Torula

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Torula
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Phylum: Ascomycota
Subphylum: Saccharomycotina
Class: Saccharomycetes
Order: Saccharomycetales
Family: Saccharomycetaceae
Genus: Cyberlindnera
Species: C. jadinii
Binomial name
Cyberlindnera jadinii
Minter, 2009
Synonyms
  • Torula utilis Henneberg, 1926
  • Torulopsis utilis (Henneberg) Lodder, 1934
  • Candida utilis (Henneberg) Lodder & Kreger-van Rij, 1952
  • Hansenula jadinii (Sartory, R. Sartory, Weill & J. Mey.) Wick. [as 'jadini'], 1951
  • Lindnera jadinii (Sartory, R. Sartory, Weill & J. Mey.) Kurtzman, Robnett & Bas.-Powers, 2008
  • Pichia jadinii (Sartory, R. Sartory, Weill & J. Mey.) Kurtzman, 1984
  • Candida guilliermondii var. nitratophila Diddens & Lodder, 1957
  • Candida guilliermondii var. nitratophila Diddens & Lodder, 1942
  • Cryptococcus utilis (Henneberg) H.W. Anderson & C.E. Skinner, 1947
  • Saccharomyces jadinii Sartory, R. Sartory, Weill & J. Mey., 1932
  • Torulopsis utilis (Henneberg) Lodder, 1934, var. utilis[1]

Torula (Latin name: Cyberlindnera jadinii) is a species of yeast.

Use[edit]

Torula, in its inactive form (usually labeled as torula yeast), is widely used as a flavoring in processed foods and pet foods. It is often grown on wood liquor, a byproduct of paper production, which is rich in wood sugars (Xylose).[2] It is pasteurized and spray-dried to produce a fine, light grayish-brown powder with a slightly yeasty odor and gentle, slightly meaty taste.

Cyberlindnera jadinii (which in these contexts is often still labelled with its synonym Candida utilis) can be used, in a blend of various other yeasts, as secondary cheese starter culture "... to inoculate pasteurised milk, which mimic the natural yeast flora of raw milk and improve cheese flavour. Other functions of the added yeasts organisms are the neutralisation of the curd (lactate degradation) and galactose consumption."[3]

Like the flavor enhancer monosodium glutamate (MSG), Torula is rich in glutamic acid. Therefore, it has become a popular replacement among manufacturers wishing to eliminate MSG or hide flavor enhancer usage in an ingredients list. It also enables the marketing of "all-natural" ingredients.

Torula finds accepted use in Europe and California for the organic control of olive flies. When dissolved in water, it serves as a food attractant, with or without additional pheromone lures, in McPhail and OLIPE traps, which drown the insects. In field trials in Sonoma County, California, mass trappings reduced crop damage to an average of 30% compared to almost 90% in untreated controls.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Synonymy of Cyberlindnera jadinii (Sartory, R. Sartory, Weill & J. Mey.) Minter, Mycotaxon 110: 474 (2009)". speciesfungorum.org. Species Fungorum/Index Fungorum (CABI databases). Retrieved 27 March 2017.
  2. ^ Blech, Zushe Yosef (2008). "Essays in Kashrus and Food Science". Kosher Food ProductionFree access subject to limited trial, subscription normally required (2nd ed.). Ames, Iowa, USA: Wiley-Blackwell. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 311–312. ISBN 978-0-8138-2093-4. doi:10.1002/9780813804750. 
  3. ^ Law, Barry A.; Tamime, Adnan (2010). Technology of Cheesemaking (2nd ed.). Society of Dairy Technology series. Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 204. doi:10.1002/9781444323740. ISBN 978-1-405-18298-0.
  4. ^ "Controlling Olive Fruit Fly at Home" (PDF). University of California Cooperative Extension. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 18, 2011. Retrieved 2010-05-01.