Toyota Corolla (E90)
Pre-facelift Toyota Corolla CS sedan
March 1989 – June 1994 (Australia)
1988–2006 (South Africa)
|Designer||Akihiko Saito (Chief Designer)|
|Body and chassis|
|Layout||Front engine, front-wheel drive / four-wheel drive|
|Wheelbase||2,431 mm (95.7 in)|
Sedan: 4,326 mm (170.3 in)|
Liftback & Coupe: 4,374 mm (172.2 in)
Wagon: 4,369 mm (172.0 in)/4,356 mm (171.5 in)
1,656 mm (65.2 in)|
1988 Liftback, Wagon & Coupe: 1,666 mm (65.6 in)
1988 Sedan: 1,326 mm (52.2 in)|
Liftback & Coupe: 1,260 mm (49.6 in)
1989–1992 Sedan: 1,331 mm (52.4 in)
AWD Sedan: 1,346 mm (53.0 in)
FWD Wagon: 1,384 mm (54.5 in)
AWD Wagon: 1,415 mm (55.7 in)
|Curb weight||1086 kg (2390 lb)|
The Corolla E90 was the sixth generation of cars sold by Toyota under the Corolla nameplate. In general, all models departed from the previous generation's boxy styling for a more contemporary look and improved aerodynamics. The design team worked under the slogan of "new feeling of roundness."
The performance option of rear-wheel drive was dropped after 1987, with all Corollas front-wheel drive from 1987, with E90 production beginning in May 1987. For general export, the trim levels are Base, XL, GL, SE, and SE Limited. The GT-i was sold in smaller numbers in certain countries. The majority of the Corolla range was replaced in June 1991 for the Japanese market, with production for most export markets continuing into 1992. In Australia, it was built until mid-1994.
The all wheel drive Sprinter Carib wagon used a solid axle rear suspension with coil springs, while the rest used struts all around. The 4WD wagon was sold from 1988 to 1994 and had different bodywork to other Corollas. It was called the All-Trac in the US and sold with the Tercel or Corolla name in some countries.
The 1.3 liter sedan has a four-speed manual transmission (later all 1.3 liter engines had five-speeds) or a three-speed automatic transmission. The only model with the 1.5 liter 5A-FHE was SE-Limited G. The 4WD sedan is powered by the 1.6 liter 4A-F. The 1456 cc 3E engine was only fitted to the Japanese market Van (wagon) commercial version. The Sprinter sedan has a third window in the C-pillar and was unique to Toyota Vista Store Japanese dealerships.
The AE92 Levin and Trueno were also fitted with a supercharged engine. It used an SC12 roots type supercharger and a top mounted intercooler that was fed cool air via a scoop on the bonnet. They generated 206 N⋅m (152 lb⋅ft) at 4400 rpm as opposed to the naturally aspirated 4A-GE's 136 N⋅m (100 lb⋅ft) at 4,800 rpm.
Japanese market chassis:
- EE90 — Sedan 4-door (DX Custom, TX) 1.3 liter.
- AE91 — Sedan 4-door (DX, TX, SE, SE Limited G), wagon 5-door 1.5 liter
- AE92 — 2 door coupé (Levin, Trueno), Sedan 4-door (SE Limited, GT), Hatchback (FX, FX16, FX-GT, FX-ZS), Liftback (Sprinter GT) 1.6 liter
- AE95 — 4WD sedan 4-door (DX, SE Limited) 1.6 liter
- AE95G — 4WD wagon 5-door (Carib)
- CE96V — FWD van 5-door 1.8 liter diesel
- EE97V — FWD van 5-door (Std, XL) 1.3 liter
- EE98V — FWD van 5-door 1.45 liter
Japanese market engines:
- 2E — 1.3 liter
- 3E — 1.45 liter
- 5A-F — 1.5 liter
- 5A-FE — 1.5 liter EFI
- 5A-FHE — 1.5 liter EFI
- 4A-F — 1.6 liter
- 4A-GE — 1.6 liter 16-valve DOHC, EFI
- 4A-GZE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, EFI, wide valve angle, supercharger, 165 hp (121 kW) fitted to the "GT-Z" version.
Asian market Corollas originally came with four-door sedan (1.3-litre and 1.6-litre) or five-door liftback bodywork (1.6). The engines were the 12 valve 2E with 72 PS (53 kW) or the Twin Cam 16-valve 4A-F with 94 PS (69 kW). All engines were carbureted and without catalysts. There is also a GT variant which features disc brakes on all wheels, performance suspension and a more powerful 1.6-litre engine.
In December 1988, Toyota formed a joint venture with Holden called UAAI to build and market the Toyota Corolla as the Holden Nova. This agreement paralleled two Corolla generations including both the E90 and E100 series.
Australian market engines:
- 4A-F — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, carb, 95 hp (67 kW) CS, CS Limited, CSX & Spirit
- 4A-FE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, narrow valve angle, 102 hp (76 kW) XL, SR5, CSi, CSi Limited, Olympic Spirit
- 4A-GE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, wide valve angle, 135 hp (100 kW) SX, & GTi
- 6A-FC — 1.4 L (1397 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, carb, narrow valve angle, 81 hp (60 kW) SE
- 7A-FE — 1.8 L (1762 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, narrow valve angle, 115 hp (85 kW) Seca RV & Seca Ultima
Australian market chassis:
- AE90 — Sedan, Hatchback (SE)
- AE92 — Sedan, Hatchback, Seca (CS, CSX, Spirit, SE, SX)
- AE93 — Hatchback, Seca (SX, GTi)
- AE94 — Sedan, Hatchback, Seca (CSi, CSi Limited, Ultima)
- AE95 — Wagon (XL, SR5, CSi, Olympic Spirit)
- AE96 — Seca (RV, Ultima)
- Corolla Liftback was called Seca in Australia
- The Corolla 4x4 wagon (Sprinter Carib Wagon elsewhere) was released in mid-1988, Hatchback, Seca & Sedan released mid-1989
- SX is generally AE93 although on rare occasions they are found to be AE92R
- The facelift series 2 models were released in October 1992
- 6A-FC was only found in SE hatchbacks and early SE Sedans
- Corollas with 7A-FE engine were AE94 Ultimas in early 1992 and AE96 Ultimas & RV's in late 92 onwards
The European model Corolla featured either a four-door sedan and a three- or five-door hatchback, and the regular wagon basically has the front end of the Japan-spec Corolla FX, except for the all white clearance lights and the "TOYOTA" or the ellipse emblem instead of the "FX" or "GT" of the Japanese models. It has the standard side marker lights and the tail light with the integrated rear fog lamp (except for the wagon, which has the rear fog lamp on the tailgate.) European market Corollas also have headlight washers on the XL and the XLi models. The five-door liftback used the Japanese market Sprinter Cielo body in its entirety, although in Europe it was available with the little 1.3 liter engine as well. The second generation Sprinter Carib was also sold as a Corolla in Europe, where it replaced the Tercel Wagon. This little four-wheel drive station wagon received the "Touring" suffix in most European markets. The hatchback, representing the most popular and most closely contested market segment in Europe, suffered from being somewhat of a design afterthought. As opposed to its European competitors, where hatchbacks received a tacked-on trunk to become sedans (à la Ford's Orion, the Volkswagen Jetta, or the Opel Kadett sedan), the Japanese hatchback was derived from the sedan. As a result, the design was a bit truncated and trunk space was minimal at 281 L (9.9 cu ft). This was only a fraction more than the much smaller Citroën AX, and considerably less than for competitors such as the Kadett and Fiat Tipo (390 and 345 L, 13.8 and 12.2 cu ft).
The diesel version saw substantial sales in countries such as Belgium and Netherlands, where the tax structure favored diesels but where there were also no laws hindering the sales of Japanese cars. In Europe it was only sold with the comparatively spartan XL equipment level. The diesel, while quite slow and with heavy steering, was competitive with similar European cars of the period.
From late 1989 the 4A-GE engine in the GTi model was changed from the T-VIS equipped 'big port' variant to the non-T-VIS 'small port' version. For UK specification cars, this increased power from 124 bhp (92 kW) to 129 bhp (96 kW). The GTi was available as a hatchback or a liftback, although not all markets received both bodystyles. In Sweden, the 4A-GE equipped liftback was marketed as the Corolla CS (Coupé Sport), beginning in May 1991. It had the new 125 PS (92 kW) version of the 4A-GE engine and ventilated disc brakes all around.
European market engines:
- 2E — 1.3 L (1295 cc), 12-valve SOHC I4, carb, 74 bhp (55 kW)
- 4A-F — 1.6 L (1587 cc) 16-valve DOHC I4, carb, 95 bhp (71 kW)
- 4A-FE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) 16-valve DOHC I4, FI, narrow valve angle, catalyzed, 116 PS (85 kW)
- 4A-GE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) 16-valve DOHC I4, FI, wide valve angle, 125 PS (92 kW) GTi
- 1C-III — 1.8 L (1839 cc) OHC diesel I4, 64 PS (47 kW)
European market chassis:
- EE90 — 1.3 Hatchback 3-door (XL, GL), 1.3 Sedan 4-door (XL,GL), 1.3 Liftback 5-door, 1.3 Wagon 5-door (XL, GL, SR)
- AE92 – 1.6 Sedan 4-door (GL, GLi, XLi), 1.6 Liftback 5-door (GLi, GT-i, CS), 1.6 Hatchback 3-door (XL, GL-i, GS-i, GT-i), 1.6 Wagon 5-door
- CE90 — Hatchback 5-door, Liftback 5-door, Wagon 5-door Diesel models (XLD)
North American production of the sedan took place at NUMMI and Cambridge, Ontario, Canada. These two plants made 279,000 units, making a total of 4.5 million of this generation (AE92) made. The North American models depart from the previous generation's boxy styling, for a more contemporary look and improved aerodynamics. They feature longer bumpers and small red conspicuity lights on the rear quarter panels. Cabin air exits through stylish vents behind the rear side windows.
A 25th anniversary special edition was produced in 1990, made to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the Corolla line. It included 25th anniversary emblems on the front fender, embroidered on front seat and a three-spoke steering wheel.
Minor changes for the 1991 model year were Toyota's new (T) ellipse emblem on the grille, all-red tail lights, door-mounted and manual lap front seat belts, and new wheelcovers for the DX. The rear garnish was deleted for the base model.
The North American Corolla Sport coupé with retractable headlights was basically a Sprinter Trueno with different front corner lights and longer bumpers. Trim levels are SR5 and GT-S. The GT-S is powered by 4A-GE engine, and comes with full body kits. In 1990 the 4A-GE received a revised cylinder head and intake manifold. The new motor featured higher compression, the removal of the T-VIS system, and smaller ports in the intake manifold and is thus commonly referred to as the "smallport" version. Horsepower jumped from 115 hp (86 kW) to 118 hp (88kW) and 135hp (100 kW).
The four-wheel drive All-trac wagon in Base and SR5 trim levels were sold from 1988 to 1992 and had different bodywork to other Corollas. The Corolla All-trac sedan was sold in very small numbers, shared the same body as the AE92 sedan, with the only visible difference being the tire size.
The Geo Prizm shared a slightly different body with the Japan-market Sprinter sedan and Cielo liftback. These models were slightly more basic than their European/Japanese versions. The GSi version was equipped with the 4A-GE.
North American market engines:
- 4A-F — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, carb, narrow valve angle, 95 hp (71 kW)
- 4A-FE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, narrow valve angle, 102 hp (76 kW)
- 4A-GE — 1.6 L (1587 cc) I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, wide valve angle, 115 hp (86 kW) 1988/89, 135 hp (100 kW) 1990/91 GT-S
North American market chassis code & (VIN code): The Japanese built E90 has a JT2 VIN prefix while the NUMMI made E90 used 1NX (Toyota) and 1Y1 (Geo) VIN prefixes and the Cambridge built E90 has a 2T1 prefix.
- AE92 — Sedan 4-door Std (AE91 vin), DX (AE94 vin), LE (AE93 or AE97 vin)
- AE92 — Coupé 2-door SR5 (AE96 vin), GT-S (AE98 vin – model equivalent to Sprinter Trueno with pop-up headlights)
- AE92 — FWD wagon 5-door DX (AE94 vin)
- AE95 — 4WD sedan 4-door All-Trac/4WD (AE94 vin)
- AE95 — FWD/4WD wagon 5-door Std, DX, All-Trac (AE95 vin)
There were only two body styles sold in South Africa. The sixth-generation five-door hatchback that was made in South Africa was marketed as the Toyota Conquest. The four-door sedan was also available, but with "Corolla" badging. Production began in October 1988, with a 1.3 liter 53 kW (72 PS) "2E" engine or the 1.6 liter "4A-F" with 53 kW (72 PS). The twin cam version of this was also sold, as the GLi Twin Cam for the sedan and RSi for the Hatchback (4A-GE), with 96 kW (131 PS). It was also sold as a panel van called the Conquest Carri. The Conquest Carri was simply known as the Toyota Carri from 2000.
In October 1996 an entry-level model called the Toyota Conquest Tazz appeared. This model had a very low equipment level, originally only available with a four-speed manual and missing things such as a rear windshield wiper or a cigarette lighter – however, the Tazz received a twin-tip exhaust and body coloured bumpers. A five-speed became available three years later. From October 2000 the car received a light facelift with a more ovoid front end treatment and the name was changed to simply Toyota Tazz. This model continued to be built until July 5, 2006. The first version of the Tazz was only offered with a 1300 cc engine, while the facelifted version offered two models: 130, and 160i. Power was 55 kW (75 PS) and 79 kW (107 PS) respectively, same as for the Conquest/Corolla from September 1993 on. The Conquest and Corolla were also available in the 1.8 liter 7A-FE engined model beginning in September 1993; this replaced the earlier 1.6 Twin Cam in the Conquest and was available in a number of equipment levels in the Corolla (sedan), from GL to the mildly sporting GSX.
- "Overview of Overseas Production Affiliates: Oceania". Toyota Motor Corporation. 2012. Retrieved 2014-07-11.
- Büschi, Hans-Ulrich, ed. (9 March 1989). Automobil Revue 1989 (in German and French). 84. Berne, Switzerland: Hallwag AG. p. 554. ISBN 3-444-00482-6.
- "The Long Run – Toyota: The First 40 Years in Australia", Pedr Davis, South Hurstville: Type Forty Pty Ltd, 1999, ISBN 0-947079-99-8, p331-344
- Guglielmi, Filippo (1987-12-17). Liberali, Sandro, ed. "La "Tipo" giapponese" [The Japanese Tipo]. Auto Oggi (in Italian). Verona, Italy: Arnoldo Mondadori. 2 (54): 14.
- Sundfeldt, Björn, ed. (1991-05-02). "Corolla CS". Teknikens Värld (in Swedish). Stockholm, Sweden: Specialtidningsförlaget AB (9): 8.
- "Toyota Conquest 130 Carri". autowp (in Russian). Retrieved 2013-06-22.
- "Toyota Conquest Tazz: Exceptional value for money". CAR. South Africa: Ramsay Son & Parker: 72–73. October 1996.
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