Toxodontidae

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Toxodontidae
Temporal range: Late Oligocene–Holocene
Mixotoxodon.jpg
Mixotoxodon larensis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Notoungulata
Suborder: Toxodonta
Family: Toxodontidae
Owen, 1845
Subfamilies and Genera

Haplodontheriinae

Nesodontinae

Toxodontinae

Xotodon sp. skull at the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin

Toxodontidae is an extinct family of notoungulate mammals known from the Oligocene to the Holocene (5,000 BP) of South America,[1] with one genus, Mixotoxodon, also known from the Pleistocene of Central America and southwestern North America (Texas).[2] They somewhat resembled rhinoceroses, and had teeth with high crowns and open roots, suggesting that they often fed on tough pampas grass.[3] However, isotopic analyses have led to the conclusion that the most recent forms were grazing and browsing generalists.[4]

Taxonomy[edit]

The endemic notoungulate and litoptern ungulates of South America have been shown by studies of collagen and mitochondrial DNA sequences to be a sister group to the perissodactyls.[5][6][7]

In 2014, a study identifying a new species of toxodontid resolved the families phylogenetic relations. The below cladogram was found by the study:[8]



Pampahippus arenalesi





Rhynchippus spp.




Scarritia canquelensis



Leonitinia gaudri




Toxodontidae

Proadinotherium leptognathum





Adinotherium spp.




Nesodon taweretus



Nesodon imbricatus






Palyeidodon obtusum




Hyperoxotodon speciosus





Nonotherium henningi



Xotodon spp.






Andinotoxodon bolivariensis





Dinotoxodon paranensis



Toxodon platensis





Gyrinodon quassus




Ocnerotherium intermedium



Hoffstetterius imperator








Posnanskytherium desaguaderoi




Pisanodon nazari




Pericotoxodon platignathus





Calchaquitherium mixtum



Mixotoxodon larensis





Paratrigodon euguii



Trigodon gaudri















References[edit]

  1. ^ Turvey, Samuel T. (2009-05-28). Holocene Extinctions. OUP Oxford. ISBN 9780191579981. 
  2. ^ E. Lundelius, et al. 2013. The first occurrence of a toxodont (Mammalia, Notoungulata) in the United States. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Vol 33, No 1, pp. 229–232 DOI:10.1080/02724634.2012.711405
  3. ^ Palmer, D., ed. (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. London: Marshall Editions. p. 253. ISBN 1-84028-152-9. 
  4. ^ MacFadden, Bruce J. (September 2005). "Diet and habitat of toxodont megaherbivores (Mammalia, Notoungulata) from the late Quaternary of South and Central America". Quaternary Research. Elsevier. 64 (2): 113–124. Bibcode:2005QuRes..64..113M. doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2005.05.003. 
  5. ^ Welker, F.; Collins, M. J.; Thomas, J. A.; Wadsley, M.; Brace, S.; Cappellini, E.; Turvey, S. T.; Reguero, M.; Gelfo, J. N.; Kramarz, A.; Burger, J.; Thomas-Oates, J.; Ashford, D. A.; Ashton, P. D.; Rowsell, K.; Porter, D. M.; Kessler, B.; Fischer, R.; Baessmann, C.; Kaspar, S.; Olsen, J. V.; Kiley, P.; Elliott, J. A.; Kelstrup, C. D.; Mullin, V.; Hofreiter, M.; Willerslev, E.; Hublin, J.-J.; Orlando, L.; Barnes, I.; MacPhee, R. D. E. (2015-03-18). "Ancient proteins resolve the evolutionary history of Darwin's South American ungulates". Nature. 522: 81–84. doi:10.1038/nature14249. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 25799987. 
  6. ^ Buckley, M. (2015-04-01). "Ancient collagen reveals evolutionary history of the endemic South American 'ungulates'". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 282 (1806): 20142671–20142671. doi:10.1098/rspb.2014.2671. PMC 4426609Freely accessible. 
  7. ^ Westbury, M.; Baleka, S.; Barlow, A.; Hartmann, S.; Paijmans, J. L. A.; Kramarz, A.; Forasiepi, A. M.; Bond, M.; Gelfo, J. N.; Reguero, M. A.; López-Mendoza, P.; Taglioretti, M.; Scaglia, F.; Rinderknecht, A.; Jones, W.; Mena, F.; Billet, G.; de Muizon, C.; Aguilar, J. L.; MacPhee, R. D. E.; Hofreiter, M. (2017-06-27). "A mitogenomic timetree for Darwin's enigmatic South American mammal Macrauchenia patachonica". Nature Communications. 8: 15951. doi:10.1038/ncomms15951. 
  8. ^ Forasiepi, A. A. M.; Cerdeño, E.; Bond, M.; Schmidt, G. I.; Naipauer, M.; Straehl, F. R.; Martinelli, A. N. G.; Garrido, A. C.; Schmitz, M. D.; Crowley, J. L. (2014). "New toxodontid (Notoungulata) from the Early Miocene of Mendoza, Argentina". Paläontologische Zeitschrift. doi:10.1007/s12542-014-0233-5. 
  • McKenna, Malcolm C., and Bell, Susan K. 1997. Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. Columbia University Press, New York, 631 pp. ISBN 0-231-11013-8