Tour de Ski

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Tour de Ski
Tour de ski logo.svg
Race details
Datelate December – early January
Venue(s)Central Europe
Italy
CompetitionFIS Cross-Country World Cup
OrganiserInternational Ski Federation
History
First edition31 December 2006; 12 years ago (2006-12-31)
Editions13 (as of 2018–19)
Men
First winner Tobias Angerer (GER)
Most wins Dario Cologna (SUI)
(4 wins)
Most recent Johannes Høsflot Klæbo (NOR)
Ladies
First winner Virpi Kuitunen (FIN)
Most wins Justyna Kowalczyk (POL)
(4 wins)
Most recent Ingvild Flugstad Østberg (NOR)

The Tour de Ski (TdS) is a cross-country skiing event held annually since the 2006–07 season in Central Europe, modeled on the Tour de France of cycling. The Tour de Ski is a Stage World Cup event in the FIS Cross-Country World Cup. Each Tour de Ski has consisted of six to nine stages, held during late December and early January in the Czech Republic, Germany, Italy, and Switzerland. As of 2019, the prize money for the event amount to 560,000 Swiss francs (546,000 euros),[1] shared out on both men and women. Men's and ladies' events are held together on the same days, with the only difference being the distance skied.

The stage hosts changes every year, but some of the format stays the same with the diversity of competitions; sprints, mass starts, races with individual starts and pursuits. The Tour de Ski has every year concluded with two stages in Val di Fiemme, with the final stage being a pursuit where the skiers race up the alpine skiing course on Alpe Cermis in Cavalese.

There are usually between 20 and 30 nations participating, with the numbers of skiers from each nation based on quotas with a maximum of 10 skiers.[2]. All of the stages are timed to the finish; the skiers' times are compounded with their previous stage times. The skier with the lowest cumulative finishing times is the overall leader of the race and wears the blue leader bib. While the overall standings garners the most attention, there are two other contests held within the Tour: the sprint standings for the sprinters and the team standings for the fastest teams.

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

Cross-country skiing had been through a period of renewal from the early 1980s, when the free technique was first introduced to the World Championships which led to a rush of new events, including pursuit skiing, sprint skiing and eventually long mass start races, to complement the traditional time trial or individual start style of skiing. The Tour de Ski is another such new event, and the idea has been reported to come from a meeting between former Olympic gold medallist Vegard Ulvang and Jürg Capol, the International Ski Federation's (FIS) chief executive officer for cross-country competitions, in Ulvang's sauna in Maridalen, Norway.[3][4] Their idea was to create a stage competition consisting of different events which they expected would lead to several days of continuous excitement before the most complete skiers would become Tour de Ski champions.[3] Ulvang has also brought up the idea of a tour of the Barents Region, Tour de Barents, with stages in Kirkenes (Sandnes) and Vadsø in Finnmark and Murmansk in Russia.[5]

The first Tour de Ski (2006–07)[edit]

Jürg Capol stated that FIS originally wished to start the race in the Alps. However, as neither Austria or Switzerland were interested, the opening two stages were to be held in Nové Město na Moravě in the Czech Republic.[6] A week before the Tour was due to start, FIS announced that snow conditions in Nové Město were not good enough, and cancelled the two races there. The first Tour de Ski therefore opened with a sprint race in Munich on 31 December 2006, and was won by Marit Bjørgen (NOR) and Christoph Eigenmann (SUI).

Skiers from France,[7] Germany[8] and Norway, among others, said that the Tour de Ski was among their targets for the 2006–07 season, with Norwegian skier Jens Arne Svartedal claiming that the winner would have "extreme respect" for winning such an extreme race.[9] Tobias Angerer (GER) and Virpi Kuitunen (FIN) were the first overall winners of the Tour.

After the first Tour de Ski, reactions among athletes were largely positive. Norwegian athletes said "it was a good concept",[10] German winner Tobias Angerer claimed that the Tour de Ski "has a great future",[11] though many of the athletes expressed concern over the final climb up an alpine skiing hill both before and after the race.[12] The director of FIS' cross-country committee, Vegard Ulvang, said the finish would be in the same place next year, but the way up could be changed.[12] Ulvang also claimed that the Tour had been a success, and a "breakthrough for FIS"[13] Ulvang did, however, admit that there would have to be some changes, as up to a third of participants in the Tour de Ski have struggled with illness or injury after the competition.[14]

Newspaper comments were divided: in Expressen's opinion, the finish was the "most enjoyable competition seen in years,"[15] while Roland Wiedemann in Der Spiegel said this "should be the future of cross-country skiing".[16] Critical commentaries appeared in Göteborgs-Posten, criticising the fact that sprinters didn't have a chance in the overall standings,[17] and Wiesbaden Kurier, describing it as a reality show and a skiing circus.[18]

Since 2007[edit]

The second Tour de Ski was held between 28 December 2007 and 6 January 2008, in the Czech Republic and Italy.[11] Oberstdorf in Bavaria was originally scheduled to host two stages, but cancelled as the German Ski Association could only arrange a race on 2 January.[19]

At a meeting in Venice, Italy, on 7 May 2009, Tour de Ski officials met with officials from the Giro d'Italia road cycle race to learn from the stage race to further improve Tour de Ski competition for the 2009–2010 event.[20]

In the late 2000s and early 2010s, the ladies' Tour was dominated by Justyna Kowalczyk, who won the Tour de Ski four consecutive times and the sprint standings three consecutive times and a record 14 stages. Dario Cologna dominated the same period of time and won three Tours and two sprint competitions in four years from 2008–09 to 2011–12. In 2017–18, the year Cologna won his record fourth overall Tour, Jessica Diggins of USA and Alex Harvey of Canada became the first non-Europeans to achieve podium spots in the overall standings.

Race structure[edit]

Ranking[edit]

Bonus seconds for the top 30 positions by type[21]
Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13–15 16–20 21–25 26–30
In finish Interval start 15 10 5 none
Mass start
Pursuit (ex. FC)
Sprint 60 54 48 46 44 42 32 30 28 26 24 22 10 8 6 4
Intermediate sprint Mass start 15 12 10 8 6 5 4 3 2 1 none

The overall results are based on the aggregate time for all events, as well as bonus seconds awarded on sprint and mass start stages.

The sprint races carry bonus seconds for the finish, which are subtracted from the overall time. The current bonus format in sprint competitions, as of 2018–19, hands out bonus seconds to the 30 skiers that qualify for the quarter-finals (60–54–48–46–44–42–32–30–28–26–24–22–10–10–10–8–8–8–8–8–6–6–6–6–6–4–4–4–4–4).[22]

In mass start competitions, intermediate points carry bonus seconds; 15 to the winner, 10 to number two, and 5 to number three. The same number of seconds are awarded at the finish. In the later editions of the Tour, intermediate points has been handed out to the 10 first skiers (15–12–10–8–6–5–4–3–2–1) past the intermediate point.

The final stage of the race includes a steep climb up Alpe Cermis, with a height difference of 425 meters. This last stage is held in a pursuit format, with competitors starting with the gaps they have in the overall classification, so the first skier to reach the top is the overall winner.

Bibs[edit]

Petter Northug in the red bib during the 2009–10 Tour de Ski.

The overall leaders will wear the leader bib on the following stage. The leader bib is from the 2018–19 edition colored blue. From the start in 2006 to 2017–18 the leader bib was red.

The leaders of the sprint competitions wear the sprint bib on the following stage. The sprint bib is from the 2018–19 edition colored grey. From the start in 2006 to 2017–18 the sprint bib was black.

Prizes[edit]

Prizes and bonuses are awarded for daily placings and final placings at the end of the race. In 2019, the winners received CHF 55,000,[23] while each of the stage winners won CHF 3,000.[23] The winners of the sprint standings won CHF 6,000.[23]

Winners by year[edit]

Men[edit]

Year Overall Sprint
1st 2nd 3rd
2006–07  Tobias Angerer (GER)  Alexander Legkov (RUS)  Simen Østensen (NOR)  Tor Arne Hetland (NOR)
2007–08  Lukáš Bauer (CZE)  René Sommerfeldt (GER)  Giorgio Di Centa (ITA)  Petter Northug (NOR)
2008–09  Dario Cologna (SUI)  Petter Northug (NOR)  Axel Teichmann (GER)  Tor Arne Hetland (NOR)
2009–10  Lukáš Bauer (CZE)  Petter Northug (NOR)  Dario Cologna (SUI)  Petter Northug (NOR)
2010–11  Dario Cologna (SUI)  Petter Northug (NOR)  Lukáš Bauer (CZE)  Dario Cologna (SUI)
2011–12  Dario Cologna (SUI)  Marcus Hellner (SWE)  Petter Northug (NOR)  Dario Cologna (SUI)
2012–13  Alexander Legkov (RUS)  Dario Cologna (SUI)  Maxim Vylegzhanin (RUS)  Petter Northug (NOR)
2013–14  Martin Johnsrud Sundby (NOR)  Chris Jespersen (NOR)  Petter Northug (NOR)  Martin Johnsrud Sundby (NOR)
2015  Petter Northug (NOR)  Evgeniy Belov (RUS)  Calle Halfvarsson (SWE)  Petter Northug (NOR)
2016  Martin Johnsrud Sundby (NOR)  Finn Hågen Krogh (NOR)  Sergey Ustiugov (RUS)  Martin Johnsrud Sundby (NOR)
2016–17  Sergey Ustiugov (RUS)  Martin Johnsrud Sundby (NOR)  Dario Cologna (SUI)  Sergey Ustiugov (RUS)
2017–18  Dario Cologna (SUI)  Martin Johnsrud Sundby (NOR)  Alex Harvey (CAN)  Dario Cologna (SUI)
2018–19  Johannes Høsflot Klæbo (NOR)  Sergey Ustiugov (RUS)  Simen Hegstad Krüger (NOR)  Johannes Høsflot Klæbo (NOR)

Ladies[edit]

Year Overall Sprint
1st 2nd 3rd
2006–07  Virpi Kuitunen (FIN)  Marit Bjørgen (NOR)  Valentina Shevchenko (UKR)  Virpi Kuitunen (FIN)
2007–08  Charlotte Kalla (SWE)  Virpi Kuitunen (FIN)  Arianna Follis (ITA)  Virpi Kuitunen (FIN)
2008–09  Virpi Kuitunen (FIN)  Aino-Kaisa Saarinen (FIN)  Petra Majdič (SLO)  Petra Majdič (SLO)
2009–10  Justyna Kowalczyk (POL)  Petra Majdič (SLO)  Arianna Follis (ITA)  Petra Majdič (SLO)
2010–11  Justyna Kowalczyk (POL)  Therese Johaug (NOR)  Marianna Longa (ITA)  Justyna Kowalczyk (POL)
2011–12  Justyna Kowalczyk (POL)  Marit Bjørgen (NOR)  Therese Johaug (NOR)  Justyna Kowalczyk (POL)
2012–13  Justyna Kowalczyk (POL)  Therese Johaug (NOR)  Kristin Størmer Steira (NOR)  Justyna Kowalczyk (POL)
2013–14  Therese Johaug (NOR)  Astrid Uhrenholdt Jacobsen (NOR)  Heidi Weng (NOR)  Astrid Uhrenholdt Jacobsen (NOR)
2015  Marit Bjørgen (NOR)  Therese Johaug (NOR)  Heidi Weng (NOR)  Marit Bjørgen (NOR)
2016  Therese Johaug (NOR)  Ingvild Flugstad Østberg (NOR)  Heidi Weng (NOR)  Ingvild Flugstad Østberg (NOR)
2016–17  Heidi Weng (NOR)  Krista Pärmäkoski (FIN)  Stina Nilsson (SWE)  Stina Nilsson (SWE)
2017–18  Heidi Weng (NOR)  Ingvild Flugstad Østberg (NOR)  Jessica Diggins (USA)  Ingvild Flugstad Østberg (NOR)
2018–19  Ingvild Flugstad Østberg (NOR)  Natalia Nepryaeva (RUS)  Krista Pärmäkoski (FIN)  Ingvild Flugstad Østberg (NOR)

Stages[edit]

Mass start stages[edit]

In the mass start stages in the Tour de Ski, time bonuses of 15, 10 and 5 bonus seconds are awarded to the first three finishers. Bonuses are also awarded to the top ten skiers of intermediate sprints. Mass-start stages are typically 5 km or 10 km for ladies and 10 km or 15 km for men, often raced by skiing several laps. Skiers who are overlapped by others will be excluded from the rest of the Tour.[24] There are usually two or three mass start stages.

Interval start stages[edit]

In the interval start, or time trial stages in the Tour de Ski, skiers are sent out from the start in 30 second intervals. Interval start stages are typically 5 km or 10 km for ladies and 10 km or 15 km for men. Time bonuses of 15, 10 and 5 bonus seconds are awarded to the three fastest skiers.[24] There are usually one or two interval start stages. Between 2007–08 and 2015, the first stage of the Tour was a short trial, a prologue. The first prologue was in Oberhof, Germany in 2007 and the last in Oberstdorf, Germany, on 3 January 2015.

Sprint stages[edit]

The first ever Tour de Ski stage was a sprint stage in Munich, Germany, on 31 December 2006. Sprint stages consists of two rounds; a qualification round and a final round with a knock-out competition format. The 30 fastest skiers in the qualification round qualifies for the final round quarter-finals. In the quarter-, and semi-finals, the skiers compete in heats of six and the two best skiers in each heat are guaranteed progression.[25] 12 skiers advance from the quarter-finals to the semi-finals of which six advance to the final. The winners are rewarded, as of 2018–19, 60 bonus seconds.[24] The amount of bonus seconds are higher in sprint races then other types to encourage sprinter specialsts to go for results in the overall standings. There are usually one or two sprint stages.

Final Climb[edit]

The Tour de Ski has every year concluded with the final stage in Val di Fiemme where the skiers race up the alpine skiing course on Alpe Cermis in Cavalese. The stage's length is 9.0 km in total, the climb itself 3.6 km with an average gradient of 11.6% and a maximum gradient of 28.0%.[26]

The stage is raced as a free technique pursuit with starting intervals equal to the skiers accumulative times in the overall standings; which means that the first skier to cross the finish line on Alpe Cermis is the winner of the Tour de Ski. If the time differences are big, the race jury can decide that the lowest ranked skiers start in a «wave start».[27]

Records[edit]

Eight men and six ladies have won both overall and sprint standings in the same Tour, the first being Virpi Kuitunen in the inaguaral ladies' Tour. Sergey Ustiugov and Marit Bjørgen are the only skiers who have led the overall standings from the first stage and held the lead all the way to the top of Alpe Cermis. The most appearances have been by Jean-Marc Gaillard, who skied his 13th Tour in 2018–19, having finished 10 of them. In 2016, Petter Northug became the first skier to complete ten Tours. The smallest margins between the winner and the second placed skiers at the end of the Tour is 7.2 seconds between winner Virpi Kuitunen and Aino-Kaisa Saarinen in 2008–09. The largest margin, by comparison, remains that of the 2016 Tour: 3 min 15.7 s between Martin Johnsrud Sundby and Finn Hågen Krogh. The biggest winning margin in the ladies' Tour is 2 min 42.0 s between Ingvild Flugstad Østberg and Natalia Nepryaeva in 2018–19.

Skiers who won the Tour de Ski and an individual Olympic gold medal in the same year include: Justyna Kowalczyk (2010) and Dario Cologna (2018). Four skiers have won the Tour de Ski and an individual World Championship gold medal in the same year. These are: Virpi Kuitunen (2007), Marit Bjørgen (2015), Petter Northug (2015) and Sergey Ustiugov (2017).

Overall winners[edit]

Two skiers have won four times: Justyna Kowalczyk (POL) and Dario Cologna (SUI) and an additional two men and three ladies have won two times. Kowalczyk achieved the mark with a record four consecutive wins.

Men
Wins Skier Editions
4  Dario Cologna (SUI) 2008–09, 2010–11, 2011–12, 2017–18
2  Lukáš Bauer (CZE) 2007–08, 2009–10
 Martin Johnsrud Sundby (NOR) 2013–14, 2016
1  Tobias Angerer (GER) 2006–07
 Alexander Legkov (RUS) 2012–13
 Petter Northug (NOR) 2015[28]
 Sergey Ustiugov (RUS) 2016–17
 Johannes Høsflot Klæbo (NOR) 2018–19
Ladies
Wins Skier Editions
4  Justyna Kowalczyk (POL) 2009–10, 2010–11, 2011–12, 2012–13
2  Virpi Kuitunen (FIN) 2006–07, 2008–09
 Therese Johaug (NOR) 2013–14, 2016
 Heidi Weng (NOR) 2016–17, 2017–18
1  Charlotte Kalla (SWE) 2007–08
 Marit Bjørgen (NOR) 2015
 Ingvild Flugstad Østberg (NOR) 2018–19

Stage wins[edit]

Justyna Kowalczyk won 14 stages in the Tour de Ski, more than any other skier.

17 men and 13 ladies have one two or more stages in the Tour de Ski. Justyna Kowalczyk has won the most stages with 14, followed by Petter Northug's 13 stage wins. Bjørgen (2015) and Ustiugov (2016–17) have both won five consecutive stages; five stage wins in one Tour is also a record.

Men
Pos Name Victories
1  Petter Northug (NOR) 13
2  Dario Cologna (SUI) 7
2  Martin Johnsrud Sundby (NOR) 7
2  Sergey Ustiugov (RUS) 7
5  Alexey Poltoranin (KAZ) 6
6  Lukáš Bauer (CZE) 5
7  Axel Teichmann (GER) 4
7  Johannes Høsflot Klæbo (NOR) 4
9  Eldar Rønning (NOR) 3
9  Emil Iversen (NOR) 3
11  Emil Jönsson (SWE) 2
11  Tor Arne Hetland (NOR) 2
11  Nikolay Morilov (RUS) 2
11  Alexander Legkov (RUS) 2
11  Marcus Hellner (SWE) 2
11  Federico Pellegrino (ITA) 2
11  Finn Hågen Krogh (NOR) 2
Ladies
Pos Name Victories
1  Justyna Kowalczyk (POL) 14
2  Marit Bjørgen (NOR) 11
2  Therese Johaug (NOR) 11
4  Ingvild Flugstad Østberg (NOR) 10
4  Virpi Kuitunen (FIN) 7
6  Petra Majdič (SLO) 6
6  Stina Nilsson (SWE) 6
8  Arianna Follis (ITA) 4
8  Heidi Weng (NOR) 4
10  Charlotte Kalla (SWE) 3
11  Jessica Diggins (USA) 2
11  Kikkan Randall (USA) 2
11  Kristin Størmer Steira (NOR) 2
  • State at 6 January 2019

Most successful countries[edit]

# Country 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th
1  Norway 10 15 9 8 6 6 5 7 5 6
2   Switzerland 4 1 2 2 2
3  Poland 4 1 1
4  Russia 2 4 2 1 6 2 3 3 3 7
5  Finland 2 3 1 6 3 4 3 3 5 1
6  Czech Republic 2 1 1 3 2 1 2
7  Sweden 1 1 2 2 2 1 3 3 3 1
8  Germany 1 1 1 5 2 3 3 3
9  Slovenia 1 1 2
10  Italy 4 2 3 2 2 3 1
11  Canada 1 1 3 1 1
12  Ukraine 1 1
13  USA 1 2 1 1 1 2
14  France 1 1 2 2
15  Kazakhstan 1 1 1
16  Austria 1 1 1
17  Japan 1 1

Standings after the 2018–19 Tour de Ski and the disqualifications of Yevgeny Dementyev (Russia) in 2008–09, Alena Sidko (Russia) in 2009–10, Johannes Dürr (Austria) in 2013–14 and Martin Johnsrud Sundby (Norway) in 2015.

Venues[edit]

Ten venues have hosted stages of the Tour de Ski. Val di Fiemme is the only venue to host a stage in all 13 Tours.

Host \ Season 06–07 07–08 08–09 09–10 10–11 11–12 12–13 13–14 14–15 15–16 16–17 17–18 18–19
Italy Asiago X X
Switzerland Lenzerheide X X X
Germany Munich X
Czech Republic Nové Město na Moravě CNX1 X2 X
Germany Oberhof X X X X X X
Germany Oberstdorf X CNX2 X X X X X X X
Czech Republic Prague X X X
Italy Toblach X X X X X X X X X
Italy Val di Fiemme X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Switzerland Val Müstair X X X X

Source:[29]

1 cancelled due to lack of snow
2 relocated from Oberstdorf to Nové Město na Moravě due scheduling problems

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rules for the FIS Cross-Country World Cup 2018, pp. 36–37.
  2. ^ Rules for the FIS Cross-Country World Cup 2018, pp. 4–6.
  3. ^ a b "Den ble født i en badstue" [It was born in a sauna]. www.dagsavisen.no (in Norwegian). Dagsavisen. 3 January 2015.
  4. ^ "Ny æra for langrenn" [A new era in cross-country skiing]. www.dagsavisen.no (in Norwegian). Dagsavisen. 25 November 2006.
  5. ^ "Tour på Nordkalotten". www.langrenn.com (in Norwegian). 24 November 2006.
  6. ^ (in Norwegian) Jürg Capol snakker om Tour de Ski, langrenn.com quoting Le Matin, 20 November 2006.
  7. ^ (in German) Interview mit Vincent Vittoz (FRA) zur Tour de Ski, from xc-ski.de, retrieved 19 December 2006.
  8. ^ (in German)langläufer angerer gewinnt in la clusaz, from dpa, retrieved 19 December 2006.
  9. ^ (in Norwegian) Tour-favoritter i kø, Tor Kise Karlsen, ANB, published 10 November 2006.
  10. ^ (in Norwegian) –Utrolig godt fornøyd, Karin Harstensen, Østlandets Blad, 9 January 2007.
  11. ^ a b (in German) "Tour de Ski hat große Zukunft", ZDF, retrieved 9 January 2006.
  12. ^ a b (in Norwegian) Ulvang varsler Tour-endringer, Nettavisen, retrieved 9 January 2007.
  13. ^ (in Norwegian) Ulvang: - Touren en suksess, NTB, retrieved from vg.no, 9 January 2007.
  14. ^ (in Norwegian) Ulvang varsler Tour-endringer, ANB-NTB, retrieved 29 January 2006.
  15. ^ (in Swedish) Tomas Pettersson: Dags att flytta Tour de ski till Sverige - nu, Expressen, retrieved 9 January 2007.
  16. ^ (in German) Jubel über die Tour der Leiden, by Roland Wiedemann, Der Spiegel, retrieved 9 January 2007.
  17. ^ (in Swedish) Upplägget måste förändras i Tour de Ski Archived 2007-03-04 at the Wayback Machine, Göteborgs-Posten, retrieved 9 January 2007.
  18. ^ Ski-Zirkus, Rolf Lehmann, Wiesbaden Kurier, retrieved 9 January 2007.
  19. ^ (in Norwegian) Dropper Tour i Tyskland, Kim Nystøl, NRK, published 30 November 2007, retrieved 9 December 2007.
  20. ^ FIS-Ski.com 14 May 2009 article on 7 May 2009 meeting between Tour de Ski and Giro d'Italia officials in Venice.[permanent dead link] - accessed 16 May 2009.
  21. ^ Rules for the FIS Cross-Country World Cup 2018, pp. 34–35.
  22. ^ "RULES FOR THE FIS CROSS-COUNTRY WORLD CUP" (PDF). International Ski Federation (FIS). Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  23. ^ a b c Rules for the FIS Cross-Country World Cup 2018, pp. 36.
  24. ^ a b c Rules for the FIS Cross-Country World Cup 2018, pp. 34.
  25. ^ Rules for the FIS Cross-Country World Cup 2018, pp. 24.
  26. ^ "Final Climb - Alpe Cermis". www.whowins.worldofxc.com. Whowins. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  27. ^ Rules for the FIS Cross-Country World Cup 2018, pp. 37.
  28. ^ Palmer, Dan (20 July 2016). "Sundby stripped of World Cup and Tour de Ski titles after asthma medication mix-up". www.insidethegames.biz. inside the games. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  29. ^ Draft: FIS CROSS-COUNTRY WORLD CUP 2016/2017

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 59°57′50″N 10°40′04″E / 59.96389°N 10.66778°E / 59.96389; 10.66778