Toyama (city)

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Toyama
富山市
Core city
Toyama montage.jpg
Flag of Toyama
Flag
Official seal of Toyama
Seal
Location of Toyama in Toyama Prefecture
Location of Toyama in Toyama Prefecture
Toyama is located in Japan
Toyama
Toyama
 
Coordinates: 36°41′45.3″N 137°12′49.3″E / 36.695917°N 137.213694°E / 36.695917; 137.213694Coordinates: 36°41′45.3″N 137°12′49.3″E / 36.695917°N 137.213694°E / 36.695917; 137.213694
CountryJapan
RegionChūbu (Kōshin'etsu)
PrefectureToyama
Area
 • Total1,241.77 km2 (479.45 sq mi)
Population (February 28, 2018)
 • Total417,878
 • Density340/km2 (870/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+9 (Japan Standard Time)
Symbols 
• TreeZelkova serrata
• Flowersunflower
• Flowering treeCamellia japonica
Phone number076-431-6111
Address5-38 Higashi-Shinmachi, Toyama-shi, Toyama-ken 930-8510
Websitewww.city.toyama.toyama.jp
Toyama city hall

Toyama (富山市, Toyama-shi, Japanese: [toꜜjama]) is the capital city of Toyama Prefecture, Japan, located on the coast of the Sea of Japan in the Chūbu region on central Honshū, about 200 km (120 mi) north of the city of Nagoya and 300 km (190 mi) northwest of Tokyo. As of 28 February 2018, the city had an estimated population of 417,878 in 176,643 households,[1] and a population density of 337 persons per km2. Its total area was 1,241.77 square kilometres (479.45 sq mi).

The city has been designated an environmental model city by the national government for its efforts to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.

Geography[edit]

Located in the middle of its prefecture, Toyama is a seaside city by the coast of the Sea of Japan. Its municipal territory borders with the Gifu Prefecture and with the municipalities of Imizu, Namerikawa, Tonami, Nanto, Hida and Takayama.[2]

The nearest towns are Imizu (west), and Namerikawa (east), both by the sea and part of the Toyama urban area. The nearest city is Kanazawa, the capital of Ishikawa Prefecture, which is 65 km (40 miles) away.

Surrounding municipalities[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Per Japanese census data,[3] the population of Toyama has grown over the past 40 years.

Census Year Population
1970 350,085
1980 391,554
1990 408,942
2000 420,804
2010 421,953

Foreign populations in Toyama:[citation needed]

Ethnicity Population
Chinese 3,918
Filipino 1,452
Brazilian 1,423
Korean 871
Vietnamese 837
Pakistani 465
Indonesian 152
American 145
Others 1,505

Climate[edit]

Toyama has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) with hot, humid summers and cool winters. Precipitation is abundant throughout the year, particularly in July, September and from November through January. Despite winter in Toyama being relatively mild, its position near the Sea of Japan places it within the heavy snow belt of Japan and on average 3.8 m (12 ft) of snow falls each season, almost all of it from December through March, as well as occasionally experiencing some tremendous amounts of snowfall.

Climate data for Toyama, Toyama (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.9
(69.6)
22.5
(72.5)
25.7
(78.3)
32.4
(90.3)
32.6
(90.7)
36.4
(97.5)
38.8
(101.8)
39.5
(103.1)
38.3
(100.9)
33.3
(91.9)
29.2
(84.6)
21.6
(70.9)
39.5
(103.1)
Average high °C (°F) 6.0
(42.8)
6.8
(44.2)
10.9
(51.6)
17.3
(63.1)
21.9
(71.4)
25.1
(77.2)
29.0
(84.2)
30.9
(87.6)
26.5
(79.7)
21.1
(70)
15.3
(59.5)
9.6
(49.3)
18.4
(65.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.7
(36.9)
3.0
(37.4)
6.3
(43.3)
12.1
(53.8)
17.0
(62.6)
20.9
(69.6)
24.9
(76.8)
26.6
(79.9)
22.3
(72.1)
16.4
(61.5)
10.8
(51.4)
5.7
(42.3)
14.1
(57.4)
Average low °C (°F) −0.1
(31.8)
−0.3
(31.5)
2.2
(36)
7.2
(45)
12.6
(54.7)
17.4
(63.3)
21.5
(70.7)
22.9
(73.2)
18.8
(65.8)
12.4
(54.3)
6.8
(44.2)
2.4
(36.3)
10.3
(50.5)
Record low °C (°F) −11.9
(10.6)
−11.1
(12)
−7
(19)
−2.2
(28)
2.3
(36.1)
7.7
(45.9)
13.0
(55.4)
14.1
(57.4)
8.9
(48)
1.9
(35.4)
−2
(28)
−8.5
(16.7)
−11.9
(10.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 259.5
(10.217)
172.1
(6.776)
158.5
(6.24)
122.2
(4.811)
134.2
(5.283)
182.6
(7.189)
240.4
(9.465)
168.3
(6.626)
220.2
(8.669)
160.7
(6.327)
234.4
(9.228)
247.0
(9.724)
2,300.1
(90.555)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 159
(62.6)
125
(49.2)
36
(14.2)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
2
(0.8)
57
(22.4)
380
(149.6)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm) 23.7 19.9 18.7 13.1 11.8 12.3 14.7 11.0 13.9 14.4 17.7 22.0 193.2
Average snowy days 19.1 16.1 9.1 0.8 0 0 0 0 0 0.6 1.0 9.7 56.4
Average relative humidity (%) 82 79 73 69 72 79 81 77 79 77 77 80 77
Mean monthly sunshine hours 68.1 86.3 131.3 174.9 191.1 150.2 147.1 201.3 133.1 142.7 102.8 75.8 1,604.7
Source #1: Japan Meteorological Agency[4]
Source #2: Japan Meteorological Agency (records)[5]

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

The area of present-day Toyama city was part of ancient Etchū Province. The Toyama Plain is good farmland and historically it was a point of strategic and traffic importance since prehistoric times. During the Sengoku period, it was frequently a battlefield, coming under the control of warlord Sassa Narimasa, who built a castle town around Toyama Castle and channeled rivers to bringing about a flourishing agricultural industry. The area subsequently became part of Kaga Domain under the Maeda clan during the Edo period, during which time a positive industrial promotion policy was implemented on the production of Chinese medicine and washi (Japanese paper). Also, thanks to the improvement of kitamaebune sea transportation routes, these industries thrived and Toyama became known nationwide as the province of medicine.

Recent history[edit]

After the Meiji Restoration, with the creation of the municipalities system, the city of Toyama was established on April 1, 1889, as one of the first 30 cities in Japan. Economically, the area developed heavy and chemical industries based on abundant hydroelectric electricity. Toyama has become one of the most influential cities on the Sea of Japan with its good water supply, drainage system and thriving agricultural, forestry, fishery, commercial and manufacturing industries.

During World War II, Allied Prisoners of War (POWs) were sent to Toyama as forced labor.[6] The city was almost completely destroyed on the night of August 1–2, 1945. At the time of the bombing, the city was a center for aluminum, ball-bearing and special steel production.[7][8] The city during the time had a population of around 150,000 residents. The city also held Kakure Christians, or "Hidden Christians" in Japan, forced from Nagasaki into internment camps after the government tried to punish them for their Christian beliefs.

2005 mergers[edit]

On April 1, 2005, the towns of Ōsawano and Ōyama (both from Kaminiikawa District), the towns of Fuchū and Yatsuo, and the villages of Hosoiri and Yamada (all from Nei District) were merged into Toyama. Kaminiikawa District and Nei District were both dissolved as a result of this merger.

Government[edit]

Toyama has a mayor-council form of government with a directly elected mayor and a unicameral city legislature of 38 members.

Economy[edit]

Hokuriku Electric Power Company (colloquially known as Hokuden), the regional power-supply monopoly, is based in Toyama.[9] Bearing parts and industrial robot company Nachi-Fujikoshi and software company INTEC are also headquartered in Toyama.[10][11]

Regional banks include Hokuriku Bank, First Bank of Toyama, and Toyama Bank.[12]

Education[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Primary and secondary education[edit]

Toyama has 65 public elementary schools and 26 public middle schools operated by the city government. There is also one public elementary school and one public middle school operated by the national government. The city has fourteen public high schools operated by the Toyama Prefectural Board of Education. and one public combined middle/high school operated by the national government. There are also seven private high schools.

Transportation[edit]

Airports[edit]

Railway[edit]

Highway[edit]

International relations[edit]

Local attractions[edit]

Gohyaku rakan - five hundred statues depicting arhats, at the Chōkei-ji temple in Toyama

Festivals and events[edit]

  • Toyama Chindon Contest (Toyama Band of musical sandwichmen contest) – proposed by the Toyama Chamber of Commerce in 1955 and is held annually in early April. This event has become a festival, and many bands of sandwichmen (men wearing sandwich boards for advertisements) participate, attracting many tourists every year.
  • Kaze No Bon – held annually on September 1 to 3, in the Yatsuo region.[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ official city statistics(in Japanese)
  2. ^ 4807827 (x a j h) Toyama on OpenStreetMap
  3. ^ Toyama population statistics
  4. ^ "平年値(年・月ごとの値)". Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 2011-11-18.
  5. ^ "観測史上1~10位の値(年間を通じての値)". Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 2011-11-18.
  6. ^ Pennington, Matthew (25 April 2015). "'The truth needs to be told' about Japan's war history, some vets say". Stars and Stripes. United States. Associated Press. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  7. ^ Info on att.net Archived 2007-02-28 at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ Info on echigonagaoka.com
  9. ^ "Annual Report 2013". Hokuriku Electric Power Company. Retrieved on August 28, 2014.
  10. ^ "Corporate Info". Nachi-Fujikoshi. Retrieved on August 27, 2014.
  11. ^ "About INTEC". INTEC. Retrieved on August 27, 2014.
  12. ^ "Corporate Data". Hokuhoku Financial Group. Retrieved on August 28, 2014.
  13. ^ Toyama International Conference Center
  14. ^ Toyama Glass Art Museum
  15. ^ Visit Toyama Archived 2013-05-12 at the Wayback Machine.. (2008). Visit Toyama. Retrieved Jan. 6, 2013, from prefectural web site, English version.

External links[edit]