931; -88.3215 (Greenwood Springs (Apr 13, EF1)) 04:22–04:39 13.2 mi (21.2 km) 400 yd (370 m) This tornado tracked through wooded areas and downed numerous trees. A few homes sustained roof damage as well. [17]
EF1 SE of Vossburg Clarke MS 31°50′53″N 88°52′29″W / 31.848°N 88.8748°W / 31.848; -88.8748 (Vossburg (Apr 13, EF1)) 04:36–04:46 7 mi (11 km) 300 yd (270 m) Several trees were snapped or uprooted. A private property suffered roof damage. Two metal high tension power line V-trusses were toppled. A chain link fence was downed as well. [15]
EF1 W of De Soto Clarke MS 31°56′17″N 88°47′12″W / 31.938°N 88.7868°W / 31.938; -88.7868 (De Soto (Apr 13, EF1)) 04:48–04:52 4.57 mi (7.35 km) 200 yd (180 m) A home sustained minor shingle damage and numerous trees were snapped or uprooted. One tree was blown over onto an old church building, causing the structure to collapse. [15]
EF1 SW of Shottsville Marion AL 34°14′29″N 88°08′33″W / 34.2415°N 88.1425°W / 34.2415; -88.1425 (Bexar (Apr 13, EF1)) 04:56–04:59 1.21 mi (1.95 km) 440 yd (400 m) Dozens of trees were uprooted, and the tin was partially torn off a small barn. [19]
EF2 E of Quitman Clarke MS 32°01′29″N 88°42′37″W / 32.0247°N 88.7102°W / 32.0247; -88.7102 (Quitman (Apr 13, EF2)) 04:55–05:02 6.13 mi (9.87 km) 400 yd (370 m) A strong tornado completely mowed down dozens of trees in a heavily wooded area. Seven to nine power poles were broken as well. [15]

April 14 event[edit]

List of confirmed tornadoes – Sunday, April 14, 2019[note 1]
EF# Location County / Parish State Start Coord. Time (UTC) Path length Max width Summary Refs
EF1 NE of Red Bay Franklin AL 34°27′42″N 88°03′39″W / 34.4617°N 88.0607°W / 34.4617; -88.0607 (Red Bay (Apr 14, EF1)) 05:14–05:26 6.31 mi (10.15 km) 80 yd (73 m) A barn and a wooden outbuilding were damaged, and a tree was blown over onto a house. Tin from a nearby outbuilding was scattered several hundred yards away. Throughout its path, this tornado snapped and uprooted numerous trees. [20]
EF0 NE of Gallion Hale AL 32°30′18″N 87°42′14″W / 32.5051°N 87.7038°W / 32.5051; -87.7038 (Gallion (Apr 14, EF0)) 06:27–06:35 8.72 mi (14.03 km) 220 yd (200 m) A shed was destroyed. A trailer was knocked over at a church, significant portions of metal roofing were ripped from two more sheds and a barn, and numerous trees were snapped or uprooted. A home suffered minor damage to its shingles and overhangs as well. [19]
EF1 WSW of Leighton Colbert AL 34°40′26″N 87°36′27″W / 34.6738°N 87.6075°W / 34.6738; -87.6075 (Leighton AL (Apr 14, EF1)) 06:35–06:36 1.1 mi (1.8 km) 70 yd (64 m) A tornado moved through the Aycock Heights subdivision, damaging roofs and destroying several unanchored outbuildings and sheds. The tornado damaged a billboard, inflicted minor roof damage on a home nearby, and flipped an RV on its side. Many trees were also uprooted or snapped. [20]
EF1 NE of Low Gap to N of Hagler Tuscaloosa AL 33°00′20″N 87°21′31″W / 33.0055°N 87.3586°W / 33.0055; -87.3586 (Low Gap (Apr 14, EF1)) 07:20–07:25 3.51 mi (5.65 km) 475 yd (434 m) This tornado touched down over inaccessible land just north of the Bibb County line. The roof was removed from a barn, shingles were peeled off a house, and another house also sustained roof damage. Many trees were either snapped or uprooted, with some blocking roads and one killing a cow. [19]
EF1 N of Escatawpa Jackson MS 30°28′31″N 88°33′34″W / 30.4754°N 88.5595°W / 30.4754; -88.5595 (Escatawpa (Apr 14, EF1)) 07:50–07:52 1.1 mi (1.8 km) 50 yd (46 m) A high-end EF1 tornado caused extensive roof damage and shifted the wall of a house. At one house, a roof was lifted into the air then placed back on top of the house, causing roof and siding damage as well as blown out windows. Some tree damage also occurred. [21]
EF0 ENE of Sprott Perry AL 32°41′22″N 87°09′44″W / 32.6895°N 87.1621°W / 32.6895; -87.1621 (Sprott (Apr 14, EF0)) 08:21–08:31 6.67 mi (10.73 km) 400 yd (370 m) A farm shed suffered minor structural damage. Several homes sustained damage to their roofs and siding, including one that saw two out of three of its support columns for the carport pulled out, resulting in partial roof failure. Trees were damaged. [19]
EF0 Highland Lakes Shelby AL 33°21′14″N 86°41′09″W / 33.3539°N 86.6857°W / 33.3539; -86.6857 (Highland Lakes (Apr 14, EF0)) 09:05–09:14 6.48 mi (10.43 km) 600 yd (550 m) Some homes sustained roof and gutter damage, fences and an outdoor grill were blown over, and a church sustained minor damage. Trees were snapped or uprooted, one of which landed on a vehicle. [19]
EF0 W of Calera Shelby AL 33°06′39″N 86°47′06″W / 33.1109°N 86.7851°W / 33.1109; -86.7851 (Calera (Apr 14, EF0)) 09:14–09:20 2.97 mi (4.78 km) 125 yd (114 m) One home had a portion of its wooden fence broken, with plywood, shingles, and tools lofted nearby. A second home suffered more severe damage, with the roof significantly damaged, including a small portion of the roof to an upstairs room that was ripped off. Numerous trees were snapped or uprooted, and additional fences were destroyed. [19]
EF1 NNE of Glencoe Etowah AL 33°58′36″N 85°55′39″W / 33.9768°N 85.9276°W / 33.9768; -85.9276 (Glencoe (Apr 14, EF1)) 11:28–11:33 3.76 mi (6.05 km) 95 yd (87 m) One home had minor trim damage, while a few others sustained considerable roof, window, and exterior wall damage, including one poorly-anchored home that was shifted off of its foundation. A car was moved from it original location, and trees were downed. Some outbuildings were destroyed, and a dock on the Coosa River was damaged. [19]
EF0 W of Henderson Pike AL 31°39′34″N 86°07′34″W / 31.6594°N 86.1261°W / 31.6594; -86.1261 (Henderson (Apr 14, EF0)) 11:50–11:52 1 mi (1.6 km) 150 yd (140 m) This tornado remained mainly over fields and farmland, though a few trees were uprooted. [19]
EF0 W of Goshen Crenshaw, Pike AL 31°42′26″N 86°10′08″W / 31.7073°N 86.1688°W / 31.7073; -86.1688 (Goshen (Apr 14, EF0)) 11:53–11:59 1.5 mi (2.4 km) 70 yd (64 m) The roof was ripped off a chicken barn, a gas station canopy was damaged, and trees were uprooted. [22][19]
EF1 Troy Pike AL 31°47′42″N 85°59′41″W / 31.7949°N 85.9947°W / 31.7949; -85.9947 (Troy (Apr 14, EF1)) 12:10–12:16 2.81 mi (4.52 km) 300 yd (270 m) This tornado struck a mobile home park in town, moving about a dozen mobile homes off their foundations and rolling several others multiple times. Two cars were rolled at this location. Several businesses suffered damage, and large amounts of sheet metal was wrapped around power lines. Multiple homes had minor roof damage, and power poles and trees were snapped. [19]
EF0 Phenix City, AL to Columbus, GA Russell (AL), Muscogee (GA) AL 32°25′55″N 84°58′17″W / 32.4319°N 84.9714°W / 32.4319; -84.9714 (Phenix City (Apr 14, EF0)) 14:09–14:23 3.2 mi (5.1 km) 50 yd (46 m) A tornado inflicted substantial roof damage to the Phenix City Water Treatment facility and uprooted or snapped several trees. It crossed the Chattahoochee River into Georgia and struck Columbus, where a gas station had its metal roof damaged and several gas pumps knocked out. Metal panels were pulled from a one-story metal warehouse building as well. [19][23]
EF0 E of Midland Muscogee, Harris, Talbot GA 32°34′46″N 84°44′41″W / 32.5795°N 84.7448°W / 32.5795; -84.7448 (Midland (Apr 14, EF0)) 14:46–14:55 8.5 mi (13.7 km) 100 yd (91 m) A home sustained minor shingle damage, two small trailers were rolled at a hunting camp, and dozens of trees were snapped or uprooted. [23]
EF0 SW of Milner Lamar GA 33°04′07″N 84°13′28″W / 33.0686°N 84.2245°W / 33.0686; -84.2245 (Milner (Apr 14, EF0)) 15:39–15:42 1.1 mi (1.8 km) 75 yd (69 m) Several trees were snapped or uprooted, and a few power lines were downed. [23]
EF1 NNE of Milner Lamar GA 33°08′17″N 84°11′03″W / 33.1380°N 84.1843°W / 33.1380; -84.1843 (Milner (Apr 14, EF1)) 15:45–15:54 4.4 mi (7.1 km) 150 yd (140 m) Numerous trees were snapped or uprooted. A house suffered minor shingle damage and its carport was damaged by a fallen tree. Utility poles were snapped as well. [23]
EF1 ENE of Autreyville Colquitt GA 31°04′12″N 83°44′30″W / 31.07°N 83.7418°W / 31.07; -83.7418 (Colquitt County (Apr 14, EF1)) 19:43–19:49 5.1 mi (8.2 km) 180 yd (160 m) Three homes sustained major roof damage as a result of this high-end EF1 tornado. Debris was lofted into treetops, and numerous trees were snapped or uprooted. [24]
EF0 Northwestern Springfield Clark OH N/A N/A 2.7 mi (4.3 km) 80 yd (73 m) This tornado struck the northwestern edge of Springfield, where several mobile home suffered roof and awning damage at a mobile home park. One mobile home had its roof torn off and thrown 150 yd (140 m), with insulation scattered into nearby treetops. Two semi-trailers were blown over at an industrial facility, and soccer nets were blown over at a soccer field. Trees and fences were downed as well. [25]
EF2 SW of Shelby to N of Olivesburg Richland OH 40°57′58″N 82°25′54″W / 40.9660°N 82.4316°W / 40.9660; -82.4316 (Shelby (Apr 14, EF2)) 20:42–21:00 17.0 mi (27.4 km) 880 yd (800 m) A strong tornado impacted the southern fringes of Shelby, where a Chevrolet dealership sustained roof loss and collapse of multiple cinder block exterior walls. Vehicles were damaged in the parking lot, and metal light poles were bent to the ground. A nearby warehouse building had metal roofing peeled off as well. Homes along the path sustained partial to total roof loss, one of which sustained some collapse of exterior walls. Barns were destroyed, and trees and power poles were snapped. 6 people were injured. [26]
EF0 SE of Canal Fulton Stark, Summit OH 40°52′48″N 81°33′57″W / 40.8799°N 81.5658°W / 40.8799; -81.5658 (Canal Fulton (Apr 14, EF0)) 21:15 3.6 mi (5.8 km) 50 yd (46 m) A small outbuilding was largely destroyed and treetops were damaged. [27]
EF0 W of Dover Tuscarawas OH 40°30′17″N 81°33′03″W / 40.5047°N 81.5509°W / 40.5047; -81.5509 (Dover (Apr 14, EF0)) 21:49 0.5 mi (0.80 km) 75 yd (69 m) A 100-year-old barn was blown apart, with several items inside displaced. Several large branches were downed. [28]
EF0 Springboro Crawford PA 41°47′59″N 80°22′30″W / 41.7998°N 80.3751°W / 41.7998; -80.3751 (Springboro (Apr 14, EF0)) 22:48 0.33 mi (0.53 km) 100 yd (91 m) Several homes in town were damaged by tornadic winds or fallen trees. Telephone poles and street signs were snapped or bent as well. [29]
EF0 SE of Cooperstown Venango PA 41°28′16″N 79°49′44″W / 41.471°N 79.829°W / 41.471; -79.829 (Cooperstown (Apr 14, EF0)) 23:43–23:45 1.3 mi (2.1 km) 100 yd (91 m) Several tree limbs were snapped. [30]
EF0 NE of Cherrytree Venango PA 41°32′42″N 79°41′13″W / 41.545°N 79.687°W / 41.545; -79.687 (Cherrytree (Apr 14, EF0)) 23:53–23:55 1 mi (1.6 km) 75 yd (69 m) Several tree limbs were snapped. [30]
EF1 SE of Bowersville Hart GA 34°19′38″N 83°02′27″W / 34.3271°N 83.0408°W / 34.3271; -83.0408 (Bowersville (Apr 14, EF1)) 00:53–00:58 2.93 mi (4.72 km) 100 yd (91 m) Two large metal barns sustained significant roof or wall damage. One home had a small cinderblock wall collapsed while a second suffered damage to a single wall. A metal road sign was snapped at its base, free-standing carports were lofted, and the roof rack of an SUV was detached and thrown several hundred feet. Numerous trees were snapped or uprooted, one of which fell on a home. [31]
EF1 Simpsonville Greenville SC 34°42′44″N 82°17′34″W / 34.7121°N 82.2928°W / 34.7121; -82.2928 (Simpsonville (Apr 14, EF1)) 02:03–02:13 6.82 mi (10.98 km) 100 yd (91 m) Numerous homes suffered minor to moderate roof and shingle damage. Dozens of large trees were snapped or uprooted, including some that fell on homes. A tramopline was lifted hundreds of feet into the air, and a garage was collapsed on to three vehicles inside. [32]
EF2 Starbrick to N of Scandia Warren PA TBD 00:18–00:35 16 mi (26 km) 400 yd (370 m) A high-end EF2 tornado caused significant damage in Starbrick, where large metal buildings were completely destroyed at a lumber company. Several other buildings sustained extensive damage, and a boat was lifted off the ground. The tornado then struck North Warren, where multiple homes were damaged and trees were downed. A communications tower was toppled to the ground in the Scandia area before the tornado dissipated. [33]

April 15 event[edit]

List of confirmed tornadoes – Monday, April 15, 2019[note 1]
EF# Location County / Parish State Start Coord. Time (UTC) Path length Max width Summary Refs
EF1 Buffalo Valley Union PA TBD 04:35 1.75 mi (2.82 km) TBD Several barns had their roofs taken off, and one barn was destroyed. Some homes sustained minor damage and many trees were uprooted or snapped. [34]
EF2 Benton Columbia PA TBD 05:00–05:08 3.8 mi (6.1 km) 300 yd (270 m) A strong tornado caused considerable damage in Benton, where approximately 50 homes and businesses were damaged, including one well-constructed home that had its roof torn off. Nine trailers sustained significant damage as well. Two people were injured. [35]
EF1 Dushore Sullivan PA TBD 05:05–05:13 10 mi (16 km) 350 yd (320 m) This tornado touched down near Worlds End State Park, where it snapped or uprooted numerous trees. A barn was destroyed at a farm as well. It then moved directly into Dushore, where 7 to 8 homes and a church steeple were moderately damaged. [36]
EF1 Port Crane Broome NY 42°12′04″N 75°44′55″W / 42.2011°N 75.7486°W / 42.2011; -75.7486 (Fenton (Apr 15, EF1)) 05:30 2.28 mi (3.67 km) 200 yd (180 m) Houses and outbuildings sustained minor damage. [37]
EF0 Scranton Lackawanna PA 41°23′24″N 75°39′33″W / 41.3899°N 75.6593°W / 41.3899; -75.6593 (Scranton (Apr 15, EF0)) 05:45–05:49 3.23 mi (5.20 km) 100 yd (91 m) Trees and wires were downed, some of which laded on buildings. Residences sustained roof damage, and a small structure was overturned. [38]
EF1 Harford Township Susquehanna PA 41°44′29″N 75°42′44″W / 41.7415°N 75.7123°W / 41.7415; -75.7123 (Harford Township (Apr 15, EF1)) 05:50–05:52 2.35 mi (3.78 km) 150 yd (140 m) A silo was damaged and a barn was destroyed. Trees and power lines were downed as well. [39]
EF0 N of Glenview Halifax NC 36°13′44″N 77°51′21″W / 36.229°N 77.8557°W / 36.229; -77.8557 (Glenview (Apr 15, EF0)) 06:16–06:18 1.5 mi (2.4 km) 50 yd (46 m) A building had a part of its tin roof peeled back and a grain bin was damaged. One double-wide manufactured home suffered major damage to its roof and partial damage to a couple of its exterior walls, while a second sustained minor roof damage. Several trees were severely damaged as well. [40]
EF0 SE of Federalsburg Dorchester MD TBD 07:32 0.5 mi (0.80 km) 100 yd (91 m) A brief tornado damaged or destroyed small sheds, tipped over an empty trailer, and snapped or downed some trees. [41]
EF2 NW of Laurel to SE of Seaford Sussex DE 38°34′22″N 75°35′34″W / 38.5729°N 75.5929°W / 38.5729; -75.5929 (Laurel (Apr 15, EF2)) 07:38–07:49 9.3 mi (15.0 km) 400 yd (370 m) Numerous homes were damaged along the path, some of which had roofs or exterior walls ripped off. Barns, garages, and irrigation systems were destroyed, and many trees were snapped or uprooted. Power poles were snapped, and a Utz Quality Foods warehouse was badly damaged. One person was injured. [42]
EF1 Harbeson to Broadkill Beach Sussex DE 38°44′24″N 75°16′44″W / 38.7400°N 75.2788°W / 38.7400; -75.2788 (Harbeson (Apr 15, EF1)) 08:00–08:07 6.2 mi (10.0 km) 50 yd (46 m) A few trees were snapped, the roof of a barn was removed, and some other structures suffered some roof damage as well. [42]

Weches–Weeping Mary–Alto–Sacul, Texas[edit]

EF3 damage to the Caddo Mounds State Historic Site museum in Weeping Mary, TX. One person was killed here and several others were injured.

This long-tracked, high-end EF3 tornado touched down east-northeast of Crockett, Texas in Houston County at 12:56 p.m. CDT (17:56 UTC), downing numerous trees at EF1 intensity as it tracked to the northeast through the Davy Crockett National Forest. The tornado intensified to low-end EF3 strength as it passed near Weches, where a large swath of trees was flattened and an anchored double-wide manufactured home was thrown 150 yd (140 m) and obliterated, killing the occupant. Continuing into Cherokee County, the tornado maintained its strength as it closely followed Texas State Highway 21 and struck the rural community of Weeping Mary, where approximately 20 homes and mobile homes were severely damaged or destroyed. The roof and exterior walls of the Caddo Mounds State Historic Site museum were destroyed while people were running inside for safety, resulting in several injuries and another fatality. Several well-built homes and a brick church sustained total roof and exterior wall loss in this area, trees were denuded and partially debarked, and vehicles were thrown up to 200 yd (180 m). Some outbuildings were damaged or destroyed as well. High-end EF3 damage occurred as the tornado then struck the town of Alto, where a two-story brick home was swept from its foundation, with the first floor completely destroyed and the second floor left partially intact and displaced downwind from the foundation. Metal power poles were bent in half, and several other homes and mobile homes in and around town were damaged or destroyed. Alto had already sustained damage from a separate EF2 tornado that struck the town earlier in the day.[13][43]

The tornado exited Alto and continued to the northeast, where numerous trees were snapped, denuded, and partially debarked at low-end EF3 intensity. A home in this area had half of its second story torn off, and a second home was shifted off of its foundation and lost much of its roof. Damage to these two structures was rated EF2. Farther along the path, EF1 tree damage occurred as the tornado moved through sparsely populated wooded areas. The tornado then struck the small town of Sacul at EF1 strength, where trees and power poles were downed, headstones were shifted at a cemetery in town, and a flag pole was bent over. A frame home lost a large portion of its roof, and several trees were blown over onto the structure. Past Sacul, the tornado began moving nearly due-north as it approached and crossed into Rusk County. A final area of significant damage occurred near the county line east-southeast of Reklaw, where a well-built home had a large portion of its roof torn off at EF2 intensity. The tornado continued through southwestern Rusk County before it weakened and dissipated at 2:00 p.m. CDT (19:00 UTC), after downing additional trees at EF0 to EF1 intensity. Along the entirety of its path, this tornado snapped, debarked, or uprooted thousands of trees.[13][43]

Remaining on the ground for 64 minutes, the tornado traveled 44.4 miles (71.5 km) and achieved a maximum path width of 880 yards (800 m), resulting in two deaths and at least 20 injuries.[13]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c All dates are based on the local time zone where the tornado touched down; however, all times are in Coordinated Universal Time for consistency.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Amanda Schmidt, Kevin Byrne (April 16, 2019). "2 young brothers among 9 killed in destructive tornado outbreak across southern, mid-Atlantic US". AccuWeather. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
  2. ^ Ashton Cook (April 9, 2019). "Day 4-8 Severe Weather Outlook Issued on Apr 9, 2019". Norman, Oklahoma: Storm Prediction Center. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
  3. ^ a b Ashton Cook (April 10, 2019). "Day 4-8 Severe Weather Outlook Issued on Apr 10, 2019". Norman, Oklahoma: Storm Prediction Center. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
  4. ^ Ashton Cook (April 11, 2019). "Apr 11, 2019 0730 UTC Day 3 Severe Thunderstorm Outlook". Norman, Oklahoma: Storm Prediction Center. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
  5. ^ Steve Goss (April 12, 2019). "Apr 12, 2019 0600 UTC Day 2 Convective Outlook". Norman, Oklahoma: Storm Prediction Center. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
  6. ^ Evan Bentley [@evan_bentley] (April 13, 2019). "High risk was definitely discussed, but everyone on shift agreed there were still too many possible failure modes. Definitely looks like a solid moderate with the potential to overperform" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  7. ^ a b Roger Edwards; Nathan Wendt (April 13, 2019). "Apr 13, 2019 1300 UTC Day 1 Convective Outlook". Norman, Oklahoma: Storm Prediction Center. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
  8. ^ Ashton Cook (April 11, 2019). "Day 4-8 Severe Weather Outlook Issued on Apr 11, 2019". Norman, Oklahoma: Storm Prediction Center. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
  9. ^ Steve Goss (April 12, 2019). "Apr 12, 2019 0730 UTC Day 3 Severe Thunderstorm Outlook". Norman, Oklahoma: Storm Prediction Center. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
  10. ^ Bryan Smith (April 14, 2019). "Apr 13, 2019 2000 UTC Day 1 Convective Outlook". Norman, Oklahoma: Storm Prediction Center. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
  11. ^ https://www.spc.noaa.gov/products/outlook/archive/2019/day1otlk_20190414_1630.html
  12. ^ a b c Preliminary survey of April 13th tornadoes near Franklin and Hearne, Texas (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Fort Worth, Texas. April 15, 2019. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  13. ^ a b c d e f Damage surveys of April 13th tornadoes in Houston County, Texas (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Houston/Galveston, Texas. April 15, 2019. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  14. ^ a b c d e Damage surveys of April 13th tornadoes near Alto, Texas (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Shreveport, Louisiana. April 16, 2019. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t NWS Damage Survey for 04/13/2019 Tornado Event - Update #3 (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Jackson, Mississippi. April 16, 2019. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
  16. ^ NWS Damage Survey For 04/13/2019 Pike/Walthall County Tornado (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in New Orleans, Louisiana. April 14, 2019. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  17. ^ a b NWS Damage Survey For 04/13/19 Tornadoes in Northeastern Mississippi (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Memphis, Tennessee. April 15, 2019. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  18. ^ https://www.djournal.com/monroe/one-fatality-injuries-and-damage-reported-after-severe-storm-hits/article_73a7167e-42d6-561d-939c-5cda4eadb0c2.html
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k NWS Damage Survey for April 13-14 2019 Tornado Event (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Birmingham, Alabama. April 19, 2019. Retrieved April 19, 2019.
  20. ^ a b Damage survey of April 14th tornadoes in Huntsville, AL forecasting area (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Huntsville, Alabama. April 15, 2019. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  21. ^ NWS Damage Survey For 04/14/19 Escatawpa Tornado...update #1 (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in New Orleans, Louisiana. April 14, 2019. Retrieved April 14, 2019.
  22. ^ NWS Damage Survey for April 14, 2019 Crenshaw County Tornado Event (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Mobile, Alabama. April 15, 2019. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  23. ^ a b c d NWS Damage Survey for April 14, 2019 Tornado Event (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Atlanta, Georgia. April 15, 2019. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  24. ^ NWS Damage Survey for Colquitt County Florida Tornado on 04/14/2019 (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Tallahassee, Florida. April 15, 2019. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  25. ^ https://www.weather.gov/iln/20190414_clark
  26. ^ NWS Damage Survey for Shelby Ohio Tornado on 04/14/2019 (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Cleveland, Ohio. April 15, 2019. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  27. ^ NWS Damage Survey for 04/14/19 Tornado Event (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Cleveland, Ohio. April 16, 2019. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
  28. ^ NWS Damage Survey for April 14th 2019 Dover, Ohio (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. April 16, 2019. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
  29. ^ NWS Damage Survey for Springboro PA Tornado on 04/14/2019 (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Cleveland, Ohio. April 15, 2019. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  30. ^ a b NWS Damage Survey from April 14, 2019 Storms (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. April 16, 2019. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
  31. ^ EF1 Tornado Confirmed in Hart County Georgia (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Greenville-Spartanburg, South Carolina. April 16, 2019. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
  32. ^ EF1 Tornado Confirmed Near Simpsonville in Greenville County South Carolina (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Greenville-Spartanburg, South Carolina. April 16, 2019. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
  33. ^ Preliminary NWS Damage Survey for Starbrick PA Tornado on 04/14/2019 (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in State College, Pennsylvania. April 15, 2019. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  34. ^ Preliminary NWS Damage Survey for 04/15/19 Tornado Event in Buffalo Valley (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. April 15, 2019. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  35. ^ EF-2 Tornado Confirmed in Columbia County (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. April 16, 2019. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
  36. ^ NWS Damage Survey for 04/15/19 Tornado near Dushore PA (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in State College, Pennsylvania. April 16, 2019. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
  37. ^ NWS Damage Survey for 04/15/19 Broome County Tornado Event (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Binghamton, New York. April 16, 2019. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
  38. ^ NWS Damage Survey for 4/15/19 EF-0 Tornado in Scranton and Dunmore (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Binghamton, New York. April 16, 2019. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
  39. ^ NWS Damage Survey for 04/15/19 EF1 Tornado in Susquehanna County (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Binghamton, New York. April 15, 2019. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  40. ^ NWS Damage Survey for Halifax County North Carolina (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Raleigh, North Carolina. April 16, 2019. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
  41. ^ NWS Wakefield Confirms a Brief EF0 Tornado in Dorchester County MD on April 15 2019 (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Wakefield, Virginia. April 17, 2019. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
  42. ^ a b NWS Damage Survey for 04/15/19 Tornado Event (Report). Iowa Environmental Mesonet. National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. April 18, 2019. Retrieved April 18, 2019.
  43. ^ a b https://apps.dat.noaa.gov/stormdamage/damageviewer/

External links[edit]