Tottenham

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Tottenham
Tottenham,Bruce Castle, Tower.jpg
Grade I listed tower near Bruce Castle
Tottenham is located in Greater London
Tottenham
Tottenham
Tottenham shown within Greater London
Population129,237 (2011 census)[1]
OS grid referenceTQ344914
• Charing Cross8.2 mi (13.2 km) SSW
London borough
Ceremonial countyGreater London
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townLONDON
Postcode districtN15, N17
Dialling code020
PoliceMetropolitan
FireLondon
AmbulanceLondon
EU ParliamentLondon
UK Parliament
London Assembly
List of places
UK
England
London
51°36′18″N 0°03′29″W / 51.605°N 0.058°W / 51.605; -0.058Coordinates: 51°36′18″N 0°03′29″W / 51.605°N 0.058°W / 51.605; -0.058

Tottenham (/ˈtɒtənəm/)[2][3] is a district of north London, England, in the London Borough of Haringey. It is 8.2 miles (13.2 km) north-north-east of Charing Cross.

History[edit]

Toponymy[edit]

Tottenham is believed to have been named after Tota, a farmer, whose hamlet was mentioned in the Domesday Book. 'Tota's hamlet', it is thought, developed into 'Tottenham'. The settlement was recorded in the Domesday Book as Toteham.[4] It is not related to Tottenham Court Road in Central London, though the two names share a similar-sounding root.[5]

Early history[edit]

Dorset Map of Tottenham, 1619

There has been a settlement at Tottenham for over a thousand years. It grew up along the old Roman road, Ermine Street (some of which is part of the present A10 road), and between High Cross and Tottenham Hale, the present Monument Way.

When the Domesday Book was compiled in 1086, about 70 families lived within the area of the manor, mostly labourers working for the Lord of the Manor. A humorous poem entitled the Tournament of Tottenham, written around 1400, describes a mock-battle between peasants vying for the reeve's daughter.

In 1894, Tottenham was made an urban district and on 27 September 1934 it became a municipal borough. As from 1 April 1965, the municipal borough formed part of the London Borough of Haringey together with Hornsey and Wood Green.

The River Lea (or Lee) was the eastern boundary between the Municipal Boroughs of Tottenham and Walthamstow. It is the ancient boundary between Middlesex and Essex and also formed the western boundary of the Viking controlled Danelaw. Today it is the boundary between the London Boroughs of Haringey and Waltham Forest. A major tributary of the Lea, the River Moselle, also crosses the borough from west to east, and often caused serious flooding until it was mostly covered in the 19th century.

From the Tudor period onwards, Tottenham became a popular recreation and leisure destination for wealthy Londoners. Henry VIII is known to have visited Bruce Castle and also hunted in Tottenham Wood. A rural Tottenham also featured in Izaak Walton's book The Compleat Angler, published in 1653.[6] The area became noted for its large Quaker population[7] and its schools (including Rowland Hill's at Bruce Castle.[8]) Tottenham remained a semi-rural and upper middle class area until the 1870s.

Modern era[edit]

In late 1870, the Great Eastern Railway introduced special workman's trains and fares on its newly opened Enfield and Walthamstow branch lines. Tottenham's low-lying fields and market gardens were then rapidly transformed into cheap housing for the lower middle and working classes, who were able to commute cheaply to inner London. The workman's fare policy stimulated the relatively early development of the area into a London suburb.

An incident occurred on 23 January 1909, which was at the time known as the Tottenham Outrage.[9] Two armed robbers of Russian extraction held up the wages clerk of a rubber works in Chesnut Road. They made their getaway via Tottenham Marshes and fled across the Lea. On the opposite bank of the river they hijacked a Walthamstow Corporation tramcar, hotly pursued by the police on another tram. The hijacked tram was stopped but the robbers continued their flight on foot. After firing their weapons and killing two people, Ralph Joscelyne, aged 10, and PC William Tyler, they were eventually cornered by the police and shot themselves rather than be captured. Fourteen other people were wounded during the chase. The incident later became the subject of a silent film.[10]

During the Second World War Tottenham was one of the many targets of the German air offensive against Britain. Bombs fell in the borough (Elmar Road) during the first air raid on London on 24 August 1940. The borough also received V-1 (four incidents) and V-2 hits, the last of which occurred on 15 March 1945. Wartime shortages led to the creation of Tottenham Pudding, a mixture of household waste food which was converted into feeding stuffs for pigs and poultry. The "pudding" was named by Queen Mary on a visit to Tottenham Refuse Works. Production continued into the post-war period, its demise coinciding with the merging of the borough into the new London Borough of Haringey.

Broadwater Farm, the scene of rioting in 1985

Riots[edit]

  • The Broadwater Farm riot occurred around the Broadwater Farm Estate on 6 October 1985 following the death of Cynthia Jarrett. Jarrett was a resident of Tottenham who lived about a mile from the estate, who died of heart failure during a police search of her home. The tension between local black youths and the largely white Metropolitan Police had been high due to a combination of local issues and the aftermath of riots in Brixton which had occurred in the previous week. The response of some of the black community in Tottenham and surrounding areas culminated in a riot beginning on Tottenham High Road and ending in Broadwater Farm Estate. One police officer, Keith Blakelock, was murdered; 58 policemen and 24 other people were injured in the fighting. Two of the policemen were injured by gunshots during the riot, the first time that firearms had been used in that type of confrontation. [11]
The former Bruce Grove Post Office was destroyed during the 2011 Tottenham riots
  • The 2011 Tottenham riots were a series of riots precipitated by the fatal shooting of Mark Duggan, a 29-year-old man in Tottenham, by officers of the Metropolitan Police Service on 4 August 2011.[12][13][14][15][clarification needed] Attacks were carried out on two police cars, a bus, a Post Office and several local shops from 8:00pm onwards on 6 August 2011. Riot police vans attended the scene of disturbances on Tottenham High Road. Later in the evening the riot spread, with an Aldi supermarket and a branch of Allied Carpets also destroyed by fire, and widespread looting in nearby Wood Green shopping centre and the retail park at Tottenham Hale. Several flats above shops on Tottenham High Road collapsed due to the fires. 26 shared ownership flats in the Union Point development above the Carpetright store – built in the landmark Cooperative department store building – were also completely destroyed by fire. The triggering event was when a group of over one hundred local Tottenham residents set out to undertake a protest march against the killing of Mark Duggan, who was shot by police officers assigned to Operation Trident earlier in the week. The circumstances surrounding Duggan's death were not entirely clear at the time of the riot. On 17 August 2011, the Prince of Wales and his wife Duchess of Cornwall visited an emergency centre to meet victims of the riots.[16]

Railway history[edit]

Governance[edit]

Parliament[edit]

Tottenham the biggest part of the parliamentary constituency of Tottenham. The constituency was created in 1885 when the first MP was Joseph Howard of the Conservative Party. The boundaries were redrawn in 1918, and Tottenham was divided into two separate constituencies: Tottenham North and Tottenham South. Since being reinstated in 1950, it has been predominantly represented by MPs from the Labour Party, with the exception of Alan Brown who defected to the Conservatives due to disagreement with the Labour Party's defence policy at the time. The current MP is David Lammy who won a by-election in 2000 following the death of Bernie Grant.

Local government[edit]

Tottenham was at the centre of a local administrative area from the medieval period until 1965. The administrative area developed from a parish in Middlesex into an Urban sanitary district in 1875, after a local board of health had been established in 1850. It was then divided in 1888 and Wood Green became a separate authority.[17] In 1894, Tottenham was reconstituted first as an urban district then as a municipal borough in 1934.[18] Under the Local Government Act 1963, it became part of the larger London Borough of Haringey. The Tottenham neighbourhood is now one of twenty neighbourhoods in Haringey.

Geography[edit]

Sub-districts[edit]

Because of Tottenham's long history as borough, the Tottenham name is used by some to this day to describe the whole of the area formerly covered by the old borough, incorporating the N17 postcode area and part of N15. However, there are differing views as to what constitutes the Tottenham neighbourhood in the present day. Many think of Tottenham today as most of the area covered by the N17 post code, sometimes using the phrase 'Tottenham Proper' to describe it and to distinguish it from the other parts of the old borough.[19]

Neighbouring areas[edit]

Demography[edit]

A claim made by MP David Lammy in 2011, indicated that at that time Tottenham had the highest unemployment rate in London and the eighth highest in the United Kingdom, and it had some of the highest poverty rates within the country.[20]

Ethnic composition[edit]

Tottenham has a multicultural population, with many ethnic groups inhabiting the area. It contains one of the largest and most significant populations of African-Caribbean people. These were among the earliest groups of immigrants to settle in the area, starting from the UK's Windrush era. Soon afterwards, West African communities – notably the many Ghanaians – began to move into the area. Between 1980 and the present day, there has been a slow immigration of Colombians, Congolese, Albanian, Kurdish, Turkish and Greek-Cypriot, Turkish, Somali, Irish, Portuguese, Polish, Vietnamese, Filipinos and Zimbabweans populations.[citation needed] There have been major tensions between the African-Caribbean community and the police since (and before) the 1985 Broadwater Farm riot[citation needed].

In the 2011 UK Census, the ethnic composition of the Tottenham constituency, of which Tottenham is a large part, was as follows[21]:

  • 22.3% White British
  • 27.7% Other White
  • 10.7% Asian
  • 26.7% Black
  • 12.6% Other/Mixed

Crime[edit]

Tottenham has been one of the main hotspots for gangs and gun crime in the United Kingdom during the past three decades. This followed the rise of gangs and drug wars throughout the area, notably those involving the Tottenham Mandem gang and various gangs from Hackney and all of the areas surrounding Tottenham, and the emergence of an organised crime ring known as the Turkish mafia was said to have controlled more than 90% of the UK's heroin market.[22]

In 1999, Tottenham was identified as one of the yardies' strongholds in London, along with Hackney, Harlesden, Peckham and Brixton.[23]

Landmarks[edit]

Bruce Castle, the old Tottenham manor house, now a museum (November 2005)
Centre-piece of Northumberland Row (May 2013)
  • Northumberland Row – Erected circa 1740 on the site of the former Smithson seat, previously that of the Hynningham family. The gate piers are possibly from Bruce Castle. The wrought iron gate bears the monogram HS for one of the two Hugh Smithsons, both Tottenham landowners and sometime MPs for Middlesex.
  • Clyde Circus conservation area
  • Downhills Park
  • Edmanson’s Close – Previously known as the Almshouses of the Drapers' Company, they were built in 1870 and were established through the generosity of three seventeenth-century benefactors, Sir John Jolles, John Pemel and John Edmanson.
  • Lordship Recreation Ground
The towers of the Broadwater Farm Estate dominate the western part of Tottenham

Transport[edit]

Rail and underground[edit]

The Victoria line has two stations in the area, one at Seven Sisters and the other at Tottenham Hale.[27] The line also has its operating depot in the area at Northumberland Park.[27]

London Overground services on the Lea Valley (Enfield Town & Cheshunt Branch) call at Seven Sisters, Bruce Grove and White Hart Lane. London Overground trains on the Gospel Oak to Barking line serve South Tottenham station.[28]

National rail services on the main Lea Valley Line (West Anglia Main Line), call at Tottenham Hale and Northumberland Park, with services provided by Greater Anglia. The Stansted Express serves Tottenham Hale.

Should the Crossrail 2 scheme be approved, Tottenham Hale and Northumberland Park will also be served by Crossrail services.

Buses[edit]

Tottenham is well served by many bus routes. They include Routes 41, 76, 123, 149, 192, 230, 243, 259, 279, 318, 341, 349, 476 and W4[29]

Sport[edit]

White Hart Lane prior to its demolition in 2017

Tottenham is the home of Premier League football club Tottenham Hotspur. From 1899 until 2017, the club's home ground was White Hart Lane. In 2017, White Hart Lane ground closed and demolition commenced to make way for a new stadium on the same site, to open in September 2018. For the 2017-18 season, the club played their home games at Wembley.

Tottenham also has a non-League football club, Haringey Borough F.C. who currently play at Coles Park Stadium. Semi-professional football club Hashtag United F.C. currently play at Coles Park.

Namesakes[edit]

Tottenham cake

Tottenham cake is a sponge cake baked in large metal trays, covered either in pink icing or jam (and occasionally decorated with shredded desiccated coconut). Tottenham Cake "was originally sold by the baker Henry Chalkley, who was a Friend (or Quaker), at the price of one old penny, with smaller mis-shaped pieces sold for half an old penny." The pink colouring was derived from mulberries found growing at the Tottenham Friends burial ground.[30] Originally "a peculiar local invention"[31] of north London, the cake is now mass-produced by the Percy Ingle chain of bakers.

Notable residents[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Local statistics: Office for National Statistics". neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk.
  2. ^ Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 9781405881180
  3. ^ Roach, Peter (2011), Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521152532
  4. ^ "DocumentsOnline | Image Details". The National Archives. Retrieved 10 December 2009.
  5. ^ Mills, A.D. (2010). A Dictionary of London Place-Names. Oxford University Press. p. 248. ISBN 978-0-199-56678-5.
  6. ^ "The Complete Angler by Isaak Walton – Free eBook". Manybooks.net. Retrieved 10 December 2009.
  7. ^ "Tottenham Quaker Meeting (Religious Society of Friends)". Tottenhamquakers.org.uk. Retrieved 10 December 2009.
  8. ^ "E.Howard, ''Eliot Papers'', 1895". Archive.org. Retrieved 10 December 2009.
  9. ^ The Tottenham Outrage. Retrieved 2 February 2008.
  10. ^ Tottenham outrage- silent film. Retrieved 10 November 2008.
  11. ^ Newman, K. ["Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2011. Police-Public Relations: The Pace of Change: Police Foundation Lecture 1986, The Police Foundation, 1986
  12. ^ Lewis, Paul (7 August 2011). "Tottenham riots: a peaceful protest, then suddenly all hell broke loose". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
  13. ^ "Tottenham in flames as protesters riot". The Guardian. London. 6 August 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2011.
  14. ^ "Tension builds in Enfield Town as small groups arrive in area". Enfield Independent. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
  15. ^ Bracchi, Paul (8 August 2011). "Violence, drugs, a fatal stabbing and a most unlikely martyr". Daily Mail. London: Associated Newspapers. Archived from the original on 9 August 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
  16. ^ News report Retrieved 22 August 2011
  17. ^ Great Britain Historical GIS / University of Portsmouth, Tottenham parish (historic map). Retrieved 10 February 2008.
  18. ^ See Municipal Borough of Tottenham article.
  19. ^ One such example is given on the Tottenham entry on the Postcodes Walks website
  20. ^ David Lammie. "Response to the Comprehensive Spending Review". Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
  21. ^ "UK Polling Report". ukpollingreport.co.uk.
  22. ^ Tony Thompson (17 November 2002). "Heroin 'emperor' brings terror to UK streets". The Guardian. London.
  23. ^ "Police tackle London's Yardies". BBC News.
  24. ^ [1] Archived 8 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  25. ^ "Brook Street Chapel". Brook Street Chapel. 31 October 2009. Retrieved 10 December 2009.
  26. ^ "Bruce Castle Museum". Haringey.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 24 April 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2009.
  27. ^ a b Transport for London (August 2018). Standard Tube Map (PDF) (Map). Not to scale. Transport for London. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 November 2018.
  28. ^ Transport for London (May 2018). London Overground Map (PDF) (Map). Not to scale. Transport for London. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 November 2018.
  29. ^ National Rail Tottenham Bus Map
  30. ^ Ferris, Ken; Lane, Wyart. "Frequently Asked Questions about the Spurs" (HTTP). The 'My Eyes Have Seen the Glory' website. Retrieved 22 September 2009.
  31. ^ "Dressed in Simplicity: 300 years of Quakers in Tottenham". Retrieved 30 January 2014.

External links[edit]