Toronto Pearson International Airport
|Toronto Pearson International Airport
Aéroport international Pearson de Toronto
|IATA: YYZ – ICAO: CYYZ
– WMO: 71624
|Operator||Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA)|
|Serves||Greater Toronto Area|
|Location||Mississauga and Toronto, Ontario|
|Time zone||EST (UTC−05:00)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC−04:00)|
|Elevation AMSL||569 ft / 173 m|
Toronto Pearson International Airport (also known as Lester B. Pearson International Airport or simply Pearson Airport or Toronto Pearson) (IATA: YYZ, ICAO: CYYZ) is an international airport serving the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, its metropolitan area, and the Golden Horseshoe, an urban agglomeration of 8.7 million people. The airport is located 22.5 km (14.0 mi) northwest of Downtown Toronto, with the bulk of the airport (including the two main terminals) located in the adjacent city of Mississauga, and a small portion extending into Etobicoke, Toronto's western district. The airport is named in honour of Lester B. Pearson, Nobel Peace Prize Laureate and 14th Prime Minister of Canada.
Pearson is the largest and busiest airport in Canada. In 2015, it handled 41,036,847 passengers and 443,154 aircraft movements. It is the world's 34th-busiest airport by total passenger traffic, 23rd-busiest airport by international passenger traffic, and 15th-busiest airport by flights. Pearson is a major North American global gateway, handling more international passengers than any airport in North America other than John F. Kennedy International Airport.
Pearson is the main hub for Air Canada. It is also a hub for passenger airline WestJet and cargo airline FedEx Express, and serves as an operating base for passenger airlines Air Transat and Sunwing Airlines. Pearson Airport is operated by the Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA) as part of Transport Canada's National Airports System and is one of eight Canadian airports with facilities for United States border preclearance.
An extensive network of non-stop domestic flights is operated from Pearson by several airlines to all major and many secondary cities across all provinces of Canada. As of 2016, over 75 airlines operate around 1,100 daily departures from Toronto Pearson to more than 180 destinations across all six of the world's inhabited continents.
- 1 History
- 2 Terminals
- 3 Infrastructure
- 4 Airlines and destinations
- 5 Ground transportation
- 6 Statistics
- 7 Incidents and accidents
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Toronto Pearson International Airport was established in 1937, when the Government of Canada announced its intention to build an airport in Toronto. A site near the town of Malton, northwest of Toronto, was chosen as the location for the facility. The Toronto Harbour Commission purchased and acquired several farms that were located in the area at the time. In it's early days, Toronto Pearson was referred to as Malton Airport. The first scheduled passenger flight to Malton Airport was a Trans-Canada Airlines DC-3 that landed on August 29, 1939.
In 1958, the City of Toronto sold the Malton Airport to Transport Canada, who subsequently changed the name of the facility to Toronto International Airport. The Greater Toronto Airports Authority assumed management, operation, and control of the airport in 1996.
The airport was officially renamed Lester B. Pearson International Airport in 1984, in honour of Lester B. Pearson, the fourteenth Prime Minister of Canada and recipient of the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize.
Toronto Pearson International Airport has two active terminals, Terminal 1 and Terminal 3. A third terminal, the Infield Terminal, is currently not used for regular operations. Complimentary high-speed Wi-Fi internet access is available in all areas throughout all terminals at Pearson.
Terminal 1 is the largest terminal at Pearson Airport, and is designed to handle domestic, international, and trans-border flight operations in one facility. Air Canada and all other Star Alliance airlines that serve Toronto Pearson operate out of Terminal 1. The terminal is also used by non-alliance airlines Etihad Airways, Emirates, and Sunwing Airlines.
Measuring over 567,000 square metres (6,000,000 sq ft), Terminal 1 is among the largest buildings in the world by floor space. It was designed by joint venture Airports Architects Canada (Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP; Adamson Associates Architects; and Moshe Safdie and Associates).
Terminal 1 contains 58 gates: D1, D3, D5, D7-D12, D20, D22, D24, D26, D28, D31–D45 (D32, D34, D36 also serve US flights and carry F designation), D51, D53, D55, D57 (also carry F designation), F60–F63, F64A–F64B, F65, F66A–F66B, F/E67–F/E81 (F68-F73 and F78-F81 serve both US and international flights but E74-E77 are international only), F91, and F93. Two of the gates, E73 and E75, can accommodate the Airbus A380.
Along with the standard customs and immigration facilities, the terminal also contains customs "B" checkpoints along the international arrivals walkway. Passengers that are connecting from an international or trans-border arrival to another international (non-U.S.) departure in Terminal 1 go to one of these checkpoints for passport control and immigration checks, then are directed to Pier F. This alleviates the need to recheck bags, pass through security screening, and relieves congestion in the primary customs hall.
Terminal 3, which opened on February 21, 1991, was originally built to offset traffic from the former Aeroquay 1 and former Terminal 2. It is used by all SkyTeam and Oneworld airlines that serve Pearson, along with WestJet, Air Transat, and most other airlines that are unaffiliated with an airline alliance. The terminal has 100,000 square metres (1,100,000 sq ft) of floor space and features 48 gates: A1–A6, B1a-B1d, B2a-B2b, B3-B5, B7–B20, B22 and C24–C41.
The architects for Terminal 3 were two Toronto-based firms, B+H Architects and Scott Associates Architects Inc. The terminal was initially advertised as "Trillium Terminal 3" and the "Trillium Terminal". It was originally built as a private venture, and was the base of operations for the now defunct Canadian Airlines. The Sheraton Hotel and a large parking garage are located across from the terminal, and are connected by an elevated pedestrian walkway.
In 1997, the GTAA purchased Terminal 3 and shortly thereafter implemented a C$350 million expansion. A team of coordinators known as T3RD oversaw the redevelopment and expansion of Terminal 3. In 2004, the Pier C Expansion opened, followed by the East Processor Extension (EPE) in June 2006, adding 40 check-in counters, new retail space, additional secure 'hold-screening' for baggage, and a huge picture window that offers one of the most convenient apron viewing locations at the airport. This phase of the expansion also included improved Canadian Border services and a more open arrivals hall. Phase II of the EPE was completed in 2007 and includes larger security screening areas and additional international baggage claim areas. The West Processor Expansion Shell was completed in early 2008.
The infield terminal was built to handle traffic displaced during the development and construction of the current Terminal 1. Its gates were opened in 2002 and 2003. A first class lounge was opened in 2005. The terminal, also known as the IFT, has 11 gates (521 to 531). When it was in use, passengers were transported by bus between Terminal 1 and the IFT to reach their gates. Though currently not used for regular operations, plans are in place to reactivate it if necessary in the future to accommodate seasonal or overflow demand, or to provide additional capacity during future terminal building construction at the airport.
The Infield Terminal is frequently used as a location to film major motion pictures and television productions.
There are currently five runways in operation at Toronto Pearson, aligned in both the east-west direction and the north-south direction. A large network of taxiways, collectively measuring over 40 kilometres (25 mi) in length, provides access between the runways and the passenger terminals, air cargo areas, and airline hangar areas.
|05/23||3,389 metres (11,119 ft)||60 metres (197 ft)||Cat. III (05), Cat. I (23)||East-West|
|06L/24R||2,956 metres (9,698 ft)||60 metres (197 ft)||Cat. III (6L), Cat. I (24R)||East-West|
|06R/24L||2,743 metres (8,999 ft)||60 metres (197 ft)||Cat. I (both directions)||East-West|
|15L/33R||3,368 metres (11,050 ft)||60 metres (197 ft)||Cat. I (both directions)||North-South|
|15R/33L||2,770 metres (9,088 ft)||60 metres (197 ft)||Cat. I (both directions)||North-South|
Pearson is home to Toronto Area Control Centre, one of seven Air Control Centres in Canada, all of which are operated by Nav Canada. The airport's main control tower is located within the infield operations area.
The airport's 115-member airfield maintenance unit is responsible for general maintenance and repairs at the airport. From mid-November to mid-April, the unit is in winter mode armed with a $38 million snow removal budget. The airport employs 11 Vammas PSB series and 4 Oshkosh HT-Series snowplow units.
Pearson Airport's Central De-icing Facility is the largest in the world, servicing about 10,500 aircraft each winter. The six de-icing bays can handle up to 12 aircraft at a time, taking between 2 and 19 minutes per aircraft.
The Greater Toronto Airports Authority Fire and Emergency Service has 2 fire stations to provide firefighting and rescue operations. The fire service has 5 crash tenders as well as two pumpers, an aerial ladder and heavy rescue unit. The fire service is supported by a crew of 80 firefighters.
Terminal LINK train
Passenger transportation between Terminal 1 and Terminal 3 is achieved with the LINK Train, an automated people mover that opened in 2006. The LINK train operates two 7-car trains that run between Terminal 1, Terminal 3, and the Viscount Value Park Lot, where a reduced rate parking area is located between Airport Road and Viscount Road. The free service operates every 4 to 8 minutes, 24 hours a day.
Toronto Pearson processes over 45% of total air cargo in Canada. There are three primary cargo facilities at the airport, known as The Cargo West Facilities , the VISTA Cargo area, and the FedEx cargo area.
The Cargo West Facilities (also known as the Infield Cargo Area) are located between runways 15L/33R and 15R/33L. The area includes three large buildings, a common use cargo apron, vehicle parking, and a truck maneuvering area. It is connected to the passenger terminal area by a four-lane vehicle tunnel. The VISTA cargo area (also known as Cargo East) is a privately owned and operated complex that is located north of Terminal 3. The VISTA cargo area consists of a multi-tenant facility organized in a U-shape with an adjacent cargo apron area. The FedEx Cargo area (also known as Cargo North) is the Canadian hub for FedEx Express. The site occupies an area on the north side of the airport lands near runway 05/23, and is home to two cargo buildings along with dedicated ramp space.
The Peel Regional Police is the primary law enforcement service at the airport. Airport Division is located on 2951 Convair Drive, on the southern perimeter of the airport adjacent to Highway 401. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) maintains a Toronto Airport Detachment to provide federal police services, and is located at 255 Attwell Drive east of the airport in Etobicoke.
The Canadian Air Transport Security Authority (CATSA) is responsible for all security screening services at Pearson. The Canada Border Services Agency, the Department of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship, as well as the Canadian Security Intelligence Service, all maintain extensive operations at the airport.
The Greater Toronto Airports Authority administration offices are located on Convair Drive near the southeast corner of the airport.
Located at the north end of the airfield are numerous hangars for personal private jets and charter aircraft, along with VIP passenger terminal facilities and maintenance services for these aircraft.
Airlines and destinations
- ^a : Ethiopian Airlines' flight from Addis Ababa to Toronto includes a technical stop at Dublin. Ethiopian Airlines does not have fifth freedom rights to transport passengers solely between Dublin and Toronto, and thus only carries passengers between Addis Ababa and Toronto. Ethiopian Airlines' flight from Toronto to Addis Ababa is nonstop.
- ^b : Philippine Airlines flights to/from Manila stop in Vancouver. However, Philippine Airlines does not have eighth freedom rights to transport passengers solely between Toronto and Vancouver, and thus only carries passengers traveling between Toronto and Manila.
|Cathay Pacific Cargo||Anchorage, Hong Kong, New York–JFK||VISTA|
|FedEx Express||Indianapolis, Memphis, Minneapolis/St. Paul||FedEx|
operated by Morningstar Air Express
|Calgary, Edmonton, Montreal–Mirabel, North Bay, Sault Ste. Marie (ON), Sudbury, Timmins, Vancouver, Winnipeg||FedEx|
|KF Cargo||Brussels, Calgary, Moncton, Vancouver||Cargo West|
|Korean Air Cargo||Anchorage, Seoul–Incheon||Cargo West|
The Union Pearson Express (also known as the UP Express) is an express airport rail link between Pearson Airport and Union Station in Downtown Toronto. It connects to the airport at Toronto Pearson Terminal 1 Station. The UP Express operates every 15 minutes throughout the day, with a 25-minute travel time to Union Station.
|Route||Destination||Service Times||Terminals Served||Schedule|
|Union Pearson Express|
|Union Pearson Express||Express rail service to Union Station with stops at Weston and Bloor.||All-day||Terminal 1. Same-platform transfer to LINK Train for Terminal 3|||
The airport is accessible from Highway 427 (just north of the Highway 401) or from Highway 409, a spur off Highway 401 that leads directly into the airport. Airport Road to the north and Dixon Road to the east both provide local access to the airport.
Restricted road access from Courtney Park Drive and Britannia Road to the west of the airport are for authorized vehicles only. Various roads to the cargo area to the north are also restricted. Other roads that travel along the airport grounds and runways are blocked off by fencing and gates. When drivers pick up or drop off guests at Toronto Pearson, they are permitted to stop momentarily outside the Arrivals and Departure areas at both terminals.
Public transit bus services are operated by Toronto Transit Commission, GO Transit, MiWay, and Brampton Transit, connecting Pearson Airport to the City of Toronto and other cities in the Greater Toronto Area.
The airport is also served many out-of-town bus and van shuttle operators, offering transportation from Pearson Airport to cities, towns, and villages throughout Southern Ontario. Some operators offer connections to other airports in Ontario (John C. Munro Hamilton International Airport in Hamilton and London International Airport in London) and in the United States (Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport in Detroit, Michigan and Buffalo Niagara International Airport in Buffalo, New York). Megabus operators a shuttle service to Pearson from Kingston, Ontario with stops at Queen's University, Belleville and Port Hope.
From 1993 until 2014, the Toronto Airport Express was a privately operated airport bus service from the airport to downtown Toronto operated by Pacific Western Transportation. A one-way trip took approximately 45 to 90 minutes, depending on traffic. The service ceased operation on October 31, 2014.
|Route||Destination||Service Times||Terminals Served||Schedule|
|Toronto Transit Commission (TTC)|
|192 Airport Rocket||Express service to Kipling Station on the Bloor–Danforth Subway Line||All-day||Terminals 1 and 3|||
|52A Lawrence West||Local service serving Dixon Road and Lawrence Avenue to Lawrence and Lawrence West stations on the Yonge–University Subway Line||All-day||Terminals 1 and 3|||
|300A Bloor-Danforth||Runs express from the airport to Burnhamthorpe Road at Highway 427, then local service along Bloor Street and Danforth Avenue to Warden Avenue||Overnight only
(approximately 2:00 a.m.–6:00 a.m. daily)
|Terminals 1 and 3|||
|307 Eglinton West||Local service along Eglinton Avenue to Yonge Street||Overnight only
(approximately 2:00 a.m.–6:00 a.m. daily)
|Terminals 1 and 3|||
|34 Pearson Airport-North York||Express service to Finch and Yorkdale TTC subway stations on the Yonge–University Subway Line||All-day||Terminal 1|||
|40 Hamilton-Richmond Hill||Express service to:||All-day||Terminal 1|||
|7 Airport||Local service to:||All-day||Terminal 1|||
|107 Malton Express||Express service to:||Mondays to Saturdays||Viscount LINK Station|||
|24 Northwest||Local service to:||Rush hour||Viscount LINK Station|||
|57 Courtneypark||Local service from the airport's Infield Cargo area to:
Northbound: Meadowvale Town Centre
|59 Infield||Local service from Westwood Mall to the airport's Infield Cargo area||One trip daily||None|||
|115 Airport Express||Semi-express service to Bramalea bus terminal||All-day||Terminal 1|||
|Can-ar Coach Service|
|Operates a once-a-day coach service to Port Elgin, Ontario, serving communities in Dufferin, Grey, and Bruce counties.|||
Taxis are available at all terminals, and are licensed by the City of Mississauga. Taxis that are licensed in Toronto can deliver to Pearson, but only airport-licensed taxis and limos can pick up at Pearson legally. Rides can also be prearranged through GTA Airport Taxi or GTA Airport Limo at the Airport, providing prompt pick-up outside of the terminal. Pearson Airport Limousine companies use GTAA authorized out-of-town flat rates for pick-ups from Pearson Airport.
The Eglinton Crosstown light rail line was originally projected to connect Pearson to Scarborough by 2018 as part of the Transit City plan. However, when the four Transit City lines were found to be $2.4 billion over their funding envelope in January 2010, parts of the network were deferred, including the western section of the Eglinton Crosstown LRT. In 2016, the City of Toronto has considered extending the, currently under construction, Eglinton Crosstown to the airport, although no official plans or funding has been acquired.
One of the routes in GO Transit's proposed Highway 407 BRT system would reach the airport. As a precursor, GO as of June 2013[update] operates the 40 Airport Express route between Richmond Hill Centre Terminal and Pearson Airport. This route formerly served Mississauga City Centre, but was shortened due to MiWay's launch of its own Airport Express route. A bus rapid transit route is planned to use the Mississauga Transitway, which is under construction. Mississauga Transit's 107 Malton Express has been in service since March 2010, connecting Mississauga City Centre, Malton, and Pearson Airport via the LINK Train's Viscount Station during peak hours only. After the completion of the transitway in late 2013, travel times between these destinations would be cut down to 19 minutes (compared to 7 Airport's 41 minutes and to the current 107's 29 minutes). Also, an all-day, all-week connection between the two destinations would be established.
|Year||Total passengers||% change||Domesticc||% change||Transborderc||% change||Internationalc||% change|
- ^c : At Toronto Pearson and at other airports in Canada with United States border preclearance, a distinction is made between "transborder" and "international" flights for operational and statistical purposes. A "transborder" flight is a flight between Canada and a destination in the United States, while an "international" flight is a flight between Canada and a destination that is not within the United States or Canada. A "domestic" flight is a flight within Canada only.
Incidents and accidents
- On October 3, 1959, Vickers Viscount CF-TGY of Trans-Canada Air Lines was written off when it landed short of the runway. No fatalities among the 38 on board.
- On June 13, 1964, Vickers Viscount CF-THT of Air Canada was damaged beyond economical repair when it crash-landed after the failure of two engines on approach.
- The airport's deadliest accident occurred on July 5, 1970, when Air Canada Flight 621, a DC-8 jet, flew on a Montreal–Toronto–Los Angeles route. The pilots inadvertently deployed spoilers before the plane attempted landing, forcing the pilots to abort landing and takeoff. Damage to the aircraft that was caused during the failed landing attempt caused the plane to break up in the air during the go-around, killing all 100 passengers and nine crew members on board when it crashed into a field southeast of Brampton. Controversy remains over the cleanup effort following the crash, as both plane wreckage debris and human remains from the crash are still found on the site.
- On August 30, 1970, Douglas C-47 CF-JRY of D G Harris Productions was damaged beyond economic repair in a storm.
- On June 26, 1978, Air Canada Flight 189 to Winnipeg overran the runway during an aborted takeoff, and crashed into the Etobicoke Creek ravine. Two of the 107 passengers on board the DC-9 were killed.
- On June 22, 1983, Douglas C-47A C-GUBT of Skycraft Air Transport crashed on takeoff roll at Toronto International Airport while on an international cargo flight from Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, Ohio. Both of the crew members were killed.
- On June 23, 1985, failure of adequate baggage screening systems at Toronto Pearson airport allowed a suitcase bomb to get loaded onto the Boeing 747-237B operating as Air India Flight 181 in Toronto. The bomb later brought down the plane above the Atlantic Ocean, killing everyone on board. Note: This plane made a stop over at Montreal Mirabel Airport to pick up more passengers, and had its flight re-designated as Flight 182 upon leaving Montreal en route to both London-Heathrow and New Delhi (without further baggage inspection).
- On August 2, 2005, Air France Flight 358, an Airbus A340-300 (registration F-GLZQ) inbound from Paris, landed on runway 24L during a severe thunderstorm, failed to stop, and ran off of the runway into the Etobicoke Creek ravine. The rear third of the plane burst into flames, eventually engulfing the whole plane except the cockpit and wings. There were 12 serious injuries, but no fatalities. The investigation predominantly blamed pilot error when faced with the severe weather conditions.
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The Airport occupies some 1,867 ha (4,613 acres) and is located adjacent to Highway 401, the main east/west highway route through southern Ontario and the busiest highway in North America. The bulk of the Airport (1,824 ha 4,507 acres) is located within the City of Mississauga with 43 ha (106 acres) located within the City of Toronto.
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Located on a 470-acre [190 ha] site between four major runways, this $250 million development is Canada's largest design-build project and comprised of six structures totaling 1,356,360 square feet: the Air Canada Maintenance Building, three cargo buildings including the Air Canada Cargo Terminal, a 3-bay Hangar Facility, and the 11-gate Infield Holdroom Terminal.
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The Infield Terminal (IFT) was constructed to provide interim gating capacity during the phased construction of Terminal 1. The first two gates became operational in June 2002, with the remaining nine gates opening the following year. (The final three gates opened in July 2003, bringing the total available to 11.)
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Air Canada will officially open its newest Maple Leaf Lounge at the Infield Terminal at Toronto Pearson Airport on February 10, 2005.
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It’s a 1.5-kilometre train with three stations gliding along an elevated guideway connecting Terminals 1, 3 and a reduced rate parking area serving both passengers and employees of the Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA).
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Toronto Pearson International Airport.|
- Toronto Pearson International Airport travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Official website
- Malton: Farms to Flying Book by Kathleen A. Hicks - PDF
- Airport Wayfinder: Interactive video guide and detailed informations about Toronto-Pearson International Airport.
- Past three hours METARs, SPECI and current TAFs for Toronto Pearson International Airport from Nav Canada as available.