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Tottenham Hotspur F.C.

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Tottenham Hotspur F.C.
Tottenham Hotspur.svg
Full name Tottenham Hotspur Football Club
Nickname(s) Spurs, The Lilywhites
Founded 5 September 1882; 135 years ago (1882-09-05), as Hotspur F.C.
Ground Wembley Stadium
Ground Capacity 90,000
Owner ENIC International Ltd.
Chairman Daniel Levy
Manager Mauricio Pochettino
League Premier League
2017–18 Premier League, 3rd of 20
Website Club website
Current season

Tottenham Hotspur Football Club, commonly referred to simply as Tottenham (/ˈtɒtənəm/)[1][2] or Spurs, is a professional football club in Tottenham, London, England, that competes in the Premier League. The club's home ground for the 2018–19 season will be Tottenham Hotspur Stadium but the club will play their first home game of the season at Wembley Stadium. Their former home of White Hart Lane had been demolished to make way for the new stadium on the same site. Their training ground is on Hotspur Way in Bulls Cross in the London Borough of Enfield.

Founded in 1882, Tottenham won the FA Cup for the first time in 1901, the only non-League club to do so since the formation of the Football League in 1888. Tottenham were the first club in the 20th century to achieve the League and FA Cup Double, winning both competitions in the 1960–61 season. After successfully defending the FA Cup in 1962, in 1963 they became the first British club to win a UEFA club competition – the European Cup Winners' Cup.[3] They were also the inaugural winners of the UEFA Cup in 1972, becoming the first British club to win two different major European trophies. They have collected at least one major trophy in each of the six decades from the 1950s to 2000s – an achievement only matched by Manchester United.[4][5] In total, Spurs have won two league titles, eight FA Cups, four League Cups, seven FA Community Shields, one European Cup Winners' Cup and two UEFA Cups.

The club's Latin motto is Audere est Facere (lit: "To Dare Is to Do"), and its emblem is a cockerel standing upon a football. The club has a long-standing rivalry with nearby club Arsenal, with head-to-head fixtures known as the North London derby.

History

Formation and early years (1882–1908)

Spurs' first and second teams in 1885. Club president John Ripsher top row second right, team captain Jack Jull middle row fourth left, Robert Buckle bottom row second left

Originally named Hotspur Football Club, the club was formed on 5 September 1882 by a group of schoolboys led by Robert Buckle. They were members of the Hotspur Cricket Club and the football club was formed to play sports during the winter months.[6] A year later the boys sought help with the club from John Ripsher, the Bible class teacher at All Hallows Church, who became the first president of the club and its treasurer. Ripsher helped and supported the boys through the club's formative years, reorganised and found premises for the club.[7][8][9] In April 1884 the club was renamed "Tottenham Hotspur Football Club" to avoid confusion with another club, London Hotspur, whose post had been mistakenly delivered to North London.[10][11]

Initially, the boys played games between themselves and friendly matches against other local clubs. The first recorded match took place on 30 September 1882 against a local team named the Radicals, which Hotspur lost 2–0.[12] The team entered their first cup competition in the London Association Cup, and won 5–2 in their first competitive match on 17 October 1885 against a company's works team called St Albans.[13] The club's fixtures began to attract the interest of the local community and attendances at its home matches increased. In 1892, they played for the first time in a league, the short-lived Southern Alliance.[14]

Sandy Brown (unseen) scoring the third goal for Tottenham Hotspur in the 1901 FA Cup Final replay against Sheffield United

The club turned professional on 20 December 1895 and, in the summer of 1896, was admitted to Division One of the Southern League. On 2 March 1898, the club also became a limited company, the Tottenham Hotspur Football and Athletic Company.[14] Soon after, Frank Brettell became the first ever manager of Spurs, and he signed John Cameron, who took over as player-manager when Brettell left a year later. Cameron would have a significant impact on Spurs, helping the club win its first trophy, the Southern League title. The following year, on 27 April 1901, Spurs won the FA Cup by beating Sheffield United 3–1 (in a replay of the 1901 Cup final) and became the only non-League club to achieve the feat since the formation of The Football League in 1888.[15]

Early decades in the Football League (1908–1958)

In 1908, the club was elected into the Football League Second Division and won promotion to the First Division in their first season, and finished runners-up in their first year in the league. In 1912, Peter McWilliam became manager; Tottenham finished bottom of the league at the end of the 1914–15 season when football was suspended due to the First World War. Spurs were relegated to the Second Division on the resumption of league football after the war, but quickly returned to the First Division as Second Division champions of the 1919–20 season.[16]

Spurs captain Arthur Grimsdell displaying the cup to fans on Tottenham High Road after the 1921 final

On 23 April 1921, McWilliam guided Spurs to their second FA Cup win, beating Wolverhampton Wanderers 1–0 in the Cup Final. Spurs finished second to Liverpool in the league in 1922, but would finish mid-table in the next five seasons. Spurs were relegated in the 1927–28 season after McWilliam left. For most of the 1930s and 40s, Spurs languished in the Second Division, apart from a brief return to the top flight in the 1933–34 and 1934–35 seasons.[17]

Former Spurs player Arthur Rowe became manager in 1949. Rowe developed a style of play, known as "push and run", that proved to be successful in his early years as manager. He took the team back to the First Division after finishing top of the Second Division in the 1949–50 season.[18] In his second season in charge, Tottenham won their first ever top tier league championship title when they finished top of the First Division for the 1950–51 season. Rowe resigned in April 1955 due to a stress-induced illness from managing the club.[19][20] Before he left, he signed one of Spurs' most celebrated players, Danny Blanchflower, who would win the FWA Footballer of the Year twice while at Tottenham.[21]

Bill Nicholson and the glory years (1958–1974)

Danny Blanchflower with the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup trophy in 1963

Bill Nicholson took over as manager in October 1958. He would become the club's most successful manager, guiding the team to major trophy success three seasons in a row in the early 1960s: the Double in 1961, the FA Cup in 1962 and the Cup Winners' Cup in 1963.[22] Nicholson signed Dave Mackay and John White in 1959, two influential players of the Double-winning team, and Jimmy Greaves in 1961, the most prolific goal-scorer in the history of the top tier of English football.[23][24]

The 1960–61 season started with a run of 11 wins, followed by a draw and another four wins, at that time the best ever start by any club in the top flight of English football.[25] The title was won on 17 April 1961 when they beat the eventual runner-up Sheffield Wednesday at home 2–1, with three more games still to play.[26] The Double was achieved when Spurs won 2–0 against Leicester City in the final of the 1960–61 FA Cup. It was the first Double of the 20th century, and the first since Aston Villa achieved the feat in 1897.[27] The next year Spurs won their second consecutive FA Cup after beating Burnley in the 1962 FA Cup Final.[28]

On 15 May 1963, Tottenham became the first British team to win a European trophy by winning the 1962–63 European Cup Winners' Cup when they beat Atlético Madrid 5–1 in the final.[29] Spurs also became the first British team to win two different European trophies when they won the 1971–72 UEFA Cup with a rebuilt team that included Martin Chivers, Pat Jennings, and Steve Perryman.[30] They had also won the FA Cup in 1967,[31] and two League Cups (in 1971 and 1973). In total, Nicholson won eight major trophies in his 16 years at the club as manager.[22]

Burkinshaw to Venables (1974–1992)

Notable Spurs players of the early 1980s include Steve Perryman, Osvaldo Ardiles, and Glenn Hoddle

Spurs went into a period of decline after the successes of the early 1970s, and Nicholson resigned after a poor start to the 1974–75 season.[32] The team was then relegated at the end of the 1976–77 season with Keith Burkinshaw as manager. Burkinshaw quickly returned the club to the top flight, building a team that included Glenn Hoddle, as well as two Argentinians, Osvaldo Ardiles and Ricardo Villa, whose signings were particularly uncommon in the British game as foreign players in British football were rare at that time.[33] The team that Burkinshaw rebuilt went on to win the FA Cup in 1981 and 1982[34] and the UEFA Cup in 1984.[35]

The 1980s was a period of change that began with a new phase of redevelopment at White Hart Lane, as well as a change of directors. Irving Scholar took over the club and moved it in a more commercial direction, the beginning of the transformation of English football clubs into commercial enterprises.[36][37] Debt at the club would again lead to a change in the boardroom, and Terry Venables teamed up with businessman Alan Sugar in June 1991 to take control of Tottenham Hotspur plc.[38][39][40] Venables, who had become manager in 1987, signed players such as Paul Gascoigne and Gary Lineker. Under Venables, Spurs won the 1990–91 FA Cup, making them the first club to win eight FA Cups.[41]

Premier League football (1992–present)

Spurs players of the 2016–17 season, including Harry Kane, Dele Alli, Christian Eriksen and Jan Vertonghen

Tottenham was one of the five clubs that pushed for the founding of the Premier League, created with the approval of The Football Association, replacing the Football League First Division as the highest division of English football.[42] Despite a succession of managers and players such as Teddy Sheringham, Jürgen Klinsmann and David Ginola, for a long period in the Premier League until the late 2000s, Spurs finished mid-table most seasons with few trophies won. They won the League Cup in 1999 under George Graham, and again in 2008 under Juande Ramos. Performance improved under Harry Redknapp with players such as Gareth Bale and Luka Modrić, and the club finished in the top five in the early 2010s.[43][44]

In February 2001, Sugar sold his share holding in Spurs to ENIC Sports plc, run by Joe Lewis and Daniel Levy, and stepped down as chairman.[45] Lewis and Levy would eventually own 85% of the club, with Levy responsible for the running of the club.[46][47] The current manager is Mauricio Pochettino, who was appointed in May 2014.[48] Led by Harry Kane, Spurs finished second in the 2016–17 season, their highest placed league finish since the 1962–63 season.[49]

Stadia/playing grounds

Early grounds

Spurs played their early matches on public land at the Park Lane end of Tottenham Marshes, where they had to mark out and prepare their own pitch.[6] Occasionally fights broke out on the marshes in disputes with other teams over the use of the ground.[50] The first Spurs game reported by the local press took place on Tottenham Marshes on 6 October 1883 against Brownlow Rovers, which Spurs won 9–0.[51] It was at this ground that, in 1887, Spurs first played the team that would later become their arch rivals, Arsenal (then known as Royal Arsenal) leading 2–1 until the match was called off due to poor light after the away team arrived late.[52]

Northumberland Park, 28 January 1899, Spurs vs Newton Heath (later renamed Manchester United)

As they played on public parkland, the club could not charge admission fees and, while the number of spectators grew to a few thousand, it yielded no gate receipts. In 1888, the club rented a pitch at Asplins Farm, next to the railway line at Northumberland Park, at a cost of £17 per annum, where spectators were charged 3d a game, raised to 6d for cup ties.[53] The first game at the Park was played on 13 October 1888, a reserve match that yielded gate receipts of 17 shillings. The first stand with just over 100 seats and changing rooms underneath was built at the ground for the 1894–95 season at a cost of £60. However, the stand was blown down a few weeks later and had to be repaired.[54] In April 1898, 14,000 fans turned up to watch Spurs play Woolwich Arsenal. Spectators climbed on the roof of the refreshment stand for a better view of the match. The stand collapsed, causing a few injuries. As Northumberland Park could no longer cope with the larger crowds, Spurs were forced to look for a larger ground and moved to the White Hart Lane site in 1899.[55]

White Hart Lane

First game at White Hart Lane, Spurs vs Notts County for the official opening on 4 September 1899

The White Hart Lane ground was built on a disused nursery owned by the brewery Charringtons and located behind a public house named the White Hart on Tottenham High Road (White Hart Lane actually lies a few hundred yards north of the main entrance). The ground was initially leased from Charringtons, and the stands they used at Northumberland Park were moved here, giving shelter for 2,500 spectators.[56] Notts County were the first visitors to 'the Lane' in a friendly watched by 5,000 people and yielding £115 in receipts; Spurs won 4–1.[57] Queens Park Rangers became the first competitive visitors to the ground and 11,000 people saw them lose 1–0 to Tottenham. In 1905, Tottenham raised enough money to buy the freehold to the land, as well as land at the northern (Paxton Road) end.[56]

Since 1910, Tottenham have displayed a bronze cast of a cockerel made by a former player

After Spurs were admitted to the Football League, the club started to build a new stadium, with stands designed by Archibald Leitch being constructed over the next two and a half decades. The West Stand was added in 1909, the East Stand was also covered this year and extended further two years later. The profits from the 1921 FA Cup win were used to build a covered terrace at the Paxton Road end and the Park Lane end was built at a cost of over £3,000 some two years later. This increased the stadium's capacity to around 58,000, with room for 40,000 under cover. The East Stand (Worcester Avenue) was finished in 1934 and this increased capacity to around 80,000 spectators and cost £60,000.[56]

Aerial image of White Hart Lane. Redevelopment of this stadium began in early 1980s and completed in the late 1990s.

Starting in the early 1980s, the stadium underwent another major phase of redevelopment. The West Stand was replaced by an expensive new structure in 1982, and the East Stand was renovated in 1988. In 1992, following the Taylor Report's recommendation that Premier League clubs eliminate standing areas, the lower terraces of the south and east stand were converted to seating, with the North Stand becoming all-seater the following season. The South Stand redevelopment was completed in March 1995 and included the first giant Sony Jumbotron TV screen for live game coverage and away match screenings.[58] In the 1997–98 season the Paxton Road stand received a new upper tier and a second Jumbotron screen.[58] Minor amendments to the seating configuration were made in 2006, bringing the capacity of the stadium to 36,310.[56]

By the turn of the millennium, the capacity of White Hart Lane had become lower than other major Premier League clubs. Talks began over the future of the ground with a number of schemes considered, such as increasing the stadium capacity through redevelopment of the current site, or using of the 2012 London Olympic Stadium in Stratford.[59][60] Eventually the club settled on the Northumberland Development Project, whereby a new stadium would be built on a larger piece of land that incorporated the existing site. In 2016, the northeast corner of the stadium was removed to facilitate the construction of the new stadium. As this reduced the stadium capacity below that required for European games, Tottenham Hotspur played every European home game in 2016–17 at Wembley Stadium.[61] Domestic fixtures of the 2016–17 season continued to be played at the Lane, but demolition of the rest of the stadium started the day after the last game of the season,[62] and White Hart Lane was completely demolished by the end of July 2017.[63]

Tottenham Hotspur Stadium

New stadium under construction

In October 2008, the club announced a plan to build a new stadium immediately to the north of the existing White Hart Lane stadium, with the southern half of the new stadium's pitch overlapping the northern part of the Lane.[64] This proposal would become the Northumberland Development Project. The club submitted a planning application in October 2009 but, following critical reactions to the plan, it was withdrawn in favour of a substantially revised planning application for the stadium and other associated developments. The new plan was resubmitted and approved by Haringey Council in September 2010,[65] and an agreement for the Northumberland Development Project was signed 20 September 2011.[66]

After a long delay over the compulsory purchase order of local businesses located on land to the north of the stadium and a legal challenge against the order,[67][68] resolved in early 2015,[69] planning application for another new design was approved by Haringey Council on 17 December 2015.[70] Construction started in 2016,[71] and the new stadium is scheduled to open during the 2018–19 season.[72] While it is under construction, all Tottenham home games in the 2017–18 season and the first in 2018–19 would be played at Wembley Stadium.[73] The new stadium would be called Tottenham Hotspur Stadium until a naming-rights agreement is reached.[74]

Crest

Since the 1921 FA Cup final the Tottenham Hotspur crest has featured a cockerel. Harry Hotspur, after whom the club is named, was said to have been given the nickname Hotspur as he dug in his spurs to make his horse go faster as he charged in battles,[75] and he was also said to be fond of fighting cocks fitted with spurs.[50] The club used spurs as a symbol in 1900, which then evolved into a fighting cock.[75] A former player named William James Scott made a bronze cast of a cockerel standing on a football at a cost of £35, and this 9-foot 6-inch figure was then placed on top of the West Stand the end of the 1909–10 season.[75] Since then the cockerel and ball emblem has become a part of the club's identity.[76]

Between 1956 and 2006 Spurs used a faux heraldic shield featuring a number of local landmarks and associations. The lions flanking the shield came from the Northumberland family (of which Harry Hotspur was a member). The castle is Bruce Castle, 400 yards from the ground and the trees are the Seven Sisters. The arms featured the Latin motto Audere Est Facere (to dare is to do).[50]

In 1983, to overcome unauthorised "pirate" merchandising, the club's badge was altered by adding the two red heraldic lions and the motto scroll. This device appeared on most Spurs' playing kits for the next 23 years.[50]

In 2006, in order to rebrand and modernise the club's image, the club badge and coat of arms were replaced by a professionally designed logo/emblem.[77] This revamp showed to be more sleeker and elegant on an old-time football. The club claims that they dropped their club name and would be using the rebranded logo only.[78] In November 2013, Tottenham forced non-league club Fleet Spurs to change their badge because its new design was "too similar" to the Tottenham crest.[79]

Kit

The first Tottenham kit included a navy blue shirt with a letter H on a scarlet shield on the left breast. In 1884, the club changed to a "quartered" kit similar in style to that of Blackburn Rovers after watching them win in the 1884 FA Cup Final.[50] Shortly after moving to Northumberland Park, the kit changed again to red shirt and blue shorts. Five years later, after becoming a professional club, they switched to a chocolate and gold striped kit.[50]

In the 1898–99 season, their final year at Northumberland Park, the club switched colours to the white shirts and blue shorts. This colour choice was in homage to Preston North End who had recently done the Double.[80][81] White and navy blue have remained as the club's basic colours ever since, with the white shirts giving the team the nickname "The Lilywhites".[82] In 1921, after they had won the FA Cup, the cockerel badge was added to the shirt. In 1939 numbers first appeared on shirt backs. In 1991, the club was the first to wear long-cut shorts, an innovation at a time when football kits all featured shorts cut well above the knee.[50]

The early supplier of Spurs' jerseys was a local firm on Seven Sisters Road, HR Brookes.[53] In the 1920s, Bukta produced the jerseys for the club. From the mid-1930s onwards, Umbro supplied the kits for Spurs for forty years until it was replaced by Admiral in 1977, followed by Le Coq Sportif in 1980.[50]. In 1985, Spurs entered into a business partnership with Hummel, who then supplied the strips.[83] However, the attempt by Tottenham to expand the business side of the club failed, and in 1991, they returned to Umbro.[84] This was followed by Pony in 1995, Adidas in 1999, and Kappa in 2002.[50][85] In 2006, they signed a five-year deal with Puma.[86] In March 2011, Under Armour announced a five-year deal to supply Spurs with shirts and other apparel from the start of 2012–13.[87][88] The home and away kits were revealed in July 2012 in London,[89] with the third kit revealed the following month via the promotion of Electronic Arts' FIFA 13 video game.[90] The shirts incorporate technology that can monitor the players' heart rate and temperature and send the biometric data to the coaching staff.[91]

Shirt sponsorship in English football was first adopted by the non-league club Kettering Town F.C. in 1976, and this practice then spread to the major clubs.[91] In December 1983, soon after the club was floated on the London Stock Exchange, Holsten became the first commercial sponsor logo to appear on a Spurs shirt.[92] When Thomson was chosen as kit sponsor in 2002 some Tottenham fans were unhappy as the shirt-front logo was red, the colour of their closest rivals, Arsenal.[93] In 2006, Tottenham secured a £34 million sponsorship deal with internet casino group Mansion.com.[94] In July 2010, Spurs announced a two-year shirt sponsorship contract with software infrastructure company Autonomy said to be worth £20 million.[95] A month later they unveiled a £5 million deal with leading specialist bank and asset management firm Investec as shirt sponsor for the Champions League and domestic cup competitions for the next two years.[96][97] Since 2014, AIA has been the main shirt sponsor in a deal worth over £16 million annually.[98][99]

In June 2017, it was announced that Nike would be supplying Spurs' kits in a "multi-year agreement" after Under Armour's contract expired. The 2017–18 kit was released on 30 June, featuring the Spurs' crest encased in a shield, paying homage to Spurs' 1960–61 season, where they became the first post-war-club to win both the Football League First Division and the FA Cup.[100]

1896–98
1890–96
1884–86
1883–84: First kit

Kit suppliers and shirt sponsors

Period Kit manufacturer[50] Kit sponsor[50]
1903–12 HR Brookes No sponsor
1921–30 Bukta
1935–77 Umbro
1977–80 Admiral
1980–83 Le Coq Sportif
1983–85 Holsten
1985–91 Hummel
1991–95 Umbro
1995–99 Pony Hewlett-Packard
1999–2002 Adidas Holsten
2002–06 Kappa Thomson Holidays
2006–10 Puma Mansion.com Casino & Poker
2010–11 Autonomy Corporation1[101]
2011–12 Aurasma12[50]
2012–13 Under Armour
2013–14 Hewlett-Packard3[102]
2014–17 AIA[98]
2017–Present Nike[103]

1 Only appeared in the Premier League. Investec Bank appeared in the Champions League, FA Cup, League Cup and Europa League.[97][104]

2 Aurasma is a subsidiary of the Autonomy Corporation.

3 Hewlett-Packard is the parent company of the Autonomy Corporation and only appeared in the Premier League. AIA appeared in the FA Cup, League Cup and Europa League.[105]

Ownership

Tottenham Hotspur F.C. became a limited company, The Tottenham Hotspur Football and Athletic Company Ltd, on 2 March 1898 so as to raise funds for the club and limit the personal liability of its members. 8,000 shares were issued at £1 each, although only 1,558 shares were taken up in the first year.[106] Members of the Wale family, who had association with the club since the 1930s and were chairmen of Tottenham Hotspur F.C. in the 1960s and 1970s, were once the largest shareholder of the club.[107] In the early 1980s, cost overruns in the construction of a new West Stand together with the cost of rebuilding the team in previous years led to financial difficulties for the club. In November 1982, Irving Scholar bought 25% of the club for £600,000, and together with Paul Bobroff gained control of the club.[40] Scholar floated Tottenham Hotspur plc, which wholly owns the football club, on the London Stock Exchange in 1983, the first European sports club to be listed in a stock market.[36] The share issue was successful with 3.8 million shares quickly sold.[108] Ill-judged financial decisions led to accumulating debts,[106] and in June 1991 Terry Venables teamed up with businessman Alan Sugar to buy the club, initially as equal partner with each investing £3.25 million. Sugar increased his stake to £8 million by December 1991 and became the dominant partner with effective control of the club. In May 1993, Venables was sacked from the board after a dispute.[109] By 2000, Sugar began to consider selling the club,[110] and in February 2001, he sold the major part of his shareholding to ENIC International Ltd.[111]

Between 2001 and 2011 shares in Tottenham Hotspur F.C. were listed on the Alternative Investment Market (AIM index). The majority shareholder, ENIC International Ltd, is an investment company established by the British billionaire Joe Lewis. Daniel Levy, Lewis's partner at ENIC, is Executive Chairman of the club. They had acquired 29.9% after buying 27% share of the club for £22 million from Sugar in 1991.[111] Shareholding by ENIC increased over the decade through the purchase of the remaining 12% holding of Alan Sugar in 2007 for £25m,[112][113] and the 9.9% stake belonging to Stelios Haji-Ioannou through Hodram Inc in 2009. On 21 August 2009 the club reported that they had issued a further 30 million shares to fund the initial development costs of the new stadium project, and that 27.8 million of these new shares had been purchased by ENIC.[114] The Annual Report for 2010 indicated that ENIC had acquired 76% of all Ordinary Shares and also held 97% of all convertible redeemable preference shares, equivalent to a holding of 85% of share capital.[115] Following an announcement at the 2011 AGM, in January 2012 the club confirmed that they had been transferred into the private ownership of ENIC.[116]

Support

Tottenham playing against rivals Arsenal in the North London derby, in April 2010. Tottenham fans are singing to Sol Campbell after he left Tottenham and joined Arsenal in 2001

Tottenham has a large fanbase in the United Kingdom, drawn largely from North London and the Home counties. The attendance figures for its home matches, however, have fluctuated over the years. Five times between 1946 and 1969, Tottenham had the highest average attendance in England.[117][118] Tottenham was 9th in average attendances for the 2008–09 Premier League season, and 11th for all Premier League seasons.[119] In the 2017–18 season when Tottenham used Wembley as its home ground, it had the second highest attendance in the Premier League.[120] Historical supporters of the club have included such figures as philosopher A.J. Ayer.[121][122] There are many official supporters' clubs located around the world,[123] while an independent supporters club, the Tottenham Hotspur Supporters' Trust, is officially recognised by the club as the representative for Spurs supporters.[124][125]

Historically, the club had a significant Jewish following from the Jewish communities in East and Northeast London, with around a third of its supporters estimated to be Jewish in the 1930s.[126] It no longer has a greater Jewish contingent among its fans than other major London clubs (Jewish supporters are estimated to form at most 5% of its fanbase), it is nevertheless identified as a Jewish club by rival fans.[127] This has led to much antisemitic provocation with chants of "Yids" or "Yiddos" against Tottenham supporters.[128][129] In response to the abusive chants, Tottenham supporters, Jewish and non-Jewish alike, began to chant back the insults and adopt the "Yids" or "Yid Army" identity starting from around the late 1970s or early 1980s.[130] Some fans view adopting "Yid" as a badge of pride, helping defuse its power as an insult.[131] The use of "Yid" as a self-identification, however, has been controversial; some argued that the word is offensive and its use by Spurs fans "legitimis[es] references to Jews in football",[132] and that such racist abuse should be stamped out in football.[133] Others, such as Prime Minister David Cameron, argued that there is "a difference between Spurs fans self-describing themselves as Yids and someone calling someone a Yid as an insult" as its use by the Spurs fans is not motivated by hate and therefore cannot be considered hate speech.[134]

Fan culture

There are a number of songs associated with the club and frequently sung by Spurs fans, such as "Glory Glory Tottenham Hotspur". The song originated in 1961 after Spurs completed the Double in 1960–61, and the club entered the European Cup for the first time. Their first opponents were Górnik Zabrze, the Polish champions, and after a hard-fought match Spurs suffered a 4–2 reverse. Tottenham's tough tackling prompted the Polish press to describe them as "they were no angels". These comments incensed a group of three fans and for the return match at White Hart Lane they dressed as angels wearing white sheets fashioned into togas, sandals, false beards and carrying placards bearing biblical-type slogans. The angels were allowed on the perimeter of the pitch and their fervour whipped up the home fans who responded with a rendition of "Glory Glory Hallelujah", which is still sung on terraces at White Hart Lane and other football grounds.[135] The Lilywhites also responded to the atmosphere to win the tie 8–1. Then manager of Spurs, Bill Nicholson, wrote in his autobiography:

A new sound was heard in English football in the 1961–2 season. It was the hymn Glory, Glory Hallelujah being sung by 60,000 fans at White Hart Lane in our European Cup matches. I don't know how it started or who started it, but it took over the ground like a religious feeling.

— Bill Nicholson[136]

There had been a number of incidences of hooliganism involving Spurs fans, particularly in the 1970s and 1980s. Significant events include the rioting by Spurs fans in Rotterdam at the 1974 UEFA Cup Final against Feyenoord, and again during the 1983–84 UEFA Cup matches against Feyenoord in Rotterdam and Anderlecht in Brussels.[137] Although fan violence has since abated, the occasional incidences of hooliganism continued to be reported.[138][139]

Rivalries

Tottenham supporters have rivalries with several clubs, mainly within the London area. The fiercest of these is with north London rivals Arsenal. The rivalry began in 1913 when Arsenal moved from the Manor Ground, Plumstead to Arsenal Stadium, Highbury, and this rivalry intensified in 1919 when Arsenal were unexpectedly promoted to the First Division, taking a place that Tottenham believed should have been theirs.[140] They also share notable rivalries with fellow London clubs Chelsea and West Ham United.[141]

Social responsibility

The club through its Community Programme has, since 2006, been working with Haringey Council and the Metropolitan Housing Trust and the local community on developing sports facilities and social programmes which have also been financially supported by Barclays Spaces for Sport and the Football Foundation.[142][143] The Tottenham Hotspur Foundation received high-level political support from the prime minister when it was launched at 10 Downing Street in February 2007.[144]

In March 2007 the club announced a partnership with the charity SOS Children's Villages UK.[145] Player fines will go towards this charity's children's village in Rustenburg, South Africa with the funds being used to cover the running costs as well as in support of a variety of community development projects in and around Rustenburg. In the financial year 2006–07, Tottenham topped a league of Premier League charitable donations when viewed both in overall terms[146] and as a percentage of turnover by giving £4,545,889, including a one-off contribution of £4.5 million over four years, to set up the Tottenham Hotspur Foundation.[147] This compared to donations of £9,763 in 2005–06.[148]

The football club is one of the highest profile participants in the 10:10 project which encourages individuals, businesses and organisations to take action on environmental issues. They joined in 2009 in a commitment to reducing their carbon footprint. To do this they upgraded their lights to more efficient models, they turned down their heating dials and took less short-haul flights among a host of other things.[149] After working with 10:10 for one year, they reported that they had reduced their carbon emissions by 14%.[149]

In contrast, they have successfully sought the reduction of section 106 planning obligations connected to the redevelopment of the stadium in the Northumberland Development Project. Initially the development would incorporate 50% affordable housing (100 out of 200), but this was reduced to 0 out of 285[150] when Spurs suggested that the development was not financially viable with this obligation. In addition, a payment of £16m for community infrastructure was reduced to £0.5m.[150] This is controversial in an area which has suffered high levels of deprivation as Spurs had bought up properties for redevelopment, removing existing jobs and businesses for property development but not creating enough new jobs for the area.[151] The club however argued that the project, when completed, would support 3,500 jobs and inject an estimated £293 million into the local economy annually,[152] and that it would serve as the catalyst for a wider 20-year regeneration programme for the Tottenham area.[153][154]

Tottenham Hotspur Ladies

Tottenham's women's team was founded in 1985 as Broxbourne Ladies. They started using the Tottenham Hotspur name for the 1991–92 season and played in the London and South East Women's Regional Football League (then fourth tier of the game). They won promotion after topping the league in 2007–08. In the 2016–17 season they won the FA Women's Premier League Southern Division and a subsequent playoff, gaining promotion to the FA Women's Super League 2.[155]

Honours

For other honours see List of Tottenham Hotspur F.C. records and statistics
Sources:Tottenham Hotspur – History[156]
(D) Next to the year indicates a Double winning year

Major honours

Domestic

League competitions

Cup competitions

European

Statistics and records

Chart of Tottenham's performance since joining the Football League in 1908

Steve Perryman holds the appearance record for Spurs, having played 854 games for the club between 1969 and 1986, of which 655 were league matches.[157][158] Jimmy Greaves holds the club goal scoring record with 266 goals in 380 league, cup and European appearances.[159]

Tottenham's record league win is 9–0 against Bristol Rovers in the Second Division on 22 October 1977.[160][161] The club's record cup victory came on 3 February 1960 with a 13–2 win over Crewe Alexandra in the FA Cup.[162] Spurs' biggest top-flight victory came against Wigan Athletic on 22 November 2009, when they won 9–1 with Jermain Defoe scoring five goals.[161][163] The club's record defeat is an 8–0 loss to 1. FC Köln in the Intertoto Cup on 22 July 1995.[164]

The record home attendance at White Hart Lane was 75,038 on 5 March 1938 in a cup tie against Sunderland.[165] The highest recorded home attendances were at their temporary home, Wembley Stadium, due to its higher capacity – 85,512 spectators turned up on 2 November 2016 for the 2016–17 UEFA Champions League game against Bayer Leverkusen,[166] while 83,222 attended the North London Derby against Arsenal on 10 February 2018 which is the highest attendance recorded for any Premier League game.[167]

Players

First-team squad

As of 31 January 2018.[168]

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
1 France GK Hugo Lloris (captain)
2 England DF Kieran Trippier
3 England DF Danny Rose
4 Belgium DF Toby Alderweireld
5 Belgium DF Jan Vertonghen (third captain)
6 Colombia DF Dávinson Sánchez
7 South Korea FW Son Heung-min
9 Netherlands FW Vincent Janssen
10 England FW Harry Kane (vice-captain)
11 Argentina MF Érik Lamela
12 Kenya MF Victor Wanyama
13 Netherlands GK Michel Vorm
14 France MF Georges-Kévin N'Koudou
15 England MF Eric Dier
No. Position Player
17 France MF Moussa Sissoko
18 Spain FW Fernando Llorente
19 Belgium MF Mousa Dembélé
20 England MF Dele Alli
21 Argentina DF Juan Foyth
22 Argentina GK Paulo Gazzaniga
23 Denmark MF Christian Eriksen
24 Ivory Coast DF Serge Aurier
25 England MF Josh Onomah
27 Brazil MF Lucas Moura
29 England MF Harry Winks
33 Wales DF Ben Davies
37 England DF Kyle Walker-Peters
38 United States DF Cameron Carter-Vickers

Reserves and academy

Club management and support staff

Role Name
Manager Argentina Mauricio Pochettino[169]
Assistant manager Spain Jesús Pérez[170]
First team coach Argentina Miguel D'Agostino[171]
First team goalkeeping coach Spain Toni Jiménez[172]
Head of sports science, fitness and conditioning England Nathan Gardiner[173]
International technical coordinator Germany Steffen Freund[174]
Head of recruitment and analysis England Steve Hitchen[175]

Club directors

Role Name[176][177]
Executive chairman Daniel Levy
Finance director Matthew Collecott
Director Donna-Maria Cullen
Director Darren Eales
non-executive director Sir Keith Mills
non-executive director Kevan Watts
non-executive director Ron Robson

Managers and players

Managers and head coaches in club's history

  • Listed according to when they became managers for Tottenham Hotspur:
  • (C) – Caretaker
  • (FTC) – First team coach

Club hall of fame

The following players are noted as "greats" for their contributions to the club or have been inducted into the club's Hall of Fame:[178][179][180] The most recent additions to the club's Hall of Fame are Steve Perryman and Jimmy Greaves on 20 April 2016.[181]

Player of the Year

As voted by members and season ticket holders. (Calendar year until 2005–06 season)[182]

Affiliated clubs

See also

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Bibliography

Further reading

  • Ferris, Ken (1999). The Double: The Inside Story of Spurs' Triumphant 1960–61 Season. Mainstream. ISBN 1-84018-235-0. 
  • Gibson, Colin; Harris, HarryZ (1986). The Glory Glory Nights. Cockerel. ISBN 1-869914-00-7. 
  • Hale, Steve E. (2005). Mr Tottenham Hotspur: Bill Nicholson OBE – Memories of a Spurs Legend. Football World. ISBN 0-9548336-5-1. 
  • Harris, Harry (1990). Tottenham Hotspur Greats. Sportsprint. ISBN 0-85976-309-9. 
  • Holland, Julian (1961). Spurs – The Double. Heinemann. no ISBN. 
  • Matthews, Tony (2001). The Official Encyclopaedia of Tottenham Hotspur. Brightspot. ISBN 0-9539288-1-0. 
  • Nathan, Guy (1994). Barcelona to Bedlam: Venables/Sugar – The True Story. New Author. ISBN 1-897780-26-5. 
  • Ratcliffe, Alison (2005). Tottenham Hotspur (Rough Guide 11s): The Top 11 of Everything Spurs. Rough Guides. ISBN 1-84353-558-0. 
  • Scholar, Irving (1992). Behind Closed Doors: Dreams and Nightmares at Spurs. André Deutsch. ISBN 0-233-98824-6. 
  • Soar, Phil (1998). The Hamlyn Official History of Tottenham Hotspur 1882–1998. Hamlyn. ISBN 0-600-59515-3. 
  • Waring, Peter (2004). Tottenham Hotspur Head to Head. Breedon Books. 

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