Tourism in Tanzania

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tourists watching an elephant in the Ngorongoro Crater.

Tanzania is a country with many tourist attractions. Approximately 38 percent of Tanzania's land area is set aside in protected areas for conservation.[1] There are 17 national parks,[2] 29 game reserves, 40 controlled conservation areas (including the Ngorongoro Conservation Area) and marine parks. Tanzania is also home to Mount Kilimanjaro, the highest point in Africa.[3]

Travel and tourism contributed 17.5 percent of Tanzania's gross domestic product in 2016[4] and employed 11.0 percent of the country's labour force (1,189,300 jobs) in 2013.[5] The sector is growing rapidly, rising from US$1.74 billion in 2004 to US$4.48 billion in 2013.[5] In 2016, 1,284,279 tourists arrived at Tanzania's borders compared to 590,000 in 2005.[6]

In 2019, the Tanzanian tourism sector generated US$2.6 billion in revenues with 1.5 million tourist arrivals[7].   

In 2020, due to Covid-19, travel receipts declined to US$1.06 billion and the number of international tourist arrivals declined to 616,491.

In October 2021, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism of Tanzania has been granted TSh.90 billion/= for the financial year 2021-2022,[8] part of the IMF loan for emergency financial assistance to support Tanzania’s efforts in responding to the Covid-19 pandemic.

Tourist attractions[edit]

National parks[edit]

Hippos in the Lake Manyara National Park in the year 2012.

Tanzania has almost 38% of its land reserved as protected areas, one of the world's highest percentage.[9] Tanzania boasts 16 national parks and is home to a large variety of animal life. Among the large mammals include the Big five, cheetahs, wildebeest, giraffes, hippopotamuses and various antelopes. Tanzania's most well known wildlife attractions are located in the northern part of the country and include the Serengeti National Park, Tarangire National Park and Lake Manyara National Park. The Serengeti National park encompasses the world-famous great migrations of animals.[10] The Serengeti National Park is the most popular park in the country and had the chance to host more than 330,000 visitors in 2012.[11]

In 2018, Serengeti National Park was voted the best African Safari Park following the depth study conducted by SafariBookings the largest online marketplace for African safaris. In their website, it reads, In total 2,530 reviews were examined from the SafariBookings website. The 1,670 user reviews were contributed by safari tourists from 72 countries. To complement these user reviews, reputable guidebook authors (working for Lonely Planet, Rough Guides, Frommer's, Bradt and Footprint) teamed up in the SafariBookings Expert Panel to write 860 expert reviews

The north is also home to the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. The Ngorongoro Conservation Area includes the Ngorongoro Crater, which is an extinct volcanic caldera[12] with lions, hippopotamus, elephants, various types of antelope, the endangered black rhinoceros, and large herds of wildebeest and zebra.[13] Olduvai Gorge, considered to be the seat of humanity after the discovery of the earliest known specimens of the human genus, Homo habilis as well as early hominidae, such as Paranthropus boisei also lies within the conservation area.

The western part of Tanzania includes the Mahale, Katavi, and Gombe national parks, the latter of which is the site of Jane Goodall's ongoing study, begun in 1960, of chimpanzee behaviour.[14][15] The country is also particularly rich in plant diversity, the Tanzania National Parks Authority has an entire national park the Kitulo National Park dedicated to flowers. There is a wide variety of biomass across the nation.

The Mount Kilimanjaro[edit]

An aerial view of Mount Kilimanjaro in the year 2009.

Also known as the roof of Africa, Mount Kilimanjaro is a UNESCO World Heritage site and the highest peak in Africa. The mountain (now a dormant volcano) rises approximately 4,877 metres (16,001 ft) from its base to 5,895 metres (19,341 ft) above sea level. The mountain is located in the north of the country on the border with Kenya in the town of Moshi and is accessible via Kilimanjaro International Airport. The airport also provides a gateway for tourists to all northern safari circuits. The mountain is part of Kilimanjaro National Park and is the second most popular park in the country and roughly 20,000 visitors trek the mountain every year.[16] The mountain is one of the most accessible high peaks in the world and has an average success rate of around 65%.[17]


The coastline of Zanzibar

Tourism in Zanzibar includes the tourism industry and its effects on the islands of Unguja (known internationally as Zanzibar) and Pemba in Zanzibar a semi-autonomous region in the United Republic of Tanzania.[18] Tourism is the top income generator for the islands, outpacing even the lucrative agricultural export industry and providing roughly 25% of income.[19][20] The main airport on the island is Zanzibar International Airport, though many tourists fly into Dar es Salaam and take a ferry to the island.

The Government of Zanzibar plays a major role in promoting the industry, with the official government tourist page stating that its goal regarding tourism is to "become one of the top tourism destinations of the Indian Ocean, offering an up market, high quality product across the board within the coming 17 years."[citation needed] Zanzibar Commission for Tourism recorded more than doubling the number of tourists from the 2015/2016 fiscal year and the following year, from 162,242 to 376,000.[21]

The increase in tourism has led to significant environmental impacts and mixed impacts on local communities, which were expected to benefit from economic development but in large part have not.[20][22] Communities have witnessed increasing environmental degradation, and that flow of tourists has reduced the access of local communities to the marine and coastal resources that are the center of tourist activity.[20]

UNESCO World Heritage Sites[edit]

Tanzania is home to seven UNESCO World Heritage sites with 6 of them on the mainland and 1 in Zanzibar. Currently there are 5 more sites viable to be nominated such as the Gombe National Park and the East African slave trade route.[23]

Tourism in Tanzania is located in Tanzania
Serengeti National Park
Serengeti National Park
Ngorongoro Conservation Area
Ngorongoro Conservation Area
Mount Kilimanjaro
Mount Kilimanjaro
Ruins of Kilwa and Songo Mnara
Ruins of Kilwa and Songo Mnara
Kondoa Rock Art Site
Kondoa Rock Art Site
Selous Game Reserve
Selous Game Reserve
Stone Town
Stone Town
Location of World Heritage Sites within Tanzania

Visa policy[edit]

The Visa policy of Tanzania

Most visitors to Tanzania must obtain a visa from one of the Tanzanian diplomatic missions. However, a majority of nations can obtain a visitor visa at any port of entry land or air. Most SADC citizens or East African Community citizens do not need a visa for tourism purposes. 3-month tourist visas are available for US$50 at all ports of entry (except US citizens must buy US$100 1 year multiple entry visas). Tanzania does not fall under the East African Tourist Visa regime and a separate visa is required to enter Tanzania.[24] All visitors must hold a passport valid for 6 months (according to the Tanzanian immigration department) or a month beyond the period of intended stay (according to IATA).[25]


The Kilimanjaro International Airport: The largest airport in the north to access the northern national parks.

In 2014 a total of 1,093,000 tourists visited Tanzania continuing the year on year growth of visitors. Compared to the size and potential Tanzania has the second lowest number of tourists only above Burundi. Almost 50% of tourists into were from Africa and the number has been rising due to the increase in regional integration and improved flight connectivity. Though the industry has been continually growing the recent recession and the 2014 Ebola scare has hurt the industry heavily.[26]

Tourist arrivals by year[edit]

Foreign traveller arrivals (2000-2016)[27][28]
Year Foreign arrivals Year Foreign arrivals
2000 501,669 2009 714,367
2001 525,122 2010 754,000
2002 575,296 2011 843,000
2003 576,198 2012 1,043,000
2004 582,807 2013 1,063,000
2005 612,754 2014 1,093,000
2006 644,124 2015 1,137,182
2007 719,031 2016 1,284,279
2008 770,376 2017 1,327,143

Arrivals by country[edit]

Most visitors arriving to Tanzania were from the following countries of nationality:[29]

Country/Territory 2021[30] 2019[31] 2018[32] 2017[33] 2016[34] 2015[35] 2014 2013
 Kenya 89,842 128,287 126,479 230,922 233,730 197,562 188,214 193,078
 Russia 77,422 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
 Burundi 75,507 32,070 37,643 66,357 63,530 48,210 51,553 34,873
 France 51,647 94,688 54,205 34,505 24,611 28,683 33,585 33,335
 United States 48,537 218,394 234,890 82,283 86,860 66,394 80,489 69,671
 Malawi 41,906 3,818 4,668 29,197 19,246 15,807 18,242 18,197
 Poland 38,860 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
 Rwanda 34,929 7,025 8,733 50,431 47,056 45,216 50,038 46,637
 South Africa 29,690 58,035 67,757 47,777 43,468 30,288 26,614 31,144
 DRC 29,031 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
 India 28,431 21,687 31,921 38,487 69,876 32,608 27,327 27,334
 Zambia 28,076 35,126 34,631 22,561 28,836 32,694 36,679 64,825
 Germany 25,081 82,470 81,308 58,394 57,643 52,236 47,262 53,951
 Uganda 23,855 30,545 48,182 37,160 37,870 37,253 36,420 39,488
 Ukraine 20,736 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
 United Kingdom 18,276 122,178 114,433 61,048 67,742 54,599 70,379 59,279
 Zimbabwe 16,791 31,308 33,878 26,543 22,148 30,533 36,497 30,765
 Spain 13,150 70,253 36,137 14,599 15,411 11,940 9,121 13,149
 Netherlands 9,634 83,998 42,160 26,542 24,197 20,150 23,710 20,633
 China 9,351 36,654 45,171 29,197 34,472 25,444 21,246 17,001
 Italy 7,013 99,270 58,722 51,758 50,715 53,742 49,518 57,372
 Israel 6,303 9,163 6,173 37,160 22,967 14,754 7,403 5,344
 Australia 1,825 29,017 28,458 15,926 15,411 15,807 15,962 17,336
Total 922,692 1,527,230 1,505,702 1,327,143 1,284,279 1,137,182 1,140,156 1,095,885

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "The Impact of Dominant Environmental Policies on Indigenous Peoples in Africa", authored by Soyata Tegegn, in Indigenous People in Africa: Contestations, Empowerment and Group Rights, edited by Ridwan Laher and Korir SingíOei, Africa Institute of South Africa, 2014, page 57, retrieved 16 October 2014
  2. ^ "Home". Tanzania National Parks. Archived from the original on 10 August 2006. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  3. ^ Wamboye, Evelyn F.; Nyaronga, Peter John; Sergi, Bruno S. (March 2020). "What are the determinant of international tourism in Tanzania?". World Development Perspectives. 17: 100175. doi:10.1016/j.wdp.2020.100175. ISSN 2452-2929.
  4. ^ "Tanzania Tourist Arrivals Increase by 12.9% in 2016 to Reach 1,28 M - TanzaniaInvest". TanzaniaInvest. 26 May 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  5. ^ a b World Tourism and Travel Council Data, 2013, retrieved 28 October 2014
  6. ^ United Republic of Tanzania, UNData, Statistics Division, United Nations, retrieved 22 October 2014 Archived 8 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "The Tanzania Tourism Sector - November 2021 Update". TanzaniaInvest. Retrieved 2 November 2021.
  8. ^ "The Tanzania Tourism Sector - November 2021 Update". TanzaniaInvest. Retrieved 2 November 2021.
  9. ^ "Protected area highlights for Tanzania". EoEartth. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
  10. ^ "Serengeti". Tanzania Tourist Board. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  11. ^ Sharaf, Yasir (26 April 2022). "Get 3 Best Kilimanjaro Routes, Success Rates & Difficulty Of Climbing Each Trail". XPATS International. Retrieved 10 August 2022.
  12. ^ Boniface, Brian G.; Cooper, Christopher P. (2001). Worldwide Destinations: The Geography of Travel and Tourism. Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 247. ISBN 0-7506-4231-9.
  13. ^ "Ngorongoro Conservation Area". Tanzania Tourist Board. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  14. ^ "Gombe Stream National Park". Tanzania National Parks. Archived from the original on 15 September 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  15. ^ Nature's Strongholds: The World's Great Wildlife Reserves, authored by Laura Riley and William Riley, Princeton University Press, 2005, page 138, retrieved 16 October 2014
  16. ^ "Press Statement: Number of Mount Kilimanjaro Climbers Not a Threat", Tanzania National Parks, 5 March 2014, retrieved 31 July 2015 Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ "Climb Kilimanjaro Guide". Kilimanjaro Success Rate – How Many People Reach the Summit. Retrieved 25 December 2015.
  18. ^ Sharpley, Richard; Ussi, Miraji (January 2014). "Tourism and Governance in Small Island Developing States (SIDS): The Case of Zanzibar: Tourism and Governance in Zanzibar". International Journal of Tourism Research. 16 (1): 87–96. doi:10.1002/jtr.1904.
  19. ^ Zanzibar islands ban plastic bags BBC News, 10 April 2006
  20. ^ a b c Lange, Glenn-Marie (1 February 2015). "Tourism in Zanzibar: Incentives for sustainable management of the coastal environment". Ecosystem Services. Marine Economics and Policy related to Ecosystem Services: Lessons from the World’s Regional Seas. 11: 5–11. doi:10.1016/j.ecoser.2014.11.009. ISSN 2212-0416.
  21. ^ Yussuf, Issa (19 April 2017). "Tanzania: Number of Tourists to Zanzibar Doubles As Tourist Hotels Improve Service Delivery". allAfrica. Retrieved 4 June 2019.
  22. ^ Rotarou, Elena (December 2014). "Tourism in Zanzibar: Challenges for pro-poor growth". Caderno Virtual Dde Tourismo. 14 (3): 250–265.
  23. ^ "United Republic of Tanzania - Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List". UNESCO. United Nations. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
  24. ^ "East Africa Tourist Visa". Magical Kenya. Kenya Tourism Board. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
  25. ^ List of Countries and Specific Visa Eligibility Archived 30 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Immigration Services Department of Tanzania
  26. ^ Okello, Moses M.; Novelli, Marina (January–April 2014). "Tourism in the East African Community (EAC): Challenges, opportunities, and ways forward". Tourism and Hospitality Research. 14 (1–2): 53–66. doi:10.1177/1467358414529580. S2CID 154279557.
  27. ^ "Tanzania Visitors exit survey 2013" (PDF). National Bureau of Statistics. Government of Tanzania. Retrieved 25 December 2015.
  28. ^ "The 2009 Tourism Statistical Bulletin" (PDF). Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism Tourism Division. Retrieved 25 December 2015.
  29. ^ Tanzania National Bureau of Statistics. Publications. Hotel and Tourism Statistics
  30. ^ "High Frequency Data end December 2021". National Bureau of Statistics.
  31. ^ "The 2019 International Visitors Exit Survey Report" (PDF). Bank of Tanzania.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  32. ^ "The 2018 International Visitors Exit Survey Report" (PDF). Bank of Tanzania.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  33. ^ "Tanzania Tourist Board Visitors Exit Survey 2017" (PDF). Bank of Tanzania. NBS Tanzania.
  34. ^ "The 2016 International Visitors' Exit Survey Report. International Tourist Arrivals. p. 73-77" (PDF). NBS Tanzania. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
  35. ^ "The 2015 International visitors' Exit Survey Report. International Tourist Arrivals. p.63-68" (PDF). NBS Tanzania. Retrieved 18 December 2017.

External links[edit]

Government ministries and agencies