In physics, Torricelli's equation, or Torricelli's formula, is an equation created by Evangelista Torricelli to find the final velocity of an object moving with a constant acceleration along an axis (for example, the x axis) without having a known time interval.
where is the time interval. This is true because the acceleration is constant. The left hand side is this constant value of the acceleration and the right hand side is the average acceleration. Since the average of a constant must be equal to the constant value, we have this equality. If the acceleration was not constant, this would not be true.
Now solve for the final velocity:
Square both sides to get:
The term also appears in another equation that is valid for motion with constant acceleration: the equation for the final position of an object moving with constant acceleration, and can be isolated:
Substituting (2) into the original equation (1) yields:
Intuitive derivation using differentials and integration
Begin with the definition of acceleration as the derivative of the velocity:
Now, we multiply both sides by the velocity :
In the left hand side we can rewrite the velocity as the derivative of the position:
Multiplying both sides by gets us the following:
Rearranging the terms in a more traditional manner:
Integrating both sides from the inicial instant with position and velocity to the final instant with position and velocity :
Since the acceleration is constant, we can factor it out of the integration: