Toyama, Toyama

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Toyama
富山市
Core city
Toyama montage.jpg
Flag of  Toyama
Flag
Official seal of  Toyama
Seal
Location of Toyama in Toyama Prefecture
Location of Toyama in Toyama Prefecture
 Toyama is located in Japan
 Toyama
Toyama
 
Coordinates: 36°41′45.3″N 137°12′49.3″E / 36.695917°N 137.213694°E / 36.695917; 137.213694Coordinates: 36°41′45.3″N 137°12′49.3″E / 36.695917°N 137.213694°E / 36.695917; 137.213694
Country Japan
Region Chūbu (Kōshin'etsu)
Prefecture Toyama
Area
 • Total 1,241.77 km2 (479.45 sq mi)
Population (October 1, 2016)
 • Total 418,142
 • Density 337/km2 (870/sq mi)
Time zone Japan Standard Time (UTC+9)
Symbols  
• Tree Zelkova serrata
• Flower sunflower
• Flowering tree Camellia japonica
Phone number 076-431-6111
Address 5-38 Higashi-Shinmachi, Toyama-shi, Toyama-ken 930-8510
Website www.city.toyama.toyama.jp
Toyama city hall

Toyama (富山市, Toyama-shi, Japanese: [tóꜜyàmà]) is the capital city of Toyama Prefecture, Japan, located on the coast of the Sea of Japan in the Chūbu region on central Honshū, about 200 km (120 mi) north of the city of Nagoya and 300 km (190 mi) northwest of Tokyo.

As of 1 October 2016, the city had an estimated population of 418,142 and a population density of 337 persons per km². Its total area was 1,241.77 square kilometres (479.45 sq mi).

The city has been designated an environmental model city by the national government for its efforts to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.

Geography[edit]

Located in the middle of its prefecture, Toyama is a seaside city by the coast of the Sea of Japan. Its municipal territory borders with the Gifu Prefecture and with the municipalities of Imizu, Namerikawa, Tonami, Nanto, Hida and Takayama.[1]

The nearest towns are Imizu (west), and Namerikawa (east), both by the sea and part of the Toyama urban area. The nearest city is Kanazawa, the capital of Ishikawa Prefecture, which is 65 km (40 miles) away.

Surrounding municipalities[edit]

Climate[edit]

Toyama has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) with hot, humid summers and cool winters. Precipitation is abundant throughout the year, particularly in July, September and from November through January. Despite winter in Toyama being relatively mild, its position near the Sea of Japan places it within the heavy snow belt of Japan and on average 3.8 m (12 ft) of snow falls each season, almost all of it from December through March, as well as occasionally experiencing some tremendous amounts of snowfall.

Climate data for Toyama, Toyama (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.9
(69.6)
22.5
(72.5)
25.7
(78.3)
32.4
(90.3)
32.6
(90.7)
36.4
(97.5)
38.8
(101.8)
39.5
(103.1)
38.3
(100.9)
33.3
(91.9)
29.2
(84.6)
21.6
(70.9)
39.5
(103.1)
Average high °C (°F) 6.0
(42.8)
6.8
(44.2)
10.9
(51.6)
17.3
(63.1)
21.9
(71.4)
25.1
(77.2)
29.0
(84.2)
30.9
(87.6)
26.5
(79.7)
21.1
(70)
15.3
(59.5)
9.6
(49.3)
18.4
(65.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.7
(36.9)
3.0
(37.4)
6.3
(43.3)
12.1
(53.8)
17.0
(62.6)
20.9
(69.6)
24.9
(76.8)
26.6
(79.9)
22.3
(72.1)
16.4
(61.5)
10.8
(51.4)
5.7
(42.3)
14.1
(57.4)
Average low °C (°F) −0.1
(31.8)
−0.3
(31.5)
2.2
(36)
7.2
(45)
12.6
(54.7)
17.4
(63.3)
21.5
(70.7)
22.9
(73.2)
18.8
(65.8)
12.4
(54.3)
6.8
(44.2)
2.4
(36.3)
10.3
(50.5)
Record low °C (°F) −11.9
(10.6)
−11.1
(12)
−7
(19)
−2.2
(28)
2.3
(36.1)
7.7
(45.9)
13.0
(55.4)
14.1
(57.4)
8.9
(48)
1.9
(35.4)
−2
(28)
−8.5
(16.7)
−11.9
(10.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 259.5
(10.217)
172.1
(6.776)
158.5
(6.24)
122.2
(4.811)
134.2
(5.283)
182.6
(7.189)
240.4
(9.465)
168.3
(6.626)
220.2
(8.669)
160.7
(6.327)
234.4
(9.228)
247.0
(9.724)
2,300.1
(90.555)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 159
(62.6)
125
(49.2)
36
(14.2)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
2
(0.8)
57
(22.4)
380
(149.6)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm) 23.7 19.9 18.7 13.1 11.8 12.3 14.7 11.0 13.9 14.4 17.7 22.0 193.2
Average snowy days 19.1 16.1 9.1 0.8 0 0 0 0 0 0.6 1.0 9.7 56.4
Average relative humidity (%) 82 79 73 69 72 79 81 77 79 77 77 80 77.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 68.1 86.3 131.3 174.9 191.1 150.2 147.1 201.3 133.1 142.7 102.8 75.8 1,604.7
Source #1: Japan Meteorological Agency[2]
Source #2: Japan Meteorological Agency (records)[3]

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

The area of present-day Toyama city was part of ancient Etchū Province. The Toyama Plain is good farmland and historically it was a point of strategic and traffic importance since prehistoric times. During the Sengoku period, it was frequently a battlefield, coming under the control of warlord Sasa Narimasa, who built a castle town around Toyama Castle and channeled rivers to bringing about a flourishing agricultural industry. The area subsequently became part of Kaga Domain under the Maeda clan during the Edo Period, during which time a positive industrial promotion policy was implemented on the production of Chinese medicine and washi (Japanese paper). Also, thanks to the improvement of kitamaebune sea transportation routes, these industries thrived and Toyama became known nationwide as the province of medicine.

Recent history[edit]

After the Meiji Restoration, with the creation of the municipalities system, the city of Toyama was established on April 1, 1889 as one of the first 30 cities in Japan. Economically, the area developed heavy and chemical industries based on abundant hydroelectric electricity. Toyama has become one of the most influential cities on the Sea of Japan with its good water supply, drainage system and thriving agricultural, forestry, fishery, commercial and manufacturing industries. During World War II, Allied POWs were sent to Toyama as forced labor.[4]

The city was almost completely destroyed on the night of August 1–2, 1945. At the time of the bombing, the city was a center for aluminum, ball-bearing and special steel production.[5][6] The city during the time had a population of around 150,000 residents.

2005 mergers[edit]

On April 1, 2005, the towns of Ōsawano and Ōyama (both from Kaminiikawa District), the towns of Fuchū and Yatsuo, and the villages of Hosoiri and Yamada (all from Nei District) were merged into Toyama. Kaminiikawa District and Nei District were both dissolved as a result of this merger.

Economy[edit]

Hokuriku Electric Power Company (colloquially known as Hokuden), the regional power-supply monopoly, is based in Toyama.[7] Bearing parts and industrial robot company Nachi-Fujikoshi and software company INTEC are also headquartered in Toyama.[8][9]

Regional banks include Hokuriku Bank, First Bank of Toyama, and Toyama Bank.[10]

Education[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Primary and secondary education[edit]

Toyama has 65 public elementary schools and 26 public middle schools operated by the city government. There is also one public elementary school and one public middle school operated by the national government. The city has fourteen public high schools operated by the Toyama Prefectural Board of Education. and one public combined middle/high school operated by the national government. There are also seven private high schools

Transportation[edit]

Airports[edit]

Railway[edit]

Highway[edit]

International relations[edit]

Local attractions[edit]

Gohyaku rakan - five hundred statues depicting arhats, at the Chōkei-ji temple in Toyama

Festivals and events[edit]

  • Toyama Chindon Contest (Toyama Band of musical sandwichmen contest) - proposed by the Toyama Chamber of Commerce in 1955 and is held annually in early April. This event has become a festival, and many bands of sandwichmen (men wearing sandwich boards for advertisements) participate, attracting many tourists every year.
  • Kaze No Bon - held annually on September 1 to 3, in the Yatsuo region.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 4807827 (x a j h) Toyama on OpenStreetMap
  2. ^ "平年値(年・月ごとの値)". Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 2011-11-18. 
  3. ^ "観測史上1~10位の値(年間を通じての値)". Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 2011-11-18. 
  4. ^ Pennington, Matthew (25 April 2015). "'The truth needs to be told' about Japan's war history, some vets say". Stars and Stripes. United States. Associated Press. Retrieved 25 April 2015. 
  5. ^ Info on att.net
  6. ^ Info on echigonagaoka.com
  7. ^ "Annual Report 2013." Hokuriku Electric Power Company. Retrieved on August 28, 2014.
  8. ^ "Corporate Info." Nachi-Fujikoshi. Retrieved on August 27, 2014.
  9. ^ "About INTEC." INTEC. Retrieved on August 27, 2014.
  10. ^ "Corporate Data." Hokuhoku Financial Group. Retrieved on August 28, 2014.
  11. ^ Toyama International Conference Center
  12. ^ Toyama Glass Studio
  13. ^ Visit Toyama. (2008). Visit Toyama. Retrieved Jan. 6, 2013, from prefectural web site, English version.

External links[edit]