Toronto Pearson International Airport
|Toronto Pearson International Airport
Aéroport international Pearson de Toronto
|Operator||Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA)|
|Serves||Greater Toronto Area|
|Location||Mississauga and Toronto, Ontario|
|Focus city for|
|Time zone||EST (UTC−05:00)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC−04:00)|
|Elevation AMSL||569 ft / 173 m|
Toronto Pearson International Airport (IATA: YYZ, ICAO: CYYZ), officially Lester B. Pearson International Airport and frequently shortened to Toronto Pearson, Pearson Airport, or simply Pearson; is an international airport serving the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, the Greater Toronto Area, and the Golden Horseshoe, an urban agglomeration of 8.7 million people. The airport is located 22.5 km (14.0 mi) northwest of Downtown Toronto, with the bulk of the airport (including the two main terminals) located in the adjacent city of Mississauga, and a small portion of the airfield extending into Etobicoke, Toronto's western district. The airport is named in honour of Toronto-born Lester B. Pearson, Nobel Peace Prize Laureate and 14th Prime Minister of Canada.
Pearson Airport is the largest and busiest airport in Canada. In 2015, it handled 41,036,847 passengers and 443,958 aircraft movements, making it the world's 33rd-busiest airport by total passenger traffic, 22nd-busiest airport by international passenger traffic, and 15th-busiest airport by flights. Pearson handles more international passengers than any airport in North America other than John F. Kennedy International Airport.
Pearson is the main hub for Air Canada. It is also a hub for passenger airline WestJet and cargo airline FedEx Express, and serves as an operating base for passenger airlines Air Transat and Sunwing Airlines. Pearson Airport is operated by the Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA) as part of Transport Canada's National Airports System. In 1952, the airport became the first in the world to provide facilities for United States border preclearance, and is now one of eight Canadian airports with such facilities.
An extensive network of non-stop domestic flights is operated from Pearson by several airlines to all major and many secondary cities across all provinces of Canada. As of 2017, over 75 airlines operate around 1,100 daily departures from Toronto Pearson to more than 180 destinations across all six of the world's inhabited continents.
- 1 History
- 2 Terminals
- 3 Infrastructure and operations
- 4 Airlines and destinations
- 5 Ground transportation
- 6 Statistics
- 7 Incidents and accidents
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
In 1937, the Government of Canada agreed to support the building of two airports for Toronto. One site was downtown, today's Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport. The other was to be outside the city, as a backup for the downtown field. A site near the town of Malton, northwest of Toronto, was chosen and the Toronto Harbour Commission purchased and acquired several farms to provide the land for the airfield. The first scheduled passenger flight for the new Malton Airport was a Trans-Canada Air Lines DC-3 that landed on August 29, 1939.
In 1958, the City of Toronto sold the Malton Airport to Transport Canada, who subsequently changed the name of the facility to Toronto International Airport. The airport was officially renamed Lester B. Pearson International Airport in 1984, in honour of Lester B. Pearson, the fourteenth Prime Minister of Canada and recipient of the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize. The Greater Toronto Airports Authority assumed management, operation, and control of the airport in 1996.
Toronto Pearson International Airport has two active terminals, Terminal 1 and Terminal 3. Both terminals are designed to handle all three sectors of travel (domestic, transborder, and international), which results in terminal operations at Pearson being grouped for airlines and airline alliances, rather than for domestic and international routes.
A third terminal, the Infield Terminal (IFT), is currently not used for regular operations at Pearson.
Measuring over 567,000 square metres (6,000,000 sq ft), Terminal 1 is the largest terminal at Pearson Airport and is among the largest buildings in the world by floor space. Air Canada and all other Star Alliance airlines that serve Toronto Pearson operate out of Terminal 1. The terminal is also used by non-alliance airline Emirates.
Terminal 1 was designed by a joint venture known as Airports Architects Canada, comprising Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP, Adamson Associates Architects and Moshe Safdie and Associates. It contains 58 gates: D1, D3, D5, D7-D12, D20, D22, D24, D26, D28, D31–D45 (D32, D34, D36 also serve US flights and carry F designation), D51, D53, D55, D57 (also carry F designation), F60–F63, F64A–F64B, F65, F66A–F66B, F/E67–F/E81 (F68-F73 and F78-F81 serve both US and international flights but E74-E77 are international only), F91, and F93. Two of the gates, E73 and E75, can accommodate the Airbus A380.
Along with the standard customs and immigration facilities, Terminal 1 also contains special customs "B" checkpoints along the international arrivals walkway. Passengers that are connecting from an international or trans-border arrival to another international (non-U.S.) departure in Terminal 1 go to one of these checkpoints for passport control and immigration checks, then are immediately directed to Pier F for departure. This alleviates the need to recheck bags, pass through security screening, and relieves congestion in the primary customs hall.
Terminal 3 is used by all SkyTeam and Oneworld airlines that serve Pearson, along with WestJet, Air Transat, Sunwing Airlines, Etihad Airways, and most other airlines that are unaffiliated with an airline alliance. The terminal has 100,000 square metres (1,100,000 sq ft) of floor space and features 48 gates: A1–A6, B1a-B1d, B2a-B2b, B3-B5, B7–B20, B22 and C24–C41.
A 5-level parking garage with 4,200 parking spaces is located directly across from the terminal along with the The Sheraton Hotel, both of which are connected to Terminal 3 by an elevated pedestrian walkway.
The infield terminal was built to handle traffic displaced during the development and construction of the current Terminal 1. Its gates were opened in 2002 and 2003, and a first class lounge was opened in 2005. The terminal, also known as the IFT, has 11 gates (521 to 531). When it was in regular use, passengers were transported by bus between Terminal 1 and the IFT to reach their gates. Though currently not used for regular operations, plans are in place to reactivate it if necessary in the future to accommodate seasonal or overflow demand, or to provide additional capacity during future terminal building construction at the airport.
In December 2015, the Infield Terminal was upgraded and temporarily reopened to handle the Syrian refugees accepted into Canada and re-settling in the Greater Toronto Area. After the last government-chartered refugee flight arrived on February 29, 2016, the terminal was deactivated. In total, the Infield Terminal handled 56 refugee flights carrying 13,628 refugees.
The Infield Terminal is frequently used as a location to film major motion pictures and television productions.
Infrastructure and operations
There are currently five runways in operation at Toronto Pearson, aligned in both the east-west direction and the north-south direction. A large network of taxiways, collectively measuring over 40 kilometres (25 mi) in length, provides access between the runways and the passenger terminals, air cargo areas, and airline hangar areas.
|05/23||3,389 metres (11,119 ft)||60 metres (197 ft)||Cat. IIIa (05), Cat. I (23)||East-West|
|06L/24R||2,956 metres (9,698 ft)||60 metres (197 ft)||Cat. IIIa (6L), Cat. I (24R)||East-West|
|06R/24L||2,743 metres (8,999 ft)||60 metres (197 ft)||Cat. I (both directions)||East-West|
|15L/33R||3,368 metres (11,050 ft)||60 metres (197 ft)||Cat. I (both directions)||North-South|
|15R/33L||2,770 metres (9,088 ft)||60 metres (197 ft)||Cat. I (both directions)||North-South|
Pearson is home to Toronto Area Control Centre, one of seven Air Control Centers in Canada, all of which are operated by Nav Canada. The airport's main control tower is located within the infield operations area. Pearson is one of two airports in Canada with a Traffic Management Unit (TMU) to control planes on the apron areas. The TMU is located in the tower at Terminal 1.
The Greater Toronto Airports Authority Fire and Emergency Service has 2 fire stations to provide firefighting and rescue operations. The fire service has 5 crash tenders as well as two pumpers, an aerial ladder and heavy rescue unit. The fire service is supported by a crew of 80 firefighters.
The airport's 115-member airfield maintenance unit is responsible for general maintenance and repairs at the airport. From mid-November to mid-April, the unit is in winter mode armed with a $38 million snow removal budget. The airport employs 94 pieces of snow clearance equipment, including 11 Vammas PSB series and 4 Oshkosh HT-Series snowplow units, along with 14 snow melters.
Pearson Airport's Central De-icing Facility is the largest in the world, servicing about 10,500 aircraft each winter. The six de-icing bays can handle up to 12 aircraft at a time, taking between 2 and 19 minutes per aircraft.
Toronto Pearson processes over 45% of total air cargo in Canada. There are three primary cargo facilities at the airport, known as The Cargo West Facilities, the VISTA Cargo area, and the FedEx cargo area.
The Cargo West Facilities (also known as the Infield Cargo Area) are located between runways 15L/33R and 15R/33L. The area includes three large buildings, a common use cargo apron, vehicle parking, and a truck maneuvering area. It is connected to the passenger terminal area by a four-lane vehicle tunnel. The VISTA cargo area (also known as Cargo East) is a privately owned and operated complex that is located north of Terminal 3. The VISTA cargo area consists of a multi-tenant facility organized in a U-shape with an adjacent cargo apron area. The FedEx Cargo area (also known as Cargo North) is the Canadian hub for FedEx Express. The site occupies an area on the north side of the airport lands near runway 05/23, and is home to two cargo buildings along with dedicated ramp space.
There are seven aircraft maintenance hangars located at Pearson Airport, operated by Air Canada, Air Transat, Westjet, and the GTAA, which are used for line maintenance and routine aircraft inspections. At the north end of the airfield, there are numerous hangars for personal private jets and charter aircraft, along with VIP passenger terminal facilities and maintenance services for these aircraft.
The Greater Toronto Airports Authority maintains offices that are located on Convair Drive near the southeast corner of the airport. Cara Operations and CLS Catering Services both operate dedicated flight kitchen facilities at Pearson for airline catering services. Aviation fuel (Jet A-1) is supplied by Esso Avitat and Shell Aerocentre, which are both located at the infield area of the airport.
The Peel Regional Police is the primary law enforcement agency operating at Pearson Airport. The Airport Division is based at 2951 Convair Drive, on the southern perimeter of the airport adjacent to Highway 401. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) also maintain a Pearson Airport Detachment, which provides federal police services. The Detachment is located at 255 Attwell Drive, east of the airport in Etobicoke.
Airlines and destinations
- ^a : Ethiopian Airlines' flight from Addis Ababa to Toronto includes a technical stop at Dublin. Ethiopian Airlines does not have fifth freedom rights to transport passengers solely between Dublin and Toronto, and thus only carries passengers between Addis Ababa and Toronto. Ethiopian Airlines' flight from Toronto to Addis Ababa is nonstop.
- ^b : Philippine Airlines flights to/from Manila stop in Vancouver. However, Philippine Airlines does not have eighth freedom rights to transport passengers solely between Toronto and Vancouver, and thus only carries passengers travelling between Toronto and Manila.
|Cathay Pacific Cargo||Anchorage, Hong Kong, New York–JFK||VISTA|
operated by Cargojet
|FedEx Express||Indianapolis, Memphis, Minneapolis/St. Paul||FedEx|
operated by Morningstar Air Express
|Calgary, Edmonton, Montréal–Mirabel, North Bay, Sault Ste. Marie (ON), Sudbury, Timmins, Vancouver, Winnipeg||FedEx|
|Korean Air Cargo||Anchorage, New York–JFK, Seoul–Incheon||Cargo West|
|Lufthansa Cargo||Frankfurt||Cargo West|
The UP Express (Union Pearson Express) is an express airport rail link running between Pearson Airport and Union Station in Downtown Toronto. It connects to the airport at Toronto Pearson Terminal 1 Station, and provides a 25-minute travel time to Union Station. The first UP Express departure from Pearson to Union is at 5:27 a.m., with trains departing every 15 minutes throughout the day until the last departure to Union at 12:57 a.m., 7 days a week. The full adult fare for the UP Express from Pearson to Union is C$12, with discounts available for Presto card users.
|Route||Destination||Service Times||Terminals Served||Schedule|
|Union Pearson Express|
|Union Pearson Express||Express rail service to Union Station in Downtown Toronto with stops at Weston and Bloor.||Daily
(Every 15 minutes from 05:27–0:57)
|Terminal 1. Same-platform transfer at Terminal 1 Station to LINK Train for Terminal 3 Station|||
The LINK Train is an automated people mover at Pearson Airport that runs between Terminal 1, Terminal 3, and the Viscount Value Park Lot. It connects to the airport at Toronto Pearson Terminal 1 Station and Toronto Pearson Terminal 3 Station. The LINK Train is a free service that operates every 4 to 8 minutes, 24 hours a day.
|Route||Destination||Service Times||Terminals Served||Schedule|
|Terminal LINK Train|
|Terminal LINK Train||People mover service between Terminal 1 Station, Terminal 3 Station, and Viscount Station||Daily
(Every 4 to 8 minutes, 24-hour service)
|Terminals 1 and 3. Same-platform transfer to Union Pearson Express at Terminal 1 Station|||
Taxis are available at all terminals, and are licensed by the City of Mississauga. Taxis that are licensed in Toronto can drop passengers off at Toronto Pearson, but only airport-licensed taxis and limos can pick up passengers at Toronto Pearson legally. Rides can also be prearranged, allowing for curbside pick up at either terminal. Pearson Airport Limousine companies use GTAA authorized out-of-town flat rates for pick-ups from Pearson Airport.
Public transit bus services are operated by Toronto Transit Commission, GO Transit, MiWay, and Brampton Transit, connecting Pearson Airport to the City of Toronto and other cities in the Greater Toronto Area. Fares vary depending on transit operator and destination.
|Route||Destination||Service Times||Terminals Served||Schedule|
|Toronto Transit Commission (TTC)|
|192 Airport Rocket||Express service to Kipling Station on the Bloor–Danforth Subway Line||Daily
(Every 10 minutes from 05:29–02:11 Monday to Friday, 05:52–02:45 Saturday, 08:31–02:45 Sunday)
|Terminals 1 and 3|||
|52A Lawrence West||Local service along Dixon Road and Lawrence Avenue to Lawrence and Lawrence West stations on the Yonge–University Subway Line||Daily
(Every 6 to 12 minutes from approximately 05:12–01:55)
|Terminals 1 and 3|||
|300A Bloor-Danforth||Runs express from the airport to Burnhamthorpe Road at Highway 427, then local service along Bloor Street and Danforth Avenue to Warden Avenue||Daily (Overnight only)
(Every 20 to 30 minutes from 02:13–04:53 Monday to Friday, 02:23–05:23 Saturday, 02:23–08:28 Sunday)
|Terminals 1 and 3|||
|332 Eglinton West||Local service along Eglinton Avenue to Yonge Street||Daily (Overnight only)
(Every 30 minutes from 02:29–04:59)
|Terminals 1 and 3|||
|352 Lawrence West||Local service along Dixon Road and Lawrence Avenue to Sunnybrook Hospital||Daily (Overnight only)
(Every 30 minutes from 02:20–04:50)
|Terminals 1 and 3|||
|34 Pearson Airport-North York||Express service to Yorkdale Terminal and Finch Terminal||Daily
(Every 30 to 60 minutes from 04:50–01:50)
|40 Hamilton-Richmond Hill||Express service to:||Daily
(Every 30 to 60 minutes from 04:20–02:20 Eastbound, 04:35–02:35 Westbound)
|107 Malton Express||Express service along the Mississauga Transitway to:||Monday to Saturday
(Every 9 to 22 minutes from 05:15-23:05 Monday to Friday, 07:22-22:09 Saturday)
|Viscount LINK Station|||
|7 Airport||Local service to:
Southbound: Mississauga City Centre Terminal. Northbound: Westwood Mall Terminal.
(Every 20 to 40 minutes from 05:37-01:50 Monday to Friday, 05:17-00:34 Saturday, 07:09-23:49 Sunday)
|24 Northwest||Local service to:
Southbound: Skymark Hub. Northbound: Westwood Mall Terminal.
|Monday to Friday (Rush hours only)
(Every 29.5 minutes from 05:19-10:15 in the morning, 14:49-19:45 in the afternoon)
|Viscount LINK Station|||
|57 Courtneypark||Local service from the airport's Infield Cargo area to:
Northbound: Meadowvale Town Centre Terminal
|Monday to Friday (Rush hours only)
(Every 30 to 35 minutes from 06:06-09:47 in the morning, 13:06-19:23 in the afternoon)
|59 Infield||Local service from Westwood Mall Terminal to the airport's Infield Cargo area||Monday to Friday (One southbound trip only)||None|||
|115 Airport Express||Semi-express service to Bramalea Terminal||Daily
(Every 20 to 30 minutes from 05:25-00:42 Monday to Friday, 05:55-23:45 Saturday, 07:00-23:17 Sunday)
The airport is accessible from Highway 427 (just north of Highway 401) or from Highway 409, a spur off Highway 401 that leads directly into the airport. Airport Road to the north and Dixon Road to the east both provide local access to the airport. When drivers pick up or drop off guests at Toronto Pearson, they are permitted to stop momentarily outside the Arrivals and Departure areas at both terminals.
Car Rentals are available from several major car rental agencies located on Level 1 of the parking garages that are adjacent to both terminals. Car rentals are also available from several off-airport car rental agencies located at or near Viscount Station, which is accessible from both terminals via the LINK Train.
Pearson is served many out-of-town bus and van shuttle operators, offering transportation from the airport to cities, towns, and villages throughout Southern Ontario. Some operators offer connections to other airports in Ontario (John C. Munro Hamilton International Airport in Hamilton and London International Airport in London) and in the United States (Detroit Metropolitan Airport in Detroit, Michigan and Buffalo Niagara International Airport in Buffalo, New York).
From 1993 until 2014, the Toronto Airport Express was a privately operated airport shuttle bus service from the airport to downtown Toronto operated by Pacific Western Transportation. A one-way trip took approximately 45 to 90 minutes, depending on traffic. The service ceased operation on October 31, 2014 in conjunction with the opening of the Union Pearson Express.
Proposed transit hub
In February 2017, the GTAA announced a proposed transit hub to be located across from Terminal 3 that would connect with Union Pearson Express and may connect with other transit lines extended to the airport like Eglinton LRT and GO Transit Regional Express Rail. This proposal would eliminate the LINK Train connecting Terminals 1 and 2 with bridge from the transit hub to Terminal 3 and another bridge connecting Terminal 3 to Terminal 1.
|Year||Total passengers||% change||Domesticc||% change||Transborderc||% change||Internationalc||% change|
- ^c : At Toronto Pearson and at other airports in Canada with United States border preclearance, a distinction is made between "transborder" and "international" flights for operational and statistical purposes. A "transborder" flight is a flight between Canada and a destination in the United States, while an "international" flight is a flight between Canada and a destination that is not within the United States or Canada. A "domestic" flight is a flight within Canada only.
Incidents and accidents
- On October 3, 1959, Vickers Viscount CF-TGY of Trans-Canada Air Lines was written off when it landed short of the runway. No fatalities among the 38 on board.
- On June 13, 1964, Vickers Viscount CF-THT of Air Canada was damaged beyond economical repair when it crash-landed after the failure of two engines on approach.
- The airport's deadliest accident occurred on July 5, 1970, when Air Canada Flight 621, a DC-8 jet, flew on a Montreal–Toronto–Los Angeles route. The pilots inadvertently deployed spoilers before the plane attempted landing, forcing the pilots to abort landing and takeoff. Damage to the aircraft that was caused during the failed landing attempt caused the plane to break up in the air during the go-around, killing all 100 passengers and nine crew members on board when it crashed into a field southeast of Brampton. Controversy remains over the cleanup effort following the crash, as both plane wreckage debris and human remains from the crash are still found on the site.
- On August 30, 1970, Douglas C-47 CF-JRY of D G Harris Productions was damaged beyond economic repair in a storm.
- On June 26, 1978, Air Canada Flight 189 to Winnipeg overran the runway during an aborted takeoff, and crashed into the Etobicoke Creek ravine. Two of the 107 passengers on board the DC-9 were killed.
- On June 22, 1983, Douglas C-47A C-GUBT of Skycraft Air Transport crashed on takeoff roll at Toronto International Airport while on an international cargo flight from Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, Ohio. Both of the crew members were killed.
- On June 23, 1985, failure of adequate baggage screening systems at Toronto Pearson airport allowed a suitcase bomb to get loaded onto the Boeing 747-237B operating as Air India Flight 181 in Toronto. The bomb later brought down the plane above the Atlantic Ocean, killing everyone on board. Note: This plane made a stop over at Montreal Mirabel Airport to pick up more passengers, and had its flight re-designated as Flight 182 upon leaving Montreal en route to both London–Heathrow and New Delhi (without further baggage inspection).
- On August 2, 2005, Air France Flight 358, an Airbus A340-300 (registration F-GLZQ) inbound from Paris, landed on runway 24L during a severe thunderstorm, failed to stop, and ran off of the runway into the Etobicoke Creek ravine. The rear third of the plane burst into flames, eventually engulfing the whole plane except the cockpit and wings. There were 12 serious injuries, but no fatalities. The investigation predominantly blamed pilot error when faced with the severe weather conditions.
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The Airport occupies some 1,867 ha (4,613 acres) and is located adjacent to Highway 401, the main east/west highway route through southern Ontario and the busiest highway in North America. The bulk of the Airport (1,824 ha 4,507 acres) is located within the City of Mississauga with 43 ha (106 acres) located within the City of Toronto.
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The Infield Terminal (IFT) was constructed to provide interim gating capacity during the phased construction of Terminal 1. The first two gates became operational in June 2002, with the remaining nine gates opening the following year. (The final three gates opened in July 2003, bringing the total available to 11.)
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It’s a 1.5-kilometre train with three stations gliding along an elevated guideway connecting Terminals 1, 3 and a reduced rate parking area serving both passengers and employees of the Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA).
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Toronto Pearson International Airport.|
- Toronto Pearson International Airport travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Official website
- Malton: Farms to Flying Book by Kathleen A. Hicks - PDF
- Airport Wayfinder: Interactive video guide and detailed informations about Toronto–Pearson International Airport.
- Past three hours METARs, SPECI and current TAFs for Toronto Pearson International Airport from Nav Canada as available.