Tosham

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Tosham
तोशाम
Tusham
Town
Toshām Hill showing the site of the ancient monastery and water cascade
Toshām Hill showing the site of the ancient monastery and water cascade
Tosham is located in Haryana
Tosham
Tosham
Tosham is located in India
Tosham
Tosham
Location in Haryana, India
Coordinates: 28°53′N 75°55′E / 28.88°N 75.92°E / 28.88; 75.92Coordinates: 28°53′N 75°55′E / 28.88°N 75.92°E / 28.88; 75.92
Country  India
State Haryana
District Bhiwani
Elevation 207 m (679 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 15,559
Languages
 • Official Hindi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 127040
Telephone code +91-1253-XXXXXX
ISO 3166 code IN-HR
Vehicle registration HR-46 to HR-48
Website haryana.gov.in
Tosham rock inscription

Tosham is a town and a municipal committee on the foot of Tosham Hill range in Bhiwani district in the Indian state of Haryana. It has been awarded with title of "Adarsh Village". There is one small mountain of Aravali Mountain Range. Temple of "Baba Mungipa" is situated on this mountain. This temple is very famous and popular in local area.

Geography[edit]

Tosham is located at 28°53′N 75°55′E / 28.88°N 75.92°E / 28.88; 75.92. It has an average elevation of 207 metres (679 feet).

  • Tosham hill or 'Tosham wala pahad: larger and taller of two hills, to the immediate south of Tosham town with roughly 200-meter-high mountain of Aravali range, with full view of near by villages and greenery all around. It has many temples in this some of them are Baba mungipa, Hanuman temple, water fall etc.
  • Baradary Hill or Baradari wala pahad, a smaller 80 meter high hillock on the north west corner of the Tosham town, has a monument with 12 doors.
  • Tosham lake, a wetland with a landscaped park surrounding it, is located near bus stand.

There are Total 108 Villages where main villages are:

  • Nigana Kalan
  • Dulheri
  • Jhanwari
  • Kharkari Makhwan
  • Laxmanpura
  • Isharwal
  • Dhani Mahu
  • Khanak
  • Miran
  • Bahal
  • Baganwala
  • Sagwan
  • Dadam
  • Kairu

History[edit]

Early and medieval history[edit]

Tosham was under Gupta rule in 4th Century as per the inscription. History of Tosham dates back to at least 4th century, as evident by the Sanskrit language Tosham rock inscription at Tosham hill. Later it came under Tomar during the rule of Anangpal Tomar and then Chauhan during the rule of Prithviraj Chauhan who built the Baradari) Rajput rulers, before falling into the hands of Delhi Sultanates, Mughal Empire, Maratha Empire, Shekhawati and British Raj.

During British rule[edit]

During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, Hindu Shekhawat rajput officials of British Raj based at Tosham killed the Bhati and Ranghar Muslim Rajputs of Jamalpur and Mangali. These Hindu thakurs (Shekhawat) were granted the Thikana of Tosham as a Pargana under Shekhawati in 1870 by the British raj and Maharaja Mukund Singh for their services.

Tosham Shekhavati Thikana[edit]

Rao Shekha, a Shekhawat rajput (sub-branch of Kachwaha or Kushwaha), was the founder of Shekhawati, who originally divided Shekhawati into 33 Thikana (also called a Pargana), each styled as Thakur with at least a 'kuccha' mud fort, some of which were fortified further with stone. After him, additional thikanas were granted to the descendants of subsequent generations.[1][2]

  • Tosham Thikana, It was granted as a thikana by Shekhawati ruler Maharaja Mukund Singh in 1870 to Kunwar Abhaya Singh, the son of Maharaja Raj Singh II. Around 1755, Rajputs of this area and all of central and south Haryana came under the Maratha Empire under Maharaja Khande Rao Holkar of Indore when he attacked the independent Mughal chieftain Ismail Beg, Ismail Beg escaped to Madhogarh and established a post near Madhogarh fort, captured Ismail Beg at kanud, imprisoned him at Agra Fort and put him to death on 1794. Maratha Maharaj Mahadaji Shinde (Scindia) of Gwalior had conquered Rania, Fatehabad and Sirsa from Bhatti Rajput Muslims. Haryana came under Maratha Empire. Mahad ji divided Haryana in four territories: Delhi (Mughal emperor Shah Alam II, his family and areas surrounding Delhi), Panipat (Kernal, Sonepat, Kurukshetra and Ambala), Hisar (Hisar, Sirsa, Fatehabad, parts of Rohtak), Mewat (Gurugaon, Rewari, Narnaul, Mahendragarh). Daulat Rao Scindia ceded Haryana on 30 December 1803 under the Treaty of Surji-Anjangaon to British East India Company's Company rule in India.[3] Thakurs (rulers) of Tosham were:
    • Kunwar Abhaya Singh (1870-1896)
    • Rajkumar Dalpat Singh (1896-1918)
    • Rajkumar Todarmal Singh (1918-1944)
    • Rajkumar Narendra Singh (1944-1950)
    • Rajkumar Surendra Singh (1950-1975)
    • Shri Sahib Naresh Singh (1975-1977)
    • Sri Sahib Jayaish Singh (1977-Present)
    • Sahib Kunwar Tejraj Singh

Post-independence[edit]

According to the data maintained by the Government of India's Department of Statistics, following were established at Toshsm:[4]

Demographics[edit]

As of 2001 India census,[5] Tosham had a population of 11,271. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Tosham has an average literacy rate of 64%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 72%, and female literacy is 54%. In Tosham, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Education[edit]

  • Adarsh School, Tosham
  • Agarsain school, Tosham
  • Arohi school, Tosham
  • Banwari Lal Jindal Suiwala College, Tosham
  • Captain high school, Tosham
  • Govt College for Women, Tosham
  • Government School, Tosham
  • HARTRON Computer training center, bus stand
  • Superior online awarness pvt Ltd.
  • Jindal Public School, Tosham
  • Kasturba Gandhi School, Tosham
  • P.S Navyug Schools,
  • Sangam school, Tosham and
  • New Takshila Academy, Tosham (Bhiwani)
  • Mega mind sr. Sec. School, Tosham(Bhiwani)

Attractions[edit]

Tosham rock inscription[edit]

Tosham rock inscription, dating from 4th to 5th century, is an epigraph documenting the establishment of a monastery and the building of water tanks at water cascade for followers of the Satvata (ancient Yadava kingdom)

Two interesting antiquities are to be seen in the neighbourhood of Tosham. A barahdari and another Sanskrit inscription on a rock on the face of the hill to the west of the town.[6]

The Toshām rock inscription is an epigraphic record documenting the establishment of a monastery and the building of water tanks for followers of the Sātvata religion. Found in Tosham, Haryana (India), It is not dated but can be assigned to the early fifth century CE. The inscription records the lineage and building activities of a line of Sātvata religious preceptors (ācārya) dating to the 4th and 5th centuries CE. This is an important record for the history of the Vaiṣṇava faith. The kinship and clan position of the Sātvatas is described in the article on the Yadavas.

It does not appear to have been as yet satisfactorily translated. It seems to refer to a Scythian king Tushara who appears to have conquered the Gupta Galotkacha who reigned from about A. D. 50 to A. D. 79 and is referred to in the inscription. There appears to be evidence to show that the Tosham hill was a monastery of Buddhist monks or Bhikshus. The date of the inscription is said to be A. D. 162-224.[6]

Tosham Rock Paintings[edit]

In 2013, rock paintings (supposedly circa 5th century CE) at the site of Tosham rock inscription were discovered. These rock painting included several figures, such as a royal family, a saint, dinosaur, etc.[7]

Tosham Temple Complex[edit]

Panch Teerth Temple[edit]

The temple is on the Tosham Hill.

Baba Mungipa Mandir[edit]

Baba Mungipa Mandir (temple) at nearby Khanak village is a very famous temple of the Tosham area. Temple has great following and people visiting this temple believe that wishes will be fulfilled by the Baba. The temple is a Samadhi of Mungipa. Sodha Mungipa laid himself in the samadhi as he believed that he killed the cow during meditation.

Tourists can reach this site from the eastern side by climbing up to the Tosham hill. Moreover, tourists can see the domed structure where a large amount of food grains and oils are offered. Visitors can also explore the water pool in a cavern and a Shiva temple that lies in proximity. The Baba Mungipa temple is situated on the Tusham Hill,Tosham and not at nearby Khanak village

Sacred Ponds of Tosham Hill[edit]

There are several holy ponds on Tosham Hill inside the caves, namely Pandu Teerth Kund, Surya Kund, Kukkar Kund, Gyarasia/Vyas Kund and a reservoir or a small tank on the summit of the hill to store rain water. Water in these kunds (ponds) in various caverns contain sulfur which is considered sacred by the devotees and pilgrimages as it heals skin diseases.

Pandu Tirath, Tosham[edit]

There are several sacred kunds or reservoirs on the hill; one of them, the Pandu Tirath, is considered so sacred that some of the neighbouring villages deposit the ashes of their dead in it instead of taking them to the Ganges.

Surya Kund, Tosham[edit]

The Surya Kund is one of many kunds (pond) found in caverns of Tosham hill. It is considered sacred.

Kukkar Kund, Tosham[edit]

The Kukkar Kund is one of many kunds (pond) found in caverns of Tosham hill. It is considered sacred.

Gyarasia Kund, Tosham[edit]

The Gyarasia Kund (Vyas Kund) is one of many kunds (pond) found in caverns of Tosham hill. It is considered sacred.

Tosham Hill Fort[edit]

There are also remains of a fort wall in the ruined condition present on top of the Tosham hill.

Prithvi Raj Ki Katchery[edit]

Prithvi Raj Ki Katchery is a Baradari on a small 80 meter Baradari hill in the north west corner or Tosham town. According to the folklore it is said to be built by the 12th century Rajput king Prithviraj Chauhan whose rule had covered Tosham. He had regional setup administration at Asigarh Fort (present day Hansi). The Baradari has 12 doors, 3 on each sides. According to the folklore, it is where Rajput king Prithviraj Chauhan use to preside over the court proceedings to pass judgement.

Tosham lake[edit]

Tosham lake is a wetland area near new bus stand with a landscaped park. Many people's enjoy in this lake and this lake is another name is "JHEELH". They have many birds and animals. It found near Govt. girls college of Tosham. Many people's enjoy morning walk in this park and lake. This is timepasing nd fully entertainment lake.

Ch. Surender Singh Memorial Herbal Park, Tosham[edit]

Ch. Surender Singh Memorial Herbal Park, Tosham is a herbal park set up to preserve and propagate the endangered herbs. It also aims to educate people and farmers in commercial cultivation of these herbs to engage in profitable pursuits.

Civil Court Tosham[edit]

Civil Court was established on 18/04/2017 at Tosham near BDPO office. First judicial officer was Sh. Sunil Dewan ACJ Cum SDJM, Tosham and secondly Sh. Saurabh Gupta is presently seating Judge at Civil Court Tosham. Sh Parbhu Ram was the first president of Advocate, Bar Association Tosham and Sh. Dharambir Singh Siwach was the first elected Secretary of Bar Association Tosham. Now Sh. Jitender Singh Chahal is the president of Advocates, Bar Association Tosham and Sh. Sanjay Baganwala is presently secretary of Bar Association Tosham, elected on 22/12/2016.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Loharu State The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 16, p. 169.
  2. ^ The State of Loharu Indian States: A Biographical, Historical, and Administrative Survey, by Somerset Playne, R. V. Solomon, J. W. Bond, Arnold Wright. Asian Educational Services, 2006. ISBN 81-206-1965-X.Page 691.
  3. ^ "Gazetteer of Mahandragarh 1988" (PDF). Haryana Revenue Department. Retrieved 12 Nov 2014. 
  4. ^ Establishment details and start dated, page 30, 37, 38, 49, 51
  5. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  6. ^ a b "Loharu State" (PDF). Punjab State Gazetteers. 1915. Retrieved 10 January 2015.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  7. ^ Rare rock painting of dinosaur discovered from Tosham Hills in state- by Sushil Manav, Tribune News Service, dated: 02 July 2013