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Collector urchin.jpg
Tripneustes gratilla
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Echinodermata
Class: Echinoidea
Superorder: Echinacea
Order: Camarodonta
Family: Toxopneustidae
Troschel, 1872 [1]
See text

Toxopneustidae is a family of globular sea urchins in the class Echinoidea.


All Camarodonts have imperforate tubercles and compound ambulacral plates. In addition, the Toxopneustids are characterised by the peristome, or opening through the test, having a sharp margin with the buccal notches being prominent. The tubercles lack the crenulations or ring of cog-like structures that articulate with the spines in certain other families. The Aristotle's lantern, or jaw apparatus, has the keeled teeth and the epiphyses united above the foramen magnum, the V-shaped gap between the hemipyramids that support the lantern's tooth.[2]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Toxopneustidae World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2011-08-27.
  2. ^ The Echinoid Directory The Natural History Museum. Retrieved 2011-08-27.