SS Torrey Canyon

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History
Name: SS Torrey Canyon
Owner: Barracuda Tanker Corporation
Operator: British Petroleum
Port of registry:  Liberia
Builder: Newport News Shipbuilding & Drydock Co
Yard number: 532
Laid down: 1959
Identification: UK official number 536535
Fate: Sank after running aground on 18 March 1967
General characteristics
Type: Supertanker
Tonnage: 61,263 GRT
Length: 974.4 ft (297.0 m)
Beam: 125.4 ft (38.2 m)
Draught: 68.7 ft (20.9 m)
Propulsion: Single shaft; steam turbine
Speed: 17 knots (31 km/h; 20 mph)
Capacity: 120,000 tons crude oil

SS Torrey Canyon was an LR2 Suezmax Class oil tanker with a cargo capacity for 120,000 tons of crude oil.[1] She was shipwrecked off the western coast of Cornwall, England, in March 1967, causing an environmental disaster. At that time she was the largest vessel ever to be wrecked.[2]

Design and history[edit]

When laid down by the Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company in the USA in 1959, she had a capacity of 60,000 tons. However, the ship was later enlarged in Japan to 120,000 tons capacity.

At the time of the shipwreck she was owned by Barracuda Tanker Corporation, a subsidiary of the Union Oil Company of California, and registered in Liberia[3] but chartered to British Petroleum. She was 974.4 feet (297.0 m) long, 125.4 feet (38.2 m) beam and had 68.7 feet (20.9 m) of draught[citation needed].

Accident and oil spill[edit]

On 19 February 1967, Torrey Canyon left the Kuwait National Petroleum Company refinery, at Mina Mina Al Ahmadi, Kuwait (later Al Ahmadi) on her final voyage with full cargo of crude oil. The ship reached the Canary Islands on 14 March. From there the planned route was to Milford Haven in Wales.[citation needed]

Torrey Canyon struck Pollard's Rock on Seven Stones reef, between the Cornish mainland and the Isles of Scilly, on 18 March. It became grounded and, several days later, began to break up.

In an effort to reduce the size of the oil spill, the British government decided to set the wreck on fire, by means of air strikes from the Fleet Air Arm (FAA) and Royal Air Force (RAF). On 28 March 1967, FAA Blackburn Buccaneers from RNAS Lossiemouth dropped 1,000 lb (454 kg) bombs on the ship. Afterwards RAF Hawker Hunter from RAF Chivenor dropped cans of jet fuel (kerosene), to fuel the blaze.[4] However, the fire was put out by high tides,[clarification needed] and further strikes were needed to re-ignite the oil, by FAA de Havilland Sea Vixens from RNAS Yeovilton and Buccaneers from the RNAS Brawdy, as well as RAF Hunters with napalm. Bombing continued into the next day, until Torrey Canyon.[5] A total of 161 bombs, 16 rockets, 1,500 tons of napalm and 44,500 litres of kerosene were used.[6]

Attempts to contain the oil using foam-filled containment booms were largely unsuccessful, due to the booms' fragility in high seas.

Aftermath[edit]

An inquiry in Liberia, where the ship was registered, found Shipmaster Pastrengo Rugiati was to blame, because he took a shortcut to save time to get to Milford Haven. Additionally a design fault meant that the helmsman was unaware that the steering selector switch had been accidentally left on autopilot and hence was unable to carry out a timely turn to go through the shipping channel.[7]

The wreck lies at a depth of 30 metres (98 ft).[citation needed]

References in popular culture[edit]

  • Serge Gainsbourg composed and recorded the song Torrey Canyon about the incident.[8]
  • In a 2005 episode of Top Gear, Jeremy Clarkson called James May's Jaguar XJS "The Torrey Canyon" in reference to a catastrophic oil leak. He continued the joke by referring to it later as "The Exxon Valdez".[citation needed]
  • In episode 6 of series 13 of Heartbeat, "The Holiday's Over", Vernon Scripps lost all his money after joining a syndicate to insure the ship for its journey to the UK.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Look and Learn, no.858, 24 June 1978, p.2
  2. ^ Look and Learn, no.858, 24 June 1978, p.2
  3. ^ "The Torrey Canyon's last voyage". Loughborough University. Archived from the original on 5 July 2009. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  4. ^ Mounter, Julian (29 March 1967). "Night Strafe On Blazing Tanker Tide puts out fire". The Times (56901). p. 1. 
  5. ^ "ON THIS DAY 29 March 1967: Bombs rain down on Torrey Canyon". BBC News. 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 
  6. ^ Look and Learn, no.858, 24 June 1978, p.2
  7. ^ Rothbloom, A. Human Error and Marine Safety (pdf). 
  8. ^ Simmons, Sylvie (2 February 2001). "The eyes have it". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 13 November 2013. 

Coordinates: 50°02′30″N 6°07′44″W / 50.0417°N 6.1288°W / 50.0417; -6.1288