Tour de France records and statistics

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This is a list of records and statistics in the Tour de France, road cycling's premier competitive event.

One rider has been King of the Mountains, won the combination classification, combativity award, the points competition, and the Tour in the same year - Eddy Merckx in 1969, which was also the first year he participated.[1]

Twice the Tour was won by a racer who never wore the yellow jersey until the race was over. In 1947, Jean Robic overturned a three-minute deficit on a 257 km final stage into Paris. In 1968, Jan Janssen of the Netherlands secured his win in the individual time trial on the last day.

The Tour has been won four times by a racer who led the general classification on the first stage and held the lead all the way to Paris. Maurice Garin did it during the Tour's very first edition, 1903; he repeated the feat the next year, but the results were nullified as a response to widespread cheating. Ottavio Bottechia completed a GC start-to-finish sweep in 1924. In 1928, Nicolas Frantz also led the GC for the entire race, and the final podium was made up of three riders from his Alcyon–Dunlop team. 1935, Belgian Romain Maes took the lead in the first stage, and never gave it away. There have been four tours in which a racer has taken over the GC lead on the second stage and held the lead all the way to Paris. After dominating the ITT during Stage 1B of the 1961 Tour de France Jacques Anquetil held the Maillot Jaune from the first day all the way to Paris.

Laurent Fignon, winner in 1983, was the last rider to win the race in his first appearance.

René Pottier, Roger Lapébie, Sylvère Maes, Fausto Coppi and Bradley Wiggins all won the Tour de France the last time they appeared in the race.

Appearances[edit]

The record for most appearances is held by Sylvain Chavanel with 18. George Hincapie had held the mark for the biggest number of consecutive finishes with sixteen, having completed every Tour de France that he participated in except his first one, before his disqualification in October 2012 from the 2004, 2005 and 2006 Tour de France for the use of performance-enhancing drugs. Joop Zoetemelk and Chavanel jointly hold the record for the most finishes with sixteen each, with the former having completed all 16 of the Tours that he started. Zoetemelk held the record for the most Tour de France stages completed with 365, a record that was broken when Chavanel finished Stage 18 of the 2018 Tour de France.[2] [3] [4]

Riders who are still active are indicated in bold.

Participations Finishes Name Nationality
18 (2001–2018) 16 (2001–2006, 2008–2011, 2013–2018) Sylvain Chavanel  France
17 (1997, 1998,[n 1] 1999–2013) 15 (1997, 1998,[n 2] 1999, 2001–2006, 2008–2013) Stuart O'Grady  Australia
17 (1998–2014) 14 (1998–2002, 2004, 2006–2008, 2010–2014) Jens Voigt  Germany
16 (1970–1973, 1975–1986) 16 (1970–1973, 1975–1986) Joop Zoetemelk  Netherlands
16 (2001–2009, 2011–2017) 15 (2001–2003, 2005–2009, 2011–2017) Haimar Zubeldia  Spain
15 (1969–1981, 1983, 1985) 15 (1969–1981, 1983, 1985) Lucien Van Impe  Belgium
15 (1990–1998, 2000–2004, 2006) 15 (1990–1998, 2000–2004, 2006) Viatcheslav Ekimov  Russia
15 (1980–1994) 13 (1981–1982, 1984–1994) Guy Nulens  Belgium
15 (1996–2010) 11 (1996–1997, 1999–2000, 2003–2007, 2009–2010) Christophe Moreau  France
15 (2003-2017) 15 (2003-2017) Thomas Voeckler  France
14 (1953–1966) 13 (1953–1962, 1964–1966) André Darrigade  France
14 (1994–2004, 2006–2008) 13 (1995–2004, 2006–2008) Erik Zabel  Germany
14 (1978–1985, 1987–1992) 12 (1978–1985, 1988–1990, 1992) Sean Kelly  Ireland
14 (1962–1976) 11 (1962–1965, 1967, 1969–1972, 1974–1976) Raymond Poulidor  France
14 (1908–1914, 1920–1928) 07 (1909–1914, 1921) Jules Deloffre  France
14 (1996–2003, 2007-2012) 13 (1997–2003, 2007-2012)[n 3] George Hincapie  United States
13 (1981–1988, 1989–1994) 13 (1981–1988, 1989–1994) Phil Anderson  Australia
13 (1969–1975, 1977–1981, 1983) 12 (1969–1975, 1977–1980, 1983) Joaquim Agostinho  Portugal
13 (1974–1982, 1984, 1986–1988) 11 (1974–1975, 1977–1982, 1984, 1986–1987) Gerrie Knetemann  Netherlands
13 (1977–1989) 11 (1977–1985, 1987, 1989) Henk Lubberding  Netherlands
13 (1951–1963) 10 (1951–1952, 1954, 1956–1957, 1959–1963) Jean Dotto  France
13 (1964–1976) 10 (1964–1965, 1967–1971, 1973–1974, 1976) Jean-Pierre Genet  France
13 (1979–1983, 1985–1988, 1990–1993) 09 (1979, 1981–1983, 1985, 1987–1988, 1990–1991) Gilbert Duclos-Lassalle  France
13 (1953–1965) 09 (1953–1955, 1957, 1959–1960, 1962–1963, 1965) François Mahe  France
13 (1992–1997, 1999–2005) 08 (1993–1994, 1996, 2000, 2002–2005) Marc Wauters  Belgium
13 (1994–2006) 07 (1995, 1997, 2000–2001, 2003, 2005–2006) Didier Rous  France

Winning margin[edit]

In the early years of the Tour, cyclists rode individually, and were sometimes forbidden to ride together. This led to large gaps between the winner and the number two. Since the cyclists now tend to stay together in a peloton, the margins of the winner have become smaller, as the difference usually originates from time trials, breakaways or on mountain top finishes, or from being left behind the peloton. In the table below, the nine smallest margins between the winner and the second placed cyclists at the end of the Tour are given. The largest margin, by comparison, remains that of the first Tour in 1903: 2h 49m 45s between Maurice Garin and Lucien Pothier.[5] The nine smallest margins between first and second placed riders are as follows:[6]

Winning margin Year Opponents
8" 1989 Greg LeMond – Laurent Fignon
23" 2007 Alberto Contador – Cadel Evans
32" 2006 Óscar Pereiro – Andreas Klöden
38" 1968 Jan Janssen – Herman Van Springel
40" 1987 Stephen Roche – Pedro Delgado
48" 1977 Bernard Thévenet – Hennie Kuiper
54" 2017 Chris Froome – Rigoberto Urán
55" 1964 Jacques Anquetil – Raymond Poulidor
58" 2008 Carlos Sastre – Cadel Evans

Successful breakaways[edit]

The longest successful post-war breakaway by a single rider was by Albert Bourlon in the 1947 Tour de France. In the stage Carcassone-Luchon, he stayed away for 253 kilometres (157 mi).[7] It was one of seven breakaways longer than 200 km, the last being Thierry Marie's 234 km escape in 1991.[7] Bourlon finished 16 m 30s ahead. This is one of the biggest time gaps but not the greatest. That record belongs to José-Luis Viejo, who beat the peloton by 22 mins 50 secs in the 1976 stage Montgenèvre-Manosque.[7] He was the fourth and most recent rider to win a stage by more than 20 minutes.

Overall speed[edit]

Overall Speed of the Tour de France

The 2005 edition was the fastest Tour de France in history. Lance Armstrong rode 3,592.5 km in 86h 15' 02", thus realising an overall speed of 41.7 km/h (25.9 mph), though his win was later annulled.

The slowest Tour de France was the edition of 1919, when Firmin Lambot's average speed was 24.1 km/h.[8]

Stage speeds[edit]

The fastest massed-start stage was in 1999 from Laval to Blois (194.5 km), won by Mario Cipollini at 50.4 km/h (31.32 mph).[9] The fastest time-trial is Rohan Dennis' stage 1 of the 2015 Tour de France in Utrecht, won at an average of 55.446 km/h (34.5 mph).[10][11] The fastest stage win was by the 2013 Orica GreenEDGE team in a team time-trial. It completed the 25 km time-trial at 57.7 km/h (35.85 mph).[12]

The fastest climb of Alpe d'Huez was by Marco Pantani in 1997 Tour de France at 23.1 km/h (14.35 mph).[13]

Stage wins per rider[edit]

34 riders have won 10 or more stages (including half-stages, excluding Team Time Trials). Riders who are still active are indicated in bold. Riders with the same number of stage wins are listed alphabetically.

Rank Name Country Wins[14]
1 Eddy Merckx  Belgium 34
2 Mark Cavendish  United Kingdom 30
3 Bernard Hinault  France 28
4 André Leducq  France 25
5 André Darrigade  France 22
6 Nicolas Frantz  Luxembourg 20
7 François Faber  Luxembourg 19
8 Jean Alavoine  France 17
9 Jacques Anquetil  France 16
René Le Grevès  France 16
Charles Pélissier  France 16
12 Freddy Maertens  Belgium 15
13 Marcel Kittel  Germany 14
14 Philippe Thys  Belgium 13
Louis Trousselier  France 13
16 Gino Bartali  Italy 12
Mario Cipollini  Italy 12
Miguel Indurain  Spain 12
Robbie McEwen  Australia 12
Erik Zabel  Germany 12
21 Jean Aerts  Belgium 11
Louison Bobet  France 11
Raffaele Di Paco  Italy 11
André Greipel  Germany 11
Peter Sagan  Slovakia 11
26 Maurice Archambaud  France 10
Charly Gaul  Luxembourg 10
Walter Godefroot  Belgium 10
Thor Hushovd  Norway 10
Gerrie Knetemann  Netherlands 10
Antonin Magne  France 10
Henri Pélissier  France 10
Jan Raas  Netherlands 10
Joop Zoetemelk  Netherlands 10

Three riders have won 8 stages in a single year:

Mark Cavendish has the most mass finish stage wins with 30 ahead of André Darrigade and André Leducq with 22, François Faber with 19 and Eddy Merckx with 18.[18]

The youngest Tour de France stage winner is Fabio Battesini, who was 19 when he won one stage in the 1931 Tour de France.[19]

Stage wins per country[edit]

Riders from 33 countries have won at least one stage in the Tour de France.

Country #
 France 702
 Belgium 471
 Italy 268
 Netherlands 174
 Spain 129
 Germany 88
 Luxembourg 70
 United Kingdom 69
Country #
  Switzerland 60
 Australia 30
 Colombia 19
 Denmark 19
 United States 18
 Norway 17
 Portugal 12
 Ireland 12
Country #
 Slovakia 12
 Russia[20] 11
 Uzbekistan 9
 Kazakhstan 5
 Poland 5
 Austria 4
 Estonia 4
 Ukraine 4
Country #
 Czech Republic 3
 Mexico 2
 Latvia 2
 Slovenia 2
 Brazil 1
 Canada 1
 South Africa 1
 Sweden 1
 Lithuania 1

Detailed table[edit]

France Belgium Italy Netherlands Spain Germany Luxembourg United Kingdom Switzerland Australia Denmark United States Colombia Norway Portugal Republic of Ireland Slovakia Russia Uzbekistan Kazakhstan Austria Estonia Poland Ukraine Czech Republic Mexico Latvia Brazil Canada South Africa Sweden Lithuania Slovenia
1903 5 - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1904 5 - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1905 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1906 13 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1907 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1908 10 - - - - - 4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1909 7 1 - - - - 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1910 11 - 1 - - - 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1911 12 1 - - - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1912 8 5 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1913 2 10 1 - - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1914 7 4 - - - - 2 - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1919 11 2 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1920 3 12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1921 5 9 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1922 6 8 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1923 12 2 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1924 4 4 5 - - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1925 1 8 5 - - - 4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1926 - 12 1 - - - 4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1927 6 15 - - - - 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1928 13 4 - - - - 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1929 10 9 - - 1 - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1930 13 3 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1931 8 6 7 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - - - - - - - - - - - -
1932 7 6 7 - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1933 9 9 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1934 20 1 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1935 13 8 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1936 13 9 - 1 1 - 2 - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1937 9 10 3 - 2 4 1 - 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1938 8 11 5 3 - 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1939 17 7 - 1 - - 2 - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1947 12 2 4 - - - - - 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1948 6 4 11 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1949 8 5 6 - - - 1 - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1950 9 2 6 - - - 2 - 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1951 6 4 5 1 2 - 1 - 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1952 9 3 7 2 - - 1 - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1953 10 1 3 5 1 - - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1954 15 4 - 3 - - - - 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1955 9 3 2 4 2 - 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1956 8 4 6 - 2 - 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1957 17 1 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1958 9 2 5 1 2 - 4 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1959 12 1 4 - 1 - 1 1 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1960 10 5 4 - - - - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1961 12 6 3 - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1962 7 8 4 1 1 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1963 8 10 1 1 2 - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1964 8 7 - 4 5 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1965 3 7 5 4 4 - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1966 2 8 4 5 2 3 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1967 8 6 4 1 2 1 - 2 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1968 10 10 2 2 1 - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1969 3 14 3 - 1 1 - 2 - - - - - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1970 5 14 5 1 2 1 - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1971 4 11 3 3 4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1972 7 15 1 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1973 6 7 - 2 8 - - 3 - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1974 7 15 1 2 1 - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1975 3 11 4 5 1 - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1976 3 12 3 7 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1977 8 6 1 5 1 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1978 7 5 - 9 1 1 - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1979 10 4 1 8 - 1 - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1980 7 4 - 11 - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1981 6 10 - 7 - - - - 1 - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1982 6 5 - 6 - - - - 3 1 - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1983 9 3 1 5 1 - - 1 2 - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1984 12 7 - 1 1 - - 1 - - - - 1 - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1985 6 6 - 4 2 - - - - - 1 1 3 - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1986 6 5 3 1 5 - - - 2 - - 2 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1987 7 2 1 6 4 1 - - - - - 2 - 1 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1988 2 - 4 8 3 1 - 1 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - -
1989 4 1 2 6 1 - - 1 1 - - 3 - - 1 1 - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - -
1990 3 2 5 6 3 1 - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - -
1991 5 1 6 2 2 - - - - 1 - - - - - - - 3 2 - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - -
1992 6 2 3 3 4 1 - - 1 - - 1 - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1993 1 2 4 - 2 1 - - 3 - 2 1 1 - - - - - 3 - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - -
1994 4 - 5 1 2 - - 1 - - 3 - - - - - 1 - 2 - - - - - - - 2 - - - - - -
1995 3 1 6 1 2 2 - 1 1 - - 1 - - - - - - 1 - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - -
1996 4 - 3 3 - 3 - - 3 - 3 - 1 - - - - 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1997 6 - 7 1 1 5 - 1 - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1998 1 4 6 2 - 4 - 1 - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - 1 - -
1999 - 4 7 - 3 - - - - 1 - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - -
2000 2 2 5 4 3 2 - 1 - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
2001 4 3 - 1 1 4 - - - - - - 1 - - - - 1 - - - 1 - - 1 - - - - - - - -
2002 2 - 1 2 2 1 - 1 1 3 - - 2 1 - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - -
2003 2 - 5 1 4 1 - 1 - 2 1 2 - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
2004 3 2 2 - 2 - - - 1 3 - 1 - 1 - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - -
2005 1 2 3 1 3 - - - - 3 1 1 - - - - - - - 2 1 - - - - - - - - - - - -
2006 3 - 1 - 4 2 1 - - 3 1 - - 2 - - - 1 - - - - - 3 - - - - - - - - -
2007 2 3 3 - 1 1 1 - 2 2 2 - 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - -
2008 3 1 - - 6 1 1 4 1 1 - - - 2 - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
2009 4 - - - 4 1 1 6 1 - 1 - - 1 - - - 1 - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
2010 6 - 2 - 1 - 2 5 2 - - - - 1 1 - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
2011 1 2 - - 2 2 1 5 - 1 - 2 - 4 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
2012 5 - - - 2 3 - 7 1 - - - - - - - 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
2013 1 1 1 - - 6 - 5 - 2 - - 1 - 2 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
2014 2 - 5 1 - 7 - - - 1 - - - 2 - - - - - - - - 2 - - - - - - - - 1 -
2015 3 1 1 - 3 6 - 3 - 1 - 1 - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 1 - - - - - - - -
2016 1 2 - 2 1 2 - 7 - 1 - - 1 - - - 3 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
2017 5 - 1 2 - 5 - 1 - 2 - - 1 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - 1
2018 3 - - 3 1 1 - 2 - - 1 - 3 1 - 1 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1
TOTAL 705 471 268 174 129 88 70 69 60 30 19 18 19 18 12 12 12 11 9 5 4 4 5 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2
France Belgium Italy Netherlands Spain Germany Luxembourg United Kingdom Switzerland Australia Denmark United States Colombia Norway Portugal Republic of Ireland Slovakia Russia Uzbekistan Kazakhstan Austria Estonia Poland Ukraine Czech Republic Mexico Latvia Brazil Canada South Africa Sweden Lithuania Slovenia

Stage towns[edit]

Some cities and towns have hosted 25 or more stage starts and finishes:

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Assisted by illicit performance-enhancing drug use in the 1998 Tour de France
  2. ^ Assisted by illicit performance-enhancing drug use in the 1998 Tour de France
  3. ^ All appearances from 2004 to 2006 have been disqualified due to Hincapie's suspension for performance-enhancing drug use

References[edit]

  1. ^ Memoire du cyclisme. Retrieved 13 July 2012
  2. ^ https://racecenter.letour.fr/#/stageprofile. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-07-22. Retrieved 2013-07-22.
  4. ^ "Tour de France: Chavanel earns Zwift Rider of the Day". www.cyclingnews.com. 8 July 2018.
  5. ^ "Tour de France 2009 – Stats". Letour.fr. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
  6. ^ "Verschil tussen de nummers 1 en 2 van het eindklassement" (in Dutch). tourde-france.nl. Retrieved 17 March 2008.
  7. ^ a b c Tour 09, Procycling (UK) summer 2009
  8. ^ "Historique du Tour de France". Letour.fr. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  9. ^ "Cipollini Sprints to Record Win – Los Angeles Times". Los Angeles Times. 8 July 1999. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
  10. ^ Wynn, Nigel (4 July 2015). "Rohan Dennis beats Boardman's Tour de France time trial speed record". Cycling Weekly. Time Inc. UK. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
  11. ^ Zeb, Woodpower (4 July 2015). "Tour de France: Dennis sets record speed to claim first maillot jaune in Utrecht". Cyclingnews.com. Immediate Media Company. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
  12. ^ "Greenedge Win Puts Gerrans In Yellow". Eurosport. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
  13. ^ Fastest Alpe d'Huez ascents
  14. ^ "Le Tour en chiffres : Les vainqueurs d'étapes" (PDF). ASO. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
  15. ^ "Charles Pélissier". Results history. letour.fr. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
  16. ^ "Eddy Merckx". Results history. letour.fr. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
  17. ^ "Freddy Maertens". Results history. letour.fr. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
  18. ^ "Letour Guide Historique 2012" (PDF). Letour.fr. 10 July 2012. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
  19. ^ "Peter Sagan captures Stage 1". ESPN. Associated Press. 1 July 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  20. ^ In 1990 and 1991, Russians Dimitri Konyshev and Viatcheslav Ekimov won a total of four stages for the USSR and Russian SFSR.
  21. ^ letour.fr