Toronto Pearson International Airport
|Toronto Pearson International Airport
Aéroport international Pearson de Toronto
|Operator||Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA)|
|Serves||Greater Toronto Area|
|Location||Mississauga and Toronto, Ontario, Canada|
|Focus city for|
|Time zone||EST (UTC−05:00)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC−04:00)|
|Elevation AMSL||569 ft / 173 m|
Toronto Pearson International Airport (IATA: YYZ, ICAO: CYYZ) (often referred to as Toronto Pearson, Pearson Airport, or simply Pearson) is the primary international airport serving Toronto, its metropolitan area, and surrounding region known as the Golden Horseshoe in the province of Ontario, Canada. It is located 22.5 km (14.0 mi) northwest of Downtown Toronto, with the bulk of the airport (including the two main terminals) situated in the city of Mississauga, and a portion of the airfield extending into Etobicoke, Toronto's western district. The airport is named in honour of Lester B. Pearson, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and 14th Prime Minister of Canada.
Toronto Pearson is the largest and busiest airport in Canada, and is the second-busiest international air passenger gateway into North America after John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City. In 2017, Pearson handled 47.1 million passengers and recorded 465,555 aircraft movements.
Pearson Airport is the main hub for Air Canada. It is also a hub for passenger airline WestJet and cargo airline FedEx Express, and serves as an operating base for passenger airlines Air Transat and Sunwing Airlines. Pearson is operated by the Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA) as part of Transport Canada's National Airports System, and is one of eight airports in Canada with facilities for United States border preclearance.
An extensive network of non-stop domestic flights is operated from Pearson by several airlines to all major and many secondary cities across all provinces of Canada. As of 2018, over 75 airlines operate around 1,250 daily departures from Toronto Pearson to more than 180 destinations across all six of the world's inhabited continents.
- 1 History
- 2 Terminals
- 3 Infrastructure and operations
- 4 Airlines and destinations
- 5 Ground transportation
- 6 Statistics
- 7 Incidents and accidents
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
In 1937, the Government of Canada agreed to support the building of two airports in the Toronto area. One site selected was on the Toronto Islands in Downtown Toronto, which is the present-day Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport. The other site selected was an area northwest of Toronto near the town of Malton, which was originally intended to serve as an alternate to the downtown airport but instead would become its successor. The first scheduled passenger flight at the Malton Airport was a Trans-Canada Air Lines DC-3 that landed on August 29, 1939.
In 1958, the City of Toronto sold the Malton Airport to Transport Canada, who subsequently changed the name of the facility to Toronto International Airport. The airport was officially renamed Lester B. Pearson International Airport in 1984, in honour of Lester B. Pearson, the fourteenth Prime Minister of Canada and recipient of the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize. The Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA) assumed management, operation, and control of the airport in 1996, and has used the name Toronto Pearson International Airport for the facility since their acquisition.
Toronto Pearson International Airport has two active public terminals, Terminal 1 and Terminal 3. Both terminals are designed to handle all three sectors of travel (domestic, transborder, and international), which results in terminal operations at Pearson being grouped for airlines and airline alliances, rather than for domestic and international routes.
A third terminal, the Infield Terminal (IFT), is not currently used for regular operations at Pearson.
Measuring over 346,000 square metres (4,000,000 sq ft), Terminal 1 is the largest terminal at Pearson Airport and is among the largest buildings in the world by floor space. Air Canada and all other Star Alliance airlines that serve Toronto Pearson operate out of Terminal 1. Non-alliance airline Emirates also uses the terminal.
Terminal 1 was designed by a joint venture known as Airports Architects Canada made up of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP, Adamson Associates Architects and Moshe Safdie and Associates. It contains 58 gates: D1, D3, D5, D7-D12, D20, D22, D24, D26, D28, D31–D45 (D32, D34, D36 also serve US flights and carry F designation), D51, D53, D55, D57 (also carry F designation), F60–F63, F64A–F64B, F65, F66A–F66B, F/E67–F/E81 (F68-F73 and F78-F81 serve both US and international flights but E74-E77 are international only), F91, and F93. Two of the gates, E73 and E75, can accommodate the Airbus A380.
Along with the standard customs and immigration facilities, Terminal 1 also contains special customs "B" checkpoints along the international arrivals walkway. Passengers connecting from an international or trans-border arrival to another international (non-U.S.) departure in Terminal 1 go to one of these checkpoints for passport control and immigration checks, then are immediately directed to Pier F for departure. This alleviates the need to recheck bags, pass through security screening, and relieves congestion in the primary customs hall.
An 8-level parking garage with 8,400 public parking spaces (including 700 rental car spaces)  across from Terminal 1 is connected to the terminal by several elevated and enclosed pedestrian walkways.
Terminal 3 is a 178,000 square metres (1,920,000 sq ft) facility designed by B+H Architects and Scott Associates Architects Inc. It is used by all SkyTeam and Oneworld airlines that serve Pearson, along with Air Transat, Etihad Airways, Sunwing Airlines, WestJet and all other airlines that are unaffiliated with an airline alliance (except Emirates, which uses Terminal 1). Terminal 3 has 48 gates: A1–A6, B1a-B1d, B2a-B2b, B3-B5, B7–B20, B22 and C24–C41.
A 5-level parking garage with 3,800 public parking spaces (including 600 rental car spaces)  is located directly across from the terminal along with the Sheraton Hotel, both of which are connected to Terminal 3 by an elevated pedestrian walkway.
Infield Terminal (IFT)
The infield terminal was built to handle traffic displaced during the development and construction of the current Terminal 1. Its gates were opened in 2002 and 2003, and a first class lounge was opened in 2005. The terminal, also known as the IFT, has 11 gates (521 to 531). When it was in regular use, passengers were transported by bus between Terminal 1 and the IFT to reach their gates.
Though not currently used for regular operations at Pearson Airport, the GTAA has plans in place to reactivate the IFT for regular operations when necessary to accommodate seasonal or overflow demand, or to provide additional capacity during future terminal building construction at the airport.
The Infield Terminal is frequently used as a location to film major motion pictures and television productions.
Skyservice FBO operates an 800 square metres (8,610 sq ft) VIP terminal at Toronto Pearson on Midfield Road, in the infield area of the airport. The terminal handles most private aircraft arriving and departing at Pearson, providing passenger services that include 24/7 concierge, private customs and immigration facilities, personalized catering, showers, direct handling of baggage, and VIP ground transportation services.
Infrastructure and operations
Toronto Pearson has five runways, aligned in both the east-west direction and the north-south direction. A large network of taxiways, collectively measuring over 40 kilometres (25 mi) in length, provides access between the runways and the passenger terminals, air cargo areas, and airline hangar areas.
|05/23||3,389.4 metres (11,120 ft)||61 metres (200 ft)||Cat. IIIa (05), Cat. I (23)||East-West|
|06L/24R||2,955.6 metres (9,697 ft)||61 metres (200 ft)||Cat. IIIa (6L), Cat. I (24R)||East-West|
|06R/24L||2,743.2 metres (9,000 ft)||61 metres (200 ft)||Cat. I (both directions)||East-West|
|15L/33R||3,368 metres (11,050 ft)||61 metres (200 ft)||Cat. I (both directions)||North-South|
|15R/33L||2,770 metres (9,088 ft)||61 metres (200 ft)||Cat. I (both directions)||North-South|
Pearson is home to Toronto Area Control Centre, one of seven Air Control Centers in Canada, all of which are operated by Nav Canada. The airport's main control tower is within the infield operations area. Pearson is one of two airports in Canada with a Traffic Management Unit (TMU) to control planes on the apron areas. The TMU is located in the tower at Terminal 1.
The Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA) Fire and Emergency Service maintains 3 fire stations on the airport property, with a team of more than 80 firefighters that provide fire and rescue operations at Pearson. The fire service is equipped with 6 crash tenders as well as several pumpers, aerial ladders, and heavy rescue units.
The airport's 115-member airfield maintenance unit is responsible for general maintenance and repairs at the airport, which covers a land area of 1,867 hectares (4,610 acres). From mid-November to mid-April, the unit is in winter mode armed with a $38 million snow removal budget. The airport employs over 94 pieces of snow clearance equipment, including 11 Vammas PSB series and 4 Oshkosh HT-Series snowplow units, and 14 snow melters.
Pearson Airport's Central De-icing Facility is the largest in the world, servicing about 10,500 aircraft each winter. The six de-icing bays can handle up to 12 aircraft at a time and take between 2 and 19 minutes per aircraft.
The Cargo West facility (also known as the Infield Cargo Area) is located between runways 15L/33R and 15R/33L. It is a multi-tenant facility including three large buildings with 52,600 square metres (566,000 sq ft) of warehouse space, a common use cargo apron, vehicle parking, and a truck maneuvering area. A four-lane vehicle tunnel connects the Infield Cargo Area to the passenger terminal area of the airport.
The Cargo East facility (also known as the VISTA cargo area) is located north of Terminal 3. The VISTA cargo area is a multi-tenant facility of several buildings organized in a U-shape, with 29,500 square metres (318,000 sq ft) of warehouse space and an adjacent common use cargo apron.
The Cargo North facility is the Canadian hub for FedEx Express. The site occupies an area on the north side of the airport lands near runway 05/23, and is home to two buildings operated exclusively by FedEx with 32,100 square metres (346,000 sq ft) of warehouse space and a dedicated cargo apron.
Pearson Airport has seven aircraft maintenance hangars, operated by Air Canada, Air Transat, Westjet, and the GTAA, which are used for line maintenance and routine aircraft inspections. The airfield's north end has numerous hangars for personal private jets and charter aircraft, along with passenger facilities and maintenance services for them.
The Greater Toronto Airports Authority maintains offices at 3111 Convair Drive, near the southeast corner of the airport. Gate Gourmet and CLS Catering Services both operate dedicated flight kitchen facilities at Pearson for airline catering services. Aviation fuel (Jet A-1) is supplied by Esso Avitat and Shell Aerocentre, which are both located in the airport's infield area.
The Peel Regional Police is the primary law enforcement agency at Pearson Airport. The Airport Division is based at 2951 Convair Drive, on the southern perimeter of the airport adjacent to Highway 401. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) also maintain a Pearson Airport Detachment, which provides federal police services. The Detachment is located at 255 Attwell Drive, east of the airport in Etobicoke.
Airlines and destinations
|Cathay Pacific Cargo||Anchorage, Hong Kong, New York–JFK||VISTA|
|FedEx Express||Calgary, Edmonton, Indianapolis, Memphis, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Montréal–Mirabel, North Bay, Sault Ste. Marie (ON), Sudbury, Timmins, Vancouver, Winnipeg||FedEx|
|Korean Air Cargo||Anchorage, New York–JFK, Seoul–Incheon||Cargo West|
|Lufthansa Cargo||Frankfurt||Cargo West|
|Turkish Airlines Cargo||Chicago–O'Hare, Istanbul–Atatürk, Maastricht||VISTA|
The UP Express (Union Pearson Express) is an express airport rail link running between Pearson Airport and Union Station in Downtown Toronto. It connects to the airport at Toronto Pearson Terminal 1 station, and provides a 25-minute travel time to Union Station. The first UP Express departure from Pearson to Union is at 5:27 a.m., with trains departing every 15 minutes throughout the day until the last departure to Union at 12:57 a.m., 7 days a week. The full adult fare for the UP Express from Pearson to Union is C$12, with discounts available for Presto card users.
|Route||Destination||Service Times||Terminals Served||Schedule|
|Union Pearson Express|
|Union Pearson Express||Express rail service to Union Station in Downtown Toronto with stops at Weston and Bloor.||Daily
(Every 15 minutes from 05:27–00:57)
|Terminal 1. Same-platform transfer at Terminal 1 Station to Link Train for Terminal 3 Station|||
The Link Train is an automated people mover at Pearson Airport that runs between Terminal 1, Terminal 3, and the Viscount Value Park Lot. It connects to the airport at Toronto Pearson Terminal 1 Station and Toronto Pearson Terminal 3 Station. The LINK Train is a free service that operates every 4 to 8 minutes, 24 hours a day.
|Route||Destination||Service Times||Terminals Served||Schedule|
|Terminal LINK Train|
|Terminal LINK Train||People mover service between Terminal 1 Station, Terminal 3 Station, and Viscount Station||Daily
(Every 4 to 8 minutes, 24-hour service)
|Terminals 1 and 3. Same-platform transfer to Union Pearson Express at Terminal 1 Station|||
Taxicabs and limousines are available at all terminals, and are licensed by the City of Mississauga. Taxis that are licensed in Toronto can drop passengers off at Toronto Pearson, but only airport-licensed taxis and limos can pick up passengers at Toronto Pearson legally. Rides can also be prearranged, allowing for curbside pick up at either terminal. Pearson Airport taxi and limousine companies use GTAA authorized out-of-town flat rates for pick-ups from Pearson Airport.
Ridesharing services Uber and Lyft are also available at all terminals at Pearson Airport. Designated rideshare pickup zones are located on the Ground level of Terminal 1, and the Arrivals level of Terminal 3.
Greyhound Canada operates 20 daily intercity bus service departures from Pearson Airport to the Toronto Coach Terminal in Downtown Toronto and several cities across Southern Ontario including Cambridge, Guelph, Hamilton, Kitchener, London, and Niagara Falls, as well as Buffalo, NY and Detroit, MI in the United States. Greyhound Canada coaches arrive and depart from Pearson at Terminal 1.
Public transit bus and coach services connecting Pearson Airport to the city of Toronto and other cities in the Greater Toronto Area are operated by the Toronto Transit Commission, GO Transit, MiWay, and Brampton Transit. Fares vary depending on transit operator and destination.
|Route||Destination||Service Times||Terminals Served||Schedule|
|Toronto Transit Commission (TTC)|
|192 Airport Rocket||Express service to Kipling station on the Bloor–Danforth Subway Line||Daily
(Every 10 minutes from 05:18–01:59 Monday to Friday, 05:41–02:34 Saturday, 07:27–02:34 Sunday)
|Terminals 1 and 3|||
|52A Lawrence West||Local service along Dixon Road and Lawrence Avenue to Lawrence and Lawrence West stations on the Yonge–University Subway Line||Daily
(Every 6 to 30 minutes from 05:18–01:57 Monday to Friday, 05:20–01:57 Saturday, 05:12–01:55 Sunday)
|Terminals 1 and 3|||
|300 Bloor-Danforth||Runs from the airport to Burnhamthorpe Road at Highway 427, then local service along Bloor Street and Danforth Avenue to Warden Avenue. 300B trips continue along Danforth Road and Eglinton Avenue to Kennedy station.||Daily (Overnight only)
(Every 20 to 30 minutes from 02:13–04:53 Monday to Friday, 02:23–05:23 Saturday, 02:23–07:16 Sunday)
|Terminals 1 and 3|||
|332 Eglinton West||Local service along Carlingview Drive and Eglinton Avenue to Yonge Street||Daily (Overnight only)
(Every 30 minutes from 02:29–04:59)
|Terminals 1 and 3|||
|352 Lawrence West||Local service along Dixon Road and Lawrence Avenue to Sunnybrook Hospital||Daily (Overnight only)
(Every 30 minutes from 02:20–04:50)
|Terminals 1 and 3|||
|34 Pearson Airport-North York||Express service to Yorkdale Terminal and Finch Terminal||Daily
(Every 30 to 60 minutes, 24-hour service)
|40 Hamilton-Richmond Hill||Express service to:||Daily
(Every 30 to 60 minutes, 24-hour service)
|107 Malton Express||Express service along the Mississauga Transitway to:||Daily
(Every 8 to 20 minutes from 05:15-23:07 Monday to Friday, Every 21 minutes from 07:19-22:08 Saturday, Every 21 minutes from 07:40-22:08 Sunday)
|Viscount LINK Station|||
|7 Airport||Local service to:
Southbound: Mississauga City Centre Terminal. Northbound: Westwood Mall Terminal.
(Every 18 to 30 minutes from 05:18-01:48 Monday to Friday, Every 30 to 60 minutes from 05:17-00:34 Saturday, Every 40 minutes from 07:08-23:49 Sunday)
|24 Northwest||Local service to:
Southbound: Renforth station. Northbound: Westwood Mall Terminal.
|Monday to Friday (Rush hours only)
(Every 28 to 31 minutes from 05:19-10:14 in the morning, 14:50-19:45 in the afternoon)
|Viscount LINK Station|||
|57 Courtneypark||Local service from the airport's Infield Cargo area to:
Northbound: Meadowvale Town Centre Terminal
|Monday to Friday (Rush hours only)
(Every 31 to 36 minutes from 06:05-09:42 in the morning, 13:35-19:27 in the afternoon)
|115 Airport Express||Semi-express service to Bramalea Terminal||Daily
(Every 20 to 30 minutes from 05:25-00:42 Monday to Friday, 30 minutes from 05:55-23:45 Saturday, 30 to 60 minutes from 07:00-23:17 Sunday)
The airport is accessible from Highway 427 (just north of Highway 401) or from Highway 409, a spur off Highway 401 that leads directly into the airport. Airport Road to the north and Dixon Road to the east both provide local access to the airport. When drivers pick up or drop off guests at Toronto Pearson, they are permitted to stop momentarily outside the Arrivals and Departure areas at both terminals.
Car Rentals are available from several major car rental agencies located on Level 1 of the parking garages that are adjacent to both terminals. Car rentals are also available from several off-airport car rental agencies located at or near Viscount Station, which is accessible from both terminals via the Link Train.
Pearson is served by many out-of-town van and minibus shuttle operators, offering transportation from the airport to cities, towns, and villages throughout Southern Ontario. Some operators offer connections to other airports in Ontario (John C. Munro Hamilton International Airport in Hamilton and London International Airport in London) and in the United States (Detroit Metropolitan Airport in Romulus, Michigan and Buffalo Niagara International Airport in Cheektowaga, New York).
Proposed transit hub
In February 2017, the GTAA announced a proposed transit hub to be located across from Terminal 3 that would connect with Union Pearson Express and may connect with other transit lines extended to the airport like Line 5 Eglinton LRT and GO Transit Regional Express Rail. This proposal would eliminate the Link Train connecting Terminals 1 and 3 with a bridge from the transit hub to Terminal 3 and another bridge connecting Terminal 3 to Terminal 1.
|Year||Total passengers||% change||Domesticc||% change||Transborderc||% change||Internationalc||% change|
- ^c : At Toronto Pearson and at other airports in Canada with United States border preclearance, a distinction is made between "transborder" and "international" flights for operational and statistical purposes. A "transborder" flight is a flight between Canada and a destination in the United States, while an "international" flight is a flight between Canada and a destination that is not within the United States or Canada. A "domestic" flight is a flight within Canada only.
Incidents and accidents
- On October 3, 1959, Vickers Viscount CF-TGY of Trans-Canada Air Lines was written off when it landed short of the runway. No fatalities among the 38 on board.
- On February 10, 1960, a Super Constellation of Trans-Canada Air Lines was seriously damaged when it overrun the runway after landing in bad weather. None of the 59 passengers and crew were injured.
- On June 13, 1964, Vickers Viscount CF-THT of Air Canada was damaged beyond economical repair when it crash-landed after the failure of two engines on approach.
- The airport's deadliest accident occurred on July 5, 1970, when Air Canada Flight 621, a DC-8 jet, flew on a Montreal–Toronto–Los Angeles route. The pilots inadvertently deployed spoilers before the plane attempted landing, forcing the pilots to abort landing and takeoff. Damage to the aircraft that was caused during the failed landing attempt caused the plane to break up in the air during the go-around, killing all 100 passengers and nine crew members on board when it crashed into a field southeast of Brampton. Controversy remains over the cleanup effort following the crash, as both plane wreckage debris and human remains from the crash are still found on the site.
- On August 30, 1970, Douglas C-47 CF-JRY of D G Harris Productions was damaged beyond economic repair in a storm.
- On June 26, 1978, Air Canada Flight 189 to Winnipeg overran the runway during an aborted takeoff, and crashed into the Etobicoke Creek ravine. Two of the 107 passengers on board the DC-9 were killed.
- On June 22, 1983, Douglas C-47A C-GUBT of Skycraft Air Transport crashed on takeoff roll at Toronto International Airport while on an international cargo flight from Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, Ohio. Both of the crew members were killed.
- On August 2, 2005, Air France Flight 358, an Airbus A340-300 (registration F-GLZQ) inbound from Paris, landed on runway 24L during a severe thunderstorm, failed to stop, and ran off of the runway into the Etobicoke Creek ravine. The rear third of the plane burst into flames, eventually engulfing the whole plane except the cockpit and wings. There were 12 serious injuries, but no fatalities. The investigation predominantly blamed pilot error when faced with the severe weather conditions.
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- ,TORONTO PEARSON (Enplaned + Deplaned ) PASSENGER 2014-2018
- ,TORONTO PEARSON (Enplaned + Deplaned ) PASSENGER 2011-2015
- "TORONTO PEARSON (Enplaned + Deplaned ) PASSENGER 2003-2013" (PDF). Retrieved September 11, 2017.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Toronto Pearson International Airport.|
- Toronto Pearson International Airport travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Official website
- Malton: Farms to Flying Book by Kathleen A. Hicks - PDF
- Airport Wayfinder: Interactive video guide and detailed informations about Toronto–Pearson International Airport.
- Past three hours METARs, SPECI and current TAFs for Toronto Pearson International Airport from Nav Canada as available.