Temporal range: Late Miocene-Holocene (Mayoan-Lujanian)
|Skeleton of Toxodon in Buenos Aires|
Toxodon (meaning "bow tooth" in reference to the curvature of the teeth) is an extinct genus of South American mammals from the Late Miocene to early Holocene epochs (Mayoan to Lujanian in the SALMA classification) (about 11.6 million to 11,000 years ago). It is a member of Notoungulata, one of several now extinct orders of hoofed mammals indigenous to South America distinct from living perissodactyls and artiodactyls. It was among the largest and last members of its order, and was probably the most common large hoofed mammal in South America of its time.
Toxodon was one of the last members of Notoungulata, a group of ungulates that had been part of the fauna of South America since the Paleocene. Toxodon was a member of Toxodontidae a large bodied group including similar, vaguely rhinoceros like forms.
Charles Darwin was one of the first to collect Toxodon fossils, after paying 18 pence for a T. platensis skull from a farmer in Uruguay. In The Voyage of the Beagle Darwin wrote, "November 26th – I set out on my return in a direct line for Montevideo. Having heard of some giant's bones at a neighbouring farm-house on the Sarandis, a small stream entering the Rio Negro, I rode there accompanied by my host, and purchased for the value of eighteen pence the head of the Toxodon." Since Darwin discovered that the fossils of similar mammals of South America were different from those in Europe, he invoked many debates about the evolution and natural selection of animals.
In his own words, Darwin wrote down in his journal,
Lastly, the Toxodon, perhaps one of the strangest animals ever discovered: In size it equaled an elephant or megatherium, but the structure of its teeth, as Mr. Owen states, proves indisputably that it was intimately related to the Gnawers, the order which, at the present day, includes most of the smallest quadrupeds: In many details it is allied to the Pachydermata: Judging from the position of its eyes, ears, and nostrils, it was probably aquatic, like the Dugong and Manatee, to which it is also allied. How wonderfully are the different Orders, at the present time so well separated, blended together in different points of the structure of the Toxodon!
Analysis of collagen sequences obtained from Toxodon as well as from Macrauchenia found that South America's native notoungulates and litopterns form a sister group to perissodactyls, making them true ungulates. This finding has been corroborated by an analysis of mitochondrial DNA extracted from a Macrauchenia fossil, which yielded a date of 66 Ma for the time of the split with perissodactyls.
In 2014, a study identifying a new species of toxodontid resolved the phylogenetic relations of the toxodontids, including to Toxodon. The below cladogram was found by the study:
Toxodon was about 2.7 m (8 ft 10 in) in body length, with an estimated weight up to 1,415 kg (3,120 lb) and about 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in) high at the shoulder and resembled a heavy rhinoceros, with a short and vaguely hippopotamus-like head. Because of the position of its nasal openings, it is believed that Toxodon had a well-developed snout. Toxodon possessed a large, barrel shaped body. It had short stout legs with plantigrade feet with three functional relatively short toes. The hind limbs are longer and raised higher than the front limbs, giving a sloped appearance to the body. Like horses, it had a stay apparatus allowing the knees to be passively locked while standing.
The vertebrae were equipped with high apophyses, which most likely supported the massive weight and muscles as well as its powerful head. Toxodon had broad jaws which were filled with bow shaped teeth and incisors. The teeth of Toxodon have no roots and are ever-growing (euhypsodont) like those of rodents and lagomorphs, and often exhibit enamel hypoplasia.
It was initially believed to have been amphibious, but after examining the proportions of the femur and tibia, as well as the position of its head, below the top of the spinal column, palaeontologists realized that it had features similar to terrestrial animals such as elephants or rhinoceroses. The fossils are also usually found in arid and semi-arid areas, typically an indication of a primarily terrestrial life.
Toxodon would have had a very unusual gait, due to its peculiar proportions. It may have galloped to escape predators, but like a rhino, it probably relied more on its size as protection.
Toxodon is believed to have been ecologically plastic, with its diet varying according to local conditions, with an almost totally C3 browsing diet in the Amazon rainforest, mixed feeding C3 in Bahia and the Pampas to almost completely C4 dominated grazing diet in the Chaco.
Toxodon became extinct at the beginning of the Holocene as part of the Quaternary extinction event, alongside almost all other large animals in South America. Previous mid-Holocene dates are now thought to be in error. Remains from the Arroyo Seco 2 site in the Pampas have been interpreted to be the result of butchery, suggesting that human hunting was a contributing factor to extinction.
Toxodon had a wide distribution in South America during the Late Pleistocene, extending from the Pampas into the Amazon rainforest.
Fossils of Toxodon have been found in:
- San José, Fortin Tres Pozos, Chaco and Luján Formations, Argentina
- Tarija and Ñuapua Formations, Bolivia
- Sopas and Dolores Formations, Uruguay
- Miocene-Pliocene (Montehermosan)
- Ituzaingó Formation, then described as Entrerriana Formation, Argentina
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Read, 19th April 1837. A detailed account will appear in the first part of the zoology of Voyage of the Beagle.
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- ^ Toxodon at Fossilworks.org
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- Miocene genus first appearances
- Holocene extinctions
- Miocene mammals of South America
- Pliocene mammals of South America
- Pleistocene mammals of South America
- Neogene Argentina
- Ituzaingó Formation
- Pleistocene Argentina
- Pleistocene Bolivia
- Pleistocene Brazil
- Pleistocene Paraguay
- Pleistocene Uruguay
- Fossils of Argentina
- Fossils of Bolivia
- Fossils of Brazil
- Fossils of Paraguay
- Fossils of Uruguay
- Fossil taxa described in 1837
- Taxa named by Richard Owen
- Prehistoric placental genera