|This article's lead section may not adequately summarize key points of its contents. (October 2010)|
Toxteth sign on Croxteth Road near Sefton Park, Liverpool
|Toxteth shown within Merseyside|
|OS grid reference|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Postcode district||L8, and small parts of L3 and L7|
|EU Parliament||North West England|
Toxteth is an inner city area of Liverpool, England. Historically in Lancashire, Toxteth is located to the south of the city, Toxteth is bordered by Liverpool City Centre, Edge Hill, Wavertree and Aigburth.
- 1 Description
- 2 History
- 3 Places of worship
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Unrest and crime
- 6 Politics
- 7 Regeneration
- 8 The Beatles
- 9 Parks
- 10 Landmarks
- 11 Transport
- 12 Notable residents
- 13 Cultural references
- 14 References
- 15 Bibliography
- 16 External links
The district lies within the borders of the ancient township of Toxteth Park. Industry and commerce are confined to the docks on its western border and a few streets running off Parliament Street. Toxteth is primarily residential, with a mixture of old terraced housing, post-World War II social housing and a legacy of large Victorian houses.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, as Liverpool expanded the ancient park of Toxteth was gradually urbanised. Large Georgian houses were built in the Canning area, followed in the Victorian era by more grand houses, especially along the tree-lined Prince's Road/Avenue boulevard and around Prince's Park. The district quickly became home to the wealthy slave merchants of Liverpool, alongside a much larger poor population in modest Victorian terraces. Now, some of these streets of terraces are boarded up, awaiting demolition.
Two of the city's largest parks, Sefton Park and Princes Park, are located in or around Toxteth. The earlier Princes Park was laid out by Richard Vaughan Yates around 1840, intending it to be used as open space, funded by the grand houses to be constructed around its edge, as would later happen with Sefton Park. Sefton Park was created by the Corporation of Liverpool in 1872, inspired partly by Birkenhead Park, across the River Mersey. Sefton Park has a large glass Palm House, which contains a statue of William Rathbone V unveiled in 1887, and originally had many other features including an aviary and an open-air theatre.
There is some ambiguity as to the origin of the name. One theory is that the etymology is "Toki's landing-place". However, Toxteth is mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086, and at this time, it appears as "Stochestede", i.e. "the stockaded or enclosed place", from the Anglo-Saxon stocc "stake" and Anglo-Saxon stede "place" (found in many English placenames, usually spelled stead).
Before the time of the Norman Conquest, Toxteth was divided into two manors of equal size. One was owned by Bernulf and the other by Stainulf. After the conquest, part was granted by Count Roger of Poitou to the ancestor of the Earl of Sefton. From this time to about 1604, the land formed part of West Derby forest. The boundaries of the manor are described in the perambulation of 1228 as follows, "'Where Oskell's brook falls into the Mersey; up this brook to Haghou meadow, from this to Brummesho, following the syke to Brumlausie, and across by the old turbaries upon two meres as far as Lombethorn; from this point going down to the "waterfall" of the head of Otter pool, and down this pool into the Mersey. " In 1327, Toxteth was granted to Henry, Earl of Lancaster.
Over the years, various leases and grants were made and the park was owned by Adam, son of William de Liverpool, in 1338. In 1385, William de Liverpool had licence "to take two cartloads of gorse weekly from the park for 12d. a year rent." In 1383 a grant was made to William Bolton and Robert Baxter, in 1394 the lease was resigned and handed over to Richard de Molyneux. The park finally came into the hands of Sir Thomas Stanley in 1447. The parkland descended within the Stanley family until 1596, when it was sold by William Stanley, Earl of Derby, to Edmund Smolte and Edward Aspinwall. In 1604, the Earl sold it to Richard Molyneux of Sefton at a cost of £1,100. The estate descended from this time until 1972 with the death of the 7th Earl.
The ancient township of Toxteth contains the village of Smeedon or Smithdown. It stretches over an area of three miles along the River Mersey and two miles inland, the highest point being on the corner of Smithdown Lane and Lodge Lane. A brook ran from the northern end of the area, near the boundary of Parliament Street, where it was used to power a water wheel before it ran into the river. Along the river are two creeks; the one near the middle is known as Knot's Hole, and another further south, called Dickinson's Dingle, received a brook which ran past the east end of St Michael's Church, Aigburth.
At some time in history the creeks were filled in. The Dingle is now in the area where the old northern creek was situated, and St Michael's Hamlet is situated around the southern creek. Outside the southern boundary of the area lies the creek known as Otterspool, which formed the boundary between Wavertree and West Derby. The major road through the area was Park Lane, now Park Place and Park Road. The road ran from the Coffee House, which stood near Fairview Place, down towards the Dingle, and the "Ancient Chapel of Toxteth".
Toward the end of the 16th century, the royal park ceased to be and Puritan farmers from Bolton settled in the area. Setting up 25 farms on land outside Church of England control, which became Toxteth Village, these Dissenters worshipped at the "Ancient Chapel" on Park Road, now known as the Toxteth Unitarian Chapel (not to be confused with Ullet Road Unitarian Church, in Toxteth, south Liverpool). In 1611, they built a school at the Dingle, appointing Richard Mather as schoolmaster. Some years later, he began preaching to the local farmers in the chapel.
Smithdown, referred to as Esmedune in the Domesday Book, and variously as Smededon, Smeddon, Smethesdune, Smethedon, Smethdon, Smethden, has been merged into Toxteth Park since the granting of the Liverpool Charter in 1207. The definite boundaries of Smithdown have never been fully recorded, but the name continued in use from 1207 until the 16th century, although it is thought to have reached from Lodge Lane to the eastern boundary of Toxteth Park. In 1066, Smithdown was held as a separate manor, by Ethelmund. During the reign of King John the Manor of Smithdown was taken from its owner, and the king gave him Thingwall instead.
Second World War
During the Second World War, the Free French 13th Demi Brigade of the French Foreign Legion were stationed in Toxteth. On 30 August 1940, the Demi Brigade departed Liverpool for operations against Vichy forces that would include the abortive Battle of Dakar and the storming of Libreville.
Places of worship
As the area began to develop and become more urbanised, several places of worship were built to serve the growing community. The first church was St James's, in 1774. Other churches built during the 19th century include St John the Baptist's, 1832; St Thomas's, 1840; St Barnabas's, 1841; St Clement's Windsor, 1841; St Matthew's, 1847; St Paul's, 1848; Holy Trinity, 1858; St Silas's, 1865; St Cleopas's, 1866; St Margaret's, 1869; Christ Church, 1870; St Philemon's, 1874; All Saints', 1884; St Gabriel's, 1884; St Agnes's, 1884; St Bede's, 1886; and St Andrew's, 1893;.
In addition, the following may be considered landmarks: the Welsh Presbyterian Church, nicknamed "Toxteth Cathedral", 1868; the Ullet Road Unitarian Church, 1899, "one of the most elaborate Non-conformist ensembles in the country"; the Church of St. Agnes and St. Pancras, also in Ullet Road; the Church of St Clare on the corner of Arundel Avenue and York Avenue, and the Princes Road Synagogue, 1874, "impressively combining Gothic revival and Moorish revival architecture". The Al-Rahma Mosque on Hatherley Street opened in 2008.
Immigration to Toxteth has taken place from the 19th century with the arrival of African and Chinese sailors and thousands of Irish catholic migrants, to the present day, most recently from the Caribbean, Yemen and Somalia with relatively few from the Indian sub-continent. The area has a very large community of mixed ethnicity as a result.
Unrest and crime
July 1981 saw riots in which dozens of young males caused a great deal of damage and many injuries. Poverty, unemployment, racial tension, racism and hostility towards the police were largely blamed for the disturbances, which were among the worst scenes of unrest seen during peacetime in Britain at that time. Hundreds of people were injured, one man was killed by a police Land Rover, and countless buildings and vehicles were damaged.
A second, less serious riot occurred in Toxteth on 1 October 1985.
Crime rates in Toxteth have been high for many years.
As well as racial and civil unrest, vehicle crime has also blighted Toxteth. The highest-profile instance of vehicle crime in Toxteth came on 30 October 1991, when two children (nine-year-old Daniel Davies and 12-year-old Adele Thompson) were killed by a speeding sports car driven by 18-year-old joyrider Christopher Lewin on Granby Street. Lewin was found guilty on a double manslaughter charge at Liverpool Crown Court on 24 September 1992 and sentenced to seven and a half years in prison, as well as being banned from driving for seven years. At the end of his trial, relatives and friends of the two victims pelted him with missiles and threatened to attack him. Five of them were ejected from the court.
With Toxteth still fresh in the mind of the British media and public a decade after the 1981 riots, it was reported in the international media during December 1991 that the area still suffered from many of the problems that was said to have triggered those original riots, and some local residents claimed that things had gone from bad to worse. Despite the efforts of community groups and other services to help train young people for jobs, youth unemployment in the area was reported to be above 50%. In April 1994, The Independent newspaper highlighted that Toxteth was still one of the most deprived areas in Britain, with unemployment in some districts exceeding 40%, with theft, drug abuse and violent crime being rife.
Further rioting broke out in Toxteth on the evening of 8 August 2011 - almost exactly 30 years after the most infamous riot - at a time when riots flared across England. Vehicles and wheelie bins were set alight in the district, as well as in nearby Dingle and Wavertree, and a number of shops were looted too. Two police officers suffered minor injuries as a result of the rioting. It was brought under control in the early hours of the following morning. Individuals arrested and charged in relation to the 2011 rioting were from addresses all across the city, with Toxteth residents being a clear minority.
Politically, Toxteth is within the parliamentary constituency of Liverpool Riverside. The Member of Parliament is Louise Ellman, of the Labour Party, although she actually represents the Co-operative Party, a Labour Party affiliate whose candidates stand as "Labour and Co-operative". The council ward is Princes Park, and has three Labour councillors.
Much of the area continues to suffer from poverty and urban degradation. House prices reflect this; in summer 2003, the average property price was just £45,929 (compared to the national average of £160,625).
Despite government-led efforts to regenerate Toxteth after the 1981 riots, few of the area's problems appeared to have improved by 1991, by which time joyriding had also become a serious problem; on 30 October that year, a 12-year-old was killed by a speeding stolen car on Granby Street, seriously injuring a nine-year-old who died in hospital from his injuries six days later.
By the time of the riot's 20th anniversary in July 2001, it was reported that many of the issues which contributed to the riots were still rife; not least unemployment and racial tension, as well as a decline in the sense of community in some neighbourhoods. Urban dereliction and gun crime remained a significant problem. However, there had already been some significant improvements by this stage, including the rebuilding of the Rialto complex (which was destroyed in the 1981 riot) as a mix of retail, residential and commercial properties.
Housing in Toxteth tends to be in terraces but there is a growing number of flats available as larger Victorian properties are broken up into separate dwellings. This is particularly the case in Canning, and around Princes Park.
Extensive regeneration has taken place in Toxteth over the last few years, including demolition of many of the Victorian terraces in the area. This has created much new development but also scarred the area with cleared sites and derelict streets. There has been strong local opposition to demolition of the Granby Triangle and the Welsh Streets, attracting extensive coverage in the national media. Four streets in the Granby Triangle have been removed from the clearance plans. In 2015 a community regeneration initiative which involved a collaboration between a Community Land Trust, Steinbeck Studios and the artists collective Assemble was nominated for the Turner Prize. The prize was awarded to Assemble in December 2015.
However, clearance is still the official policy for 11 streets near Princes Park. These are nicknamed the "Welsh Streets" and were built by the architect Richard Owens and the builder D Roberts, Son and Co - together they built more than 4,000 houses in Toxteth largely in the 1870s. (Welsh migrants built a large percentage of buildings around Liverpool in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.) The streets were named after Welsh towns, valleys and villages.
Musician Ringo Starr was born in 9 Madryn Street, where he lived until the age of 4. His family then moved to Admiral Grove, a minute's walk away, where he was still living when he joined the Beatles. All the Beatles attended Ringo's 21st birthday party at Admiral Grove.
The threat to Starr's birthplace announced in 2003 prompted uproar in parts of the neighbourhood and among fans all over the world. A proposal was made in September 2005 to take down the house brick by brick and rebuild it as a centrepiece for the Museum of Liverpool Life. This was a reversal of Liverpool council's earlier claim the house had no historic value. However, as of 2012, number 9 Madryn Street and several hundred other houses still stands, although most have been emptied of residents. Starr said it was not worth taking the house down simply to rebuild it elsewhere, as it would not then be his birthplace. Many suggested demolition of the area surrounding Starr's home was unsatisfactory, claiming "People liked the city's character, not packaged replicas".
Council survey data published in 2005 showed the Welsh Streets were broadly popular with residents and in better than average condition, but were condemned for demolition because of a perceived 'over-supply' of 'obsolete' terraced houses in Liverpool. The land was offered to private developer Gleeson's and social landlord Plus Dane and proposals published for lower density houses. Some residents were happy to be offered new homes, while others were determined to stay. The proposals have divided the local community.
Clearance has proved highly contentious, with some taking the view that the houses are beyond rescue, while others believe they are fundamentally sound. Campaigning charities led by Merseyside Civic Society and SAVE Britain's Heritage have asserted that renovation would be preferable and cheaper. By 2009 over 100 residents had been rehoused together into a neighbourhood nearby which they had helped to design. Others had left the area altogether. In 2011 the Secretary of State quashed planning permission for demolition and required an Environmental Impact Assessment. In summer 2012 new proposals for demolition of 250 houses were endorsed by Liverpool Mayor Joe Anderson and Housing Minister Grant Shapps, who visited the area to announce retention of 9 Madryn Street and 15 adjacent homes. Local residents in the Welsh Streets Home Group have consulted on alternative renovation proposals that retain the majority of the houses, remodelled as environmentally friendly eco-homes.
Although Toxteth's Beatle connection is often only noted as Ringo's birthplace (as above), in fact the Lennon family had deeper and broader roots. John Lennon's grandfather John 'Jack' Lennon lived at 27 Copperfield Street (which ran into North Hill Street close to Admiral Street) in 1911 and this is where his father Alfred Lennon was born. Earlier in 1901, the Lennon family lived at 3 Lockhart Street. A great uncle James was living at 5 Madryn Street in 1911 as seen from the Census that year, and. Census records show other great uncles, aunts, cousins etc. scattered around Toxteth at the start of the 20th century. John Lennon's grandfather died in 1921 while living at 57 Copperfield Street. Of course the Beatles/Quarrymen played any number of clubs in Toxteth in the early 1960s and it was the home of Lord Woodbine, who had a strong influence on their early musical development.
Toxteth has two parks within its borders:
- Sefton Park, one of the last remnants of the royal hunting park. The park was designed by French landscape architect Édouard André.
- Princes Park, first major park created by Joseph Paxton.
- Belvedere Academy
- Church of St. Agnes and St. Pancras, Toxteth Park also in Ullet Road
- Church of St Clare on the corner of Arundel Avenue and York Avenue
- Church of St James, Liverpool
- Florence Institute
- Toxteth Unitarian Chapel
- Welsh Streets
The local railway station is Brunswick, located on Sefton Street in the south-western extremity of the district. The station is on the Northern Line of the Merseyrail network with trains departing to Southport via Liverpool city centre and to Hunts Cross.
St. James Station is a disused railway station in Toxteth. It was located at the corner of St. James Place and Parliament Street, on the Merseyrail Northern Line. This station is in a deep cutting, cut into the Northern Line tunnel, being in effect an underground station with no roof. It was closed in 1917 as being too near to the terminus at Liverpool Central High Level railway station. However, Merseytravel have stated they would consider reopening it if the population density in the area increases. The station is well located to serve the Liverpool Echo Arena at King's Dock and Liverpool Cathedral.
Sefton Park railway station, another disused station, was located at Smithdown Road and Garmoyle Road in nearby Wavertree. The station was closed to passengers in 1960. The station is on the West Coast Main Line Spur with Merseyrail trains running through from Liverpool South Parkway and Lime Street stations.
Toxteth is well served with bus routes.
- Jean Alexander, actress
- Victor Anichebe, footballer
- Akinwale Arobieke, convicted sex offender
- Arthur Askey, comedian and actor
- Reginald Bevins, Member of Parliament
- Stanley Boughey, recipient of the Victoria Cross
- Eddie Braben, comedy writer and performer
- Wally Brown CBE, teacher
- Ian Callaghan, footballer
- William Connolly (VC), soldier
- Alex Cox, filmmaker
- Alicya Eyo, actress
- Robbie Fowler, football player
- Billy Fury, musician
- Howard Gayle, football player
- Niall Griffiths, author
- Alois Hitler, half-brother of Adolf Hitler Alois lived in Upper Stanhope Street. Adolf is said to have stayed here with his brother for six months in 1912-13
- Jeremiah Horrocks, astronomer
- Holly Johnson, singer
- James Larkin, trade union leader and activist
- Fred Lawless, writer and playwright
- Gerry Marsden, musician
- George Melly, jazz and blues singer, critic and writer
- Mark Moraghan, actor
- Wes Paul, guitarist and singer
- Willy Russell writer and playwright
- Herbert Samuel, politician
- Michael Showers, gangster
- Margaret Simey, political and social campaigner
- Ringo Starr, musician
- Allan Ivo Steel, cricketer
- Ronald Stuart, recipient of the Victoria Cross
- Catherine Walters, courtesan
- Curtis Warren, criminal
- Laurence Westgaph, social historian and activist
The Objective-mode level "nmo_toxteth" in the computer game No More Room in Hell takes place at Hartington Road in Toxteth.
- Griffiths, Robert (2001). The History of the Royal and Ancient Park of Toxteth. Liverpool Libraries & Information Service. ISBN 978-0902990173.
- 'Townships: Toxteth Park', A History of the County of Lancashire: Volume 3 (1907), pp. 40-5, British History Online, retrieved 29 October 2006
- The Ancient Chapel of Toxteth, The Liverpolitan, August 1948, retrieved 29 October 2006
- The church and the attached church hall have been separately designated by English Heritage as Grade I listed buildings.Historic England. "Unitarian Chapel, Liverpool (1218227)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 16 March 2012.
- "Toxteth riots remembered". BBC News. 4 July 2001.
- "1985: Riots erupt in Toxteth and Peckham". BBC News. 1 October 1985.
- "Angry scenes as joyrider jailed for child deaths". The Independent. London. 25 September 1992.
- "Riots: Violence flares in Liverpool for up to five hours". BBC News. 9 August 2011.
- "Update: Details of those charged in connection with the violent disorder". Merseyside Police. 2 December 2011. Archived from the original on 4 April 2012.
- "Louise Ellman". The Co-operative Party. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- Smith, Helen (22 December 1991). "Decaying Liverpool No Better Off Than During '81 Riots : England: Spotlight shifts to disenchanted youths who joy ride in stolen cars". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- "Toxteth's long road to recovery". BBC News. 5 July 2001. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- "Rialto". Halsall Lloyd Partnership. Archived from the original on 23 March 2012.
- Gallagher, Paul (24 September 2015). "Residents of Granby Four Streets in Toxteth celebrate Turner Prize nomination for community regeneration project". The Independent. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- "Glyndŵr University academic backs bid to save Liverpool's historic Welsh Streets". Glyndŵr University. 29 June 2015. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- Carr, Dr. Gareth. "The Welsh Builder in Liverpool" (PDF). Liverpool Welsh. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- Clover, Charles (19 September 2005). "Ringo Starr's old house to be taken down and stored as 11 streets are demolished". London: The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 18 January 2008. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
- Gabriel, Clare (20 May 2005). "City's Welsh streets face threat". BBC News. Retrieved 2 February 2009.
- "The Venues". Liddypool: The Birthplace of The Beatles. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- Royden, Mike. "Adolf Hitler - did he visit Liverpool during 1912-13?". Retrieved 10 January 2009.
- Gardner, David (2001). The Last of the Hitlers. BMM. ISBN 0-9541544-0-1.
- Bradbury, Howard (30 October 2014). "Celebrity Interview - Holly Johnson". Cheshire Life. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- Liverpool District Placenames, Henry Harrison 1898
- Liverpool 8, John Cornelius 2001
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