Tottenham Hotspur F.C.
|Full name||Tottenham Hotspur Football Club|
|Nickname(s)||Spurs, The Lilywhites|
|Founded||5 September 1882, as Hotspur F.C.|
|Ground||White Hart Lane,
Tottenham, Haringey, London
|Owner||ENIC International Ltd.|
|2015–16||Premier League, 3rd|
|Website||Club home page|
Tottenham Hotspur Football Club //, commonly referred to as Spurs, is an English football club located in Tottenham, Haringey, London, that competes in the Premier League. The club's home stadium is White Hart Lane. Their newly developed training ground is in Bulls Cross on the northern borders of the London Borough of Enfield.
Founded in 1882, Tottenham won the FA Cup for the first time in 1901, making them the only non-League club to do so since the formation of the Football League in 1888. Tottenham were the first club in the 20th century to achieve the League and FA Cup Double, winning both competitions in the 1960–61 season. After successfully defending the FA Cup in 1962, in 1963 they became the first British club to win a UEFA club competition – the European Cup Winners' Cup. In 1967, Spurs won the FA Cup for a third time in the 1960s. In the 1970s Tottenham won the League Cup on two occasions and were the inaugural winner of the UEFA Cup in 1972, becoming the first British club to win two different major European trophies. In the 1980s Spurs won several trophies: the FA Cup twice, FA Community Shield and the UEFA Cup in 1984. In the 1990s the club won the FA Cup and the League Cup. When they won the League Cup once more in 2008, it meant that they had won a major trophy in each of the last six decades – an achievement only matched by Manchester United.
The club's Latin motto is Audere est Facere (lit: "To Dare Is to Do"), and its emblem is a cockerel standing upon a football. The club has a long-standing rivalry with nearby neighbours Arsenal, with head-to-head fixtures known as the North London derby.
- 1 History
- 2 Stadium
- 3 Crest
- 4 Kit
- 5 Ownership
- 6 Support
- 7 Social responsibility
- 8 Tottenham Hotspur ladies
- 9 Honours
- 10 Statistics and records
- 11 Players
- 12 Club management and support staff
- 13 Club directors
- 14 Managers and players
- 15 Player of the Year
- 16 Affiliated clubs
- 17 See also
- 18 References
- 19 Further reading
- 20 External links
The club was formed in 1882, as Hotspur F.C., and played in the Southern League from 1896 until 1908, when they were elected into the Football League Second Division. Before this promotion Tottenham had won the FA Cup in 1901, making them the only non-League club to (or likely to) do so since the formation of the Football League.
Since then, Tottenham have won the FA Cup a further seven times, the Football League twice, the Football League Cup four times, the UEFA Cup twice and also the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup. The Cup Winners' Cup victory in 1963 made Tottenham the first English team to win a UEFA competition. In 1960–61 they became the first team to complete The Double in the 20th century.
Tottenham played their first matches at Tottenham Marshes on the available public pitches and remained there for six years. It was at this ground that Spurs first played archrivals Arsenal (then known as Royal Arsenal), leading 2–1 until the match got called off due to poor light after the away team arrived late. There were occasions on which fights would break out on the marshes in dispute of the teams that were allowed to use the best pitches. Crowd sizes were regularly increasing and a new site was becoming needed to accommodate these supporters.
In 1898 the club moved from the marshes to Northumberland Park and charged an admission fee of 3d (£0.0125). They only remained at this ground for a year as in April 1899, 14,000 fans turned up to watch Spurs play Woolwich Arsenal. The ground was no longer able to cope with the larger crowds and Spurs were forced to move to a new larger site 100 yards down the road, to the current ground.
The White Hart Lane ground was originally a disused nursery owned by the brewery Charringtons and located behind a public house on Tottenham High Road (the actual White Hart Lane road lies a few hundred yards north of the main entrance). The landlord spotted the increased income he could enjoy if Tottenham played their matches behind his pub and in 1899 the club moved in. They brought with them the stand they used at Northumberland Park which gave shelter to 2,500 fans. Notts County were the first visitors to 'the Lane' in a friendly watched by 5,000 people and provided in £115 in receipts; Spurs won 4–1. QPR became the first competitive visitors to the ground and 11,000 people saw them lose 1–0 to Tottenham.
In 1905 Tottenham raised enough money to buy the freehold to the land and became permanent owners of the ground. As the club grew new stands were added. A new main stand was added in 1909, the East stand was also covered this year and extended further two years later. The profits from the 1921 FA Cup win were used to build a covered terrace at the Paxton Road end and the Park Lane end was built at a cost of over £3,000 some two years later. This increased the ground's capacity to around 58,000 with room for 40,000 under cover. The East Stand (Worcester Avenue) stand was finished in 1934 and this increased capacity to around 80,000 spectators but cost £60,000.
The pitch was thoroughly renovated in 1952. This uncovered a number of items from the old nursery on the site and one year later the first floodlights were introduced. The floodlights were upgraded in 1957 which required the cockerel to be moved from the West Stand to the East and then in 1961 floodlight pylons were installed.
The West Stand was replaced by an expensive (and way behind schedule) new structure. Various developments and upgrades were implemented over the years. In 1992, following the Taylor Report's recommendation that Premier League clubs eliminate standing areas, the lower terraces of the south and east stand were converted to seating, with the north stand becoming all-seater the following season. The south stand redevelopment was completed in March 1995 and included the first giant Sony Jumbotron TV screen for live game coverage and away match screenings. With this, the capacity of the stadium increased to just over 33,000. In 1997/98 season the Paxton Road stand had a new upper tier added which included the second Jumbotron screen and increased capacity to 36,240 and was funded by a rights issue in 1996.
Minor amendments to the seating configuration were made in 2006 bringing the current capacity of the stadium to 36,310.
As an initial consideration Spurs were reported to have considered the possibility of the post-games use of the 2012 London Olympic Stadium. But as this proposal would involve a move out of the immediate Tottenham area and because ongoing users were reportedly required to retain the stadium's running track, Spurs dropped the plan in October 2006.
But, on 1 October 2010 Tottenham Hotspur's chairman Daniel Levy advised that the club had registered an interest in bidding for the stadium in conjunction with AEG (Europe) to keep its options open while there remained uncertainties about the success of the Northumberland Development Project.
On 12 November 2010 the Olympic Park Legacy Company (OPLC) announced that the Tottenham Hotspur / AEG consortium had been shortlisted as one of the two preferred bidders to take over the Olympic Stadium after the 2012 Olympics. Then the OPLC announced on 11 February 2011 that West Ham had been selected as the preferred bidder for the Olympic Stadium, subject to final governmental ratification.
Northumberland Development Project
In 2007 the club stated they were considering options to increase stadium capacity by redevelopment of the current site or a move to a new site. Tottenham Hotspur advised in its 2007/8 Interim Financial Statement that the preferred option would be announced in the first half of 2008, but delayed this decision until the autumn.
In October 2008, the club announced that, if approved, they were planning to build a new stadium just to the north of the existing White Hart Lane stadium, with the southern half of the new stadium's pitch located on the northwest corner of the Lane. The unique design of the build would allow the new stadium to be built adjacent to White Hart Lane as the old facility continued to be used. The plan was that during the summer close season when two-thirds of the new stadium was complete, the northern and western stands would be demolished and a new pitch laid. The rest of the stadium would be built in the years to follow.
The club submitted a planning application in October 2009. But in May 2010, following adverse reaction, this was withdrawn in favour of a substantially revised planning application. Haringey Council were requested in September 2010 to grant permission for a larger stadium and other associated developments (subject to negotiation of 'section 106' developer contributions). The Mayor of London gave his approval to the plans to redevelop the stadium on 25 November 2010. On 20 September 2011, planning permission was granted.
The opening date for the new stadium has been rescheduled on multiple occasions but is currently being aimed for use for the start of the 2018/19 season.
On 25 February 2016, Boris Johnson continued his support for the Northumberland Development Project by granting Tottenham permission to build a new £400 million stadium. The Mayor of London showed support for the project and said the new stadium will create new jobs and boost growth of the area.
Since the 1921 FA Cup final the Tottenham Hotspur crest has featured a cockerel. Harry Hotspur (from whom the club is said to have taken its name) wore riding spurs and his fighting cocks were fitted with spurs which can be seen in the crests. In 1909 a former player named William James Scott made a bronze cast of a cockerel standing on a football to be placed on top of the West Stand and since then the cockerel and ball have been the major part of the club's identity.
Between 1956 and 2006 Spurs used a faux heraldic shield featuring a number of local landmarks and associations. The lions flanking the shield came from the Northumberland family (of which Harry Hotspur was a member). The castle is Bruce Castle, 400 yards from the ground and the trees are the Seven Sisters. The arms featured the Latin motto Audere Est Facere (to dare is to do).
In 1983, to overcome unauthorised "pirate" merchandising, the club's badge was altered by adding the two red heraldic lions and the motto scroll. This device appeared on most Spurs' playing kits for the next 23 years.
In 2006 to rebrand and modernise the club's image, the club badge and coat of arms were dumped for a professionally designed logo/emblem. This revamp showed a leaner, fitter cockerel on an old-time football. The club claims that the rebranding kept much of the original meaning of the name, but emphasised its originality.
The first Tottenham kit was navy blue shirt and shorts, but after the first season the club did not have one specific design for many years. In 1884 the club changed to a "quartered" kit similar in style to that of Blackburn Rovers. Shortly after moving to Northumberland Road, the kit changed again to red shirt and blue shorts. Five years later, after becoming a professional club, they switched to a chocolate and gold striped kit.
At the end of the 19th century the club switched colours yet again, to the white shirts and blue shorts which they are now well known for wearing, hence the nickname "Lilywhites". This colour choice is thought to be in homage to Preston North End who had recently done The Double. White and navy blue have remained as the club's basic colours ever since. Soon after the First World War, the cockerel badge was added to the shirt. In 1939 numbers first appeared on shirt backs, and in 1983 Holsten became the first commercial sponsor logo to appear on the shirt. The club were the first to wear long-cut shorts, an innovation at a time where football kits all featured shorts cut well above the knee.
When Thomson was chosen as kit sponsor in 2002 some Tottenham fans were unhappy as the shirt-front logo was red, the colour of their closest rivals, Arsenal. In 2006, Tottenham then succeeded in securing a record £34 million sponsorship deal with internet casino group Mansion.com.
In July 2010 Spurs announced a two-year shirt sponsorship contract with software infrastructure company Autonomy. It was said to be worth £20 million. A month later they unveiled a deal with leading specialist bank and asset management firm Investec as shirt sponsor for the Champions League and domestic cup competitions for the next two years. The deal was worth £5 million.
In March 2011, Under Armour announced a five-year deal to supply Spurs with shirts and other apparel from the start of 2012–13, but other deal terms were undisclosed. The kit was revealed on 12 July in London and two weeks later the third kit was revealed via the promotion of Electronic Arts' FIFA 13 video game.
Kit suppliers and shirt sponsors
|Period||Kit manufacturer||Kit sponsor|
|1980–83||Le Coq Sportif|
|2006–10||Puma||Mansion.com Casino & Poker|
2 Aurasma is a subsidiary of the Autonomy Corporation.
Between 2001 and 2011 shares in Tottenham Hotspur F.C. were listed on the Alternative Investment Market (AIM index). The majority shareholder was ENIC International Ltd, an investment company established by the British billionaire Joe Lewis. Daniel Levy, Lewis's partner at ENIC, is Executive Chairman of the club. Shareholding by ENIC was increased over this period through the purchase of the remaining 14.7% holding of former chairman Alan Sugar and, in 2009, the 9.9% stake belonging to Stelios Haji-Ioannou through Hodram Inc. On 21 August 2009 the club reported that they had issued a further 30 million shares to fund the initial development costs of the new stadium project, and that 27.8 million of these new shares had been purchased by ENIC. The Annual Report for 2010 indicated that ENIC had acquired 76% of all Ordinary Shares and also held 97% of all convertible redeemable preference shares, equivalent to a holding of 85% of share capital. Following an announcement at the 2011 AGM, in January 2012 the club confirmed that they had been transferred into the private ownership of ENIC. In April 2014 the Club reported net profits of £1.5m for the financial year ending June 2013.
Tottenham have a large fanbase in the United Kingdom, drawn largely from north London and the Home counties. Five times between 1946 and 1969, Tottenham had the highest average attendance in England. There are also Tottenham supporters' clubs located all over the world. Tottenham were 9th in average attendances for the 2008–09 Premier League season, and 11th for all Premier League seasons. Historical supporters of the club have included such figures as A.J. Ayer. Tottenham supporters have rivalries with several clubs, mainly within the London area. The fiercest of these is with north London rivals Arsenal. They also share notable rivalries with fellow London clubs Chelsea and West Ham United.
The club, as with many clubs in London, has a large Jewish following and this has led to much antisemitic provocation against Tottenham supporters. Tottenham supporters, Jewish and non-Jewish, united against this and adopted the nickname "Yids", developing chants to support this. Many fans view adopting "Yid" as a badge of pride, helping defuse its power as an insult. Today it is mainly used to distinguish Tottenham fans from other football supporters. Many fans, however, disagree with the use of the name "Yid", and believe it will only attract more racism. In April 2011, Jewish comedian, author and Chelsea supporter David Baddiel produced a short film stating that the anti-semitic chanting is as unacceptable as the abuse still suffered by black footballers, and must be stamped out accordingly.
After Spurs completed the Double in 1960–61, the club entered the European Cup for the first time. Their first opponents were Górnik Zabrze the Polish champions and after a hard-fought match Spurs suffered a 4–2 reverse. Tottenham's tough-tackling prompted the Polish press to describe them as they were no angels. These comments incensed a group of three fans and for the return match at White Hart Lane they dressed as angels wearing white sheets fashioned into togas, sandals, false beards and carrying placards bearing biblical type slogans. The angels were allowed on the perimeter of the pitch and their fervour whipped up the home fans who responded with a rendition of Glory Glory Hallelujah which is still sung on terraces at White Hart Lane and other football grounds. The Lilywhites also responded to the atmosphere to win the tie 8–1. Manager of Spurs, Bill Nicholson, wrote in his autobiography
|“||A new sound was heard in English football in the 1961–2 season. It was the hymn Glory, Glory Hallelujah being sung by 60,000 fans at White Hart Lane in our European Cup matches. I don't know how it started or who started it, but it took over the ground like a religious feeling.||”|
|— Bill Nicholson|
The club through its Community Programme has, since 2006, been working with Haringey Council and the Metropolitan Housing Trust and the local community on developing sports facilities and social programmes which have also been financially supported by Barclays Spaces for Sport and the Football Foundation. The Tottenham Hotspur Foundation received high-level political support from the prime minister when it was launched at 10 Downing Street in February 2007.
In March 2007 the Club announced a partnership with the charity SOS Children's Villages UK. Player fines will go towards this charity's children's village in Rustenburg, South Africa with the funds being used to cover the running costs as well as in support of a variety of community development projects in and around Rustenburg. In the financial year 2006–07, Tottenham topped a league of Premier League charitable donations when viewed both in overall terms and as a percentage of turnover by giving £4,545,889, including a one-off contribution of £4.5 million over four years, to set up the Tottenham Hotspur Foundation. This compared to donations of £9,763 in 2005–06.
The football club is one of the highest profile participants in the 10:10 project which encourages individuals, businesses and organisations to take action on environmental issues. They joined in 2009 in a commitment to reducing their carbon footprint. To do this they upgraded their lights to more efficient models, they turned down their heating dials and took less short-haul flights among a host of other things. After working with 10:10 for one year, they reported that they had reduced their carbon emissions by an impressive 14%.
In contrast, they have successfully sought the reduction of section 106 planning obligations connected to the redevelopment of the stadium. Initially the development would incorporate 50% affordable housing (100 out of 200), but this was reduced to 0 out of 285 when Spurs suggested that the development was not financially viable with this obligation. In addition, a payment of £16m for community infrastructure was reduced to £0.5m. This is controversial in an area which has suffered high levels of deprivation as well as long-term planning blight as Spurs bought up property for the development, leaving it empty.
Tottenham Hotspur ladies
Tottenham's ladies' team was founded in 1985 as Broxbourne Ladies. They started using the Tottenham Hotspur name for the 1991–92 season and played in the London and South East Women's Regional Football League (then fourth tier of the game). They won promotion after topping the league in 2007–08, and currently play in the FA Women's Premier League Southern Division (the third tier of the game).
- First Division/Premier League:
- Second Division/Championship:
- Winners (2): 1919–20, 1949–50
- Southern League:
- Winners (1): 1899–1900
- Western League:
- Winners (1): 1903–04
- FA Cup:
- League Cup:
- FA Charity Shield/FA Community Shield:
- UEFA Cup Winners' Cup:
- Winners (1): 1962–63
- UEFA Cup/UEFA Europa League:
- Anglo-Italian League Cup:
- Winners (1): 1971
- London League Premier Division Champions:
- Winners (1): 1902-03
- Football League South 'C' Division Champions:
- Winners (1): 1939-40
- Football League South Champions:
- Southern District Charity Cup:
- Winners (3): 1901-02, 1904–05, 1906–07
- Dewar Shield:
- Winners (3): 1901-02, 1933–34, 1934–35
- London Challenge Cup:
- Winners (8): 1910-11, 1928–29, 1936–37, 1947–48, 1958–59, 1963–64, 1970–71, 1973-74
- Costa Del Sol Tournament:
- Winners (2): 1965, 1966
- Nolia Cup:
- Winners (1): 1977
- Kirin Cup:
- Winners (1): 1979
- Sun International Challenge Trophy:
- Winners (1): 1983
- Peace Cup:
- Winners (1): 2005
- Vodacom Challenge:
- Feyenoord Jubileum Tournament:
- Winners (1): 2008
- Barclays Asia Trophy:
- Winners (1): 2009
- AIA Cup:
- Winners (1): 2015
Statistics and records
Steve Perryman holds the appearance record for Spurs, having played 854 games for the club between 1969 and 1986, of which 655 were league matches. Jimmy Greaves holds the club goal scoring record with 266 goals in 380 league, cup and European appearances.
Tottenham's record league win is 9–0 against Bristol Rovers in the Second Division on 22 October 1977. The club's record cup victory came on 3 February 1960 with a 13–2 win over Crewe Alexandra in the FA Cup. Spurs' biggest top-flight victory came against Wigan Athletic on 22 November 2009, when they won 9–1 with Jermain Defoe scoring five goals. The club's record defeat is an 8–0 loss to 1. FC Köln in the Intertoto Cup on 22 July 1995.
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Out on loan
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Reserves and academy
Club management and support staff
|Assistant head coach||Jesús Pérez|
|First team coach||Miguel D'Agostino|
|First team goalkeeping coach||Toni Jiménez|
|Head of sports science, fitness and conditioning||Nathan Gardiner|
|International technical coordinator||Steffen Freund|
|Head of recruitment and analysis||Paul Mitchell|
|Head of player identification||Rob Mackenzie|
|Executive chairman||Daniel Levy|
|Finance director||Matthew Collecott|
|non-executive director||Sir Keith Mills|
|non-executive director||Kevan Watts|
|non-executive director||Ron Robson|
Managers and players
Managers and head coaches in club's history
- Listed according to when they became managers for Tottenham Hotspur:
- (C) – Caretaker
- (FTC) – First team coach
Club hall of fame
Player of the Year
- As voted by members and season ticket holders. (Calendar year until 2005–06 season)
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- Davies, Hunter (1985). The Glory Game: A Year in the Life of Tottenham Hotspur. Mainstream. ISBN 1-85158-003-4.
- Fynn, Alex; Guest, Lynton (1991). Heroes and Villains: The Inside Story of the 1990–91 Season at Arsenal and Tottenham Hotspur. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-014769-1.
- Nathan, Guy (1994). Barcelona to Bedlam: Venables/Sugar – The True Story. New Author. ISBN 1-897780-26-5.
- Fynn, Alex; Davidson, H. (1996). Dream On: A Year in the Life of a Premier League Club. Pocket Books. ISBN 0-671-85509-3.
- Cloake, Martin; Powley, Adam (2004). We are Tottenham: Voices from White Hart Lane. Mainstream. ISBN 1-84018-831-6.
- Ratcliffe, Alison (2005). Tottenham Hotspur (Rough Guide 11s): The Top 11 of Everything Spurs. Rough Guides. ISBN 1-84353-558-0.
- Mullery, Alan; Trevillion, Paul (2005). Double Bill: The Bill Nicholson Story. Mainstream. ISBN 1-84596-002-5.
- Hale, Steve E. (2005). Mr Tottenham Hotspur: Bill Nicholson OBE – Memories of a Spurs Legend. Football World. ISBN 0-9548336-5-1.
- Scholar, Irving (1992). Behind Closed Doors: Dreams and Nightmares at Spurs. André Deutsch. ISBN 0-233-98824-6.
- Bose, Mihir (1996). False Messiah: The Life and Times of Terry Venables. André Deutsch. ISBN 0-233-98998-6.
- Allen, Clive (1987). There's Only One Clive Allen. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-213-16953-3.
- Ardiles, Osvaldo (1983). Ossie. Sidgewick & Jackson. ISBN 0-283-98872-X.
- Bowler, David (1997). Danny Blanchflower: The Biography of a Visionary. Orion. ISBN 0-575-06504-4.
- Gascoigne, Paul (2005). Gazza: My Story. Headline. ISBN 0-7472-6818-5.
- Ginola, David; Silver, Neil (2000). David Ginola: Le Manifique. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-710099-X.
- Greaves, Jimmy (2004). Greavsie: The Autobiography. Time Warner. ISBN 0-7515-3445-5.
- Hoddle, Glenn; Harris, Harry (1987). Spurred to Success: The Autobiography of Glenn Hoddle. Queen Anne. ISBN 0-356-12797-4.
- Harris, Harry (1995). Klinsmann. Headline. ISBN 0-7472-1517-0.
- Mackay, Dave; Knight, Martin (2004). The Real Mackay: The Dave Mackay Story. Mainstream. ISBN 1-84018-840-5.
- Sheringham, Teddy (1999). Teddy. Time Warner. ISBN 0-7515-2844-7.
- Stein, Mel; Waddle, Chris (1998). Chris Waddle. Pocket Books. ISBN 0-671-00495-6.
- Waring, Peter (2004). Tottenham Hotspur Head to Head. Breedon Books.
- Freeman, Malcolm (2008). Lads – The Seventies. Lulu.
- Freeman, Malcolm (2009). Lads – The Eighties. Lulu.
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