Second generation MR2
|Manufacturer||Central Motors (part of the Toyota Motor Corporation)|
|Body and chassis|
The Toyota MR2 is a two-seat, mid-engined, rear-wheel-drive sports car manufactured in Japan and marketed globally by Toyota from 1984 to 2007 over three generations: W10 (1984–1989), W20 (1990–1999) and W30 (2000–2007). It is Japan's first mid-engined production car.
Conceived as a small, economical and sporty car, the MR2 employed straightforward design elements, including fully independent MacPherson strut front and rear suspensions, four wheel disc brakes, and transverse-mounted inline-four engines.
- 1 Origins
- 2 First generation (W10; 1984–1989)
- 3 Second generation (W20; 1989–1999)
- 4 Third generation (W30; 1999–2007)
- 5 In popular culture
- 6 The future
- 7 References
- 8 External links
The MR2 derived from a 1976 Toyota design project with the goal of a car which would be enjoyable to drive, yet still provide good fuel economy – not necessarily a sports car. Design work began in 1979 when Akio Yoshida from Toyota's testing department started to evaluate alternatives for engine placement and drive method, finalizing a mid-transverse engine placement. Toyota called the 1981 prototype SA-X.
From its original design, the car evolved into a sports car, and further prototypes were tested both in Japan and in California. Significant testing was performed on race circuits including Willow Springs, where former Formula One driver Dan Gurney tested the car.
All three generations were in compliance with Japanese Government regulations concerning exterior dimensions and engine displacement. The MR2 appeared around the same time as the Honda CR-X, the Nissan EXA, the VW Scirocco from Europe, and the Pontiac Fiero and Ford EXP from North America.
Toyota debuted its SV-3 concept car in October 1983 at the Tokyo Motor Show, gathering press and the audience publicity. The car was scheduled for a Japanese launch in the second quarter of 1984 under the name MR2.
First generation (W10; 1984–1989)
|Designer||Seiichi Yamauchi (1981)|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||2-door coupé or T-top|
|Engine||1.5 L 3A-LU I4 (AW10)|
1.6 L 4A-GE DOHC I4 (AW11)
1.6 L 4A-GZE supercharged I4 (AW11)
|Wheelbase||2,319 mm (91.3 in)|
|Length||3,950 mm (155.5 in)|
|Width||1,666 mm (65.6 in)|
|Height||1,234 mm (48.6 in)|
|Curb weight||1,035 kg (2,282 lb) (1985 NA)|
1,066 kg (2,350 lb) (1988 NA)
1,131 kg (2,493 lb) (1988 SC)
Toyota introduced the first-generation MR2 in 1984, designating it the model code "W10". When fitted with the 1.5-liter 3A engine, it was known as the "AW10". Likewise, the 1.6-liter 4A version is identified by the "AW11" code.
In Japan, the MR2 was marketed exclusively via Toyota's Toyota Auto Store and Toyota Vista Store, both rebranded in 1998 as Netz Toyota Store. At its introduction in 1984, the MR2 won the Car of the Year Japan.
As Toyota engineered the MR2 to accommodate a 2-liter engine, its primary features included its light body (as low as 950 kg (2,094 lb) in Japan and 1,066 kg (2,350 lb) in the US), strong handling and lightly powered, small-displacement engine. The car is often referred to as the AW11, referring to the chassis code of the most common 1.6-liter, A-engined versions.
The MR2's suspension and handling were designed by Toyota with the help of Lotus engineer Roger Becker. Toyota's cooperation with Lotus during the prototype phase can be seen in the AW11, and it owes much to Lotus's sports cars of the 1960s and 1970s. Toyota's active suspension technology called TEMS was not installed. With five structural bulkheads, the MR2 was quite heavy for a two-seater of its size.
Toyota employed the naturally aspirated 4A-GE 1,587 cc (1.6 L; 96.8 cu in) inline-four engine, a dual overhead-cam, four-valve-per-cylinder motor, borrowed from the E80 series Corolla. This engine was also equipped with DENSO electronic port fuel injection and a variable intake geometry ("T-VIS"), giving the engine a maximum power output of 112 hp (84 kW) in the US, 128 hp (95 kW) in the UK, 116 or 124 PS (85 or 91 kW; 114 or 122 hp) in Europe (with or without catalytic converter), 118 hp (88 kW) in Australia and 130 PS (96 kW; 128 hp) in Japan. Japanese models were later downrated to 120 PS (88 kW; 118 hp). The engine had already been introduced earlier on the AE86 Corolla, gathering a lot of positive publicity. A five-speed manual transmission was standard and a four-speed automatic was optional.
Road tests delivered 0–60 mph (97 km/h) times in the mid- to high-8 second range, and 1⁄4 mile (402 m) times in the mid- to high-16 second range, significantly faster than the four-cylinder Pontiac Fiero or Fiat X1/9. In the home market, the AW10 base model was offered, which used the more economical 1,452 cc (1.5 L; 88.6 cu in) 3A-U engine rated at 61 kW (82 hp).
In 1986 (1988 for the US market), Toyota introduced a supercharged engine for the MR2. Based on the same block and head, the 4A-GZE was equipped with a small Roots-type supercharger and a Denso intercooler. T-VIS was eliminated and the compression ratio was lowered to 8:1. It produced 145 hp (147 PS; 108 kW) at 6,400 rpm and 186 N⋅m; 137 lb⋅ft (19 kg⋅m) of torque at 4,400 rpm and accelerated the car from 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) in 6.5 to 7.0 seconds. The supercharger was belt-driven but actuated by an electromagnetic clutch, so that it would not be driven except when needed, increasing fuel economy. Curb weight increased to as much as 2,494 lb (1,131 kg) for supercharged models, due to the weight of the supercharger equipment and a new, stronger transmission. A fuel selector switch was also added in some markets, to allow the car to run on regular unleaded if required to. In addition to the new engine, the MR2 SC was also equipped with stiffer springs, and received special "tear-drop" aluminium wheels. The engine cover had two raised vents (only one of which was functional) that visually distinguished it from the naturally aspirated models. It was also labeled "SUPER CHARGER" on the rear trunk and body mouldings behind both doors. This model was never offered outside of the Japanese and North American markets, although some cars were privately imported to other countries.
MK1a and MK1b are unofficial designations, but are frequently used by owners and vendors to distinguish between early production vehicles and later face-lifted models. While there are considerable differences detailed below, the most notable being that rear suspension components are not interchangeable between the MK1a and MK1b cars.
- MK1a - June 1984 (MY 1985)
- June 1985 (MY 1986)
- Japanese model changes:
- Color-keyed front lip and bumpers, side stripes, mudflaps, side skirts option now available
- Mudflap removed for models equipped with "Aerodynamic Spoiler Package" as the side skirts are full-length along the side
- Rear sunshade with TOYOTA logo above the rear window added
- Third brake light added
- Leather interior option now available
- Bigger 212 mm flywheel and clutch for naturally aspirated models
- Rear anti-roll bar discontinued on North American models
- MK1b Facelift - August 1986 (MY 1987)
- Powertrain changes:
- Naturally aspirated 4A-GE now upgraded with a "7-rib" structural design as well as larger 42 mm (1.65 in) connecting rods. North American 4A-GE is also now rated at 115 hp (86 kW).
- Intake camshaft valve cover now has the "16 Valve" portion in red instead of blue (this is not to be confused with the smallport third generation 4A-GE where the intake camshaft cover lettering has the entire "Twin Cam 16 Valve" in red)
- EGR port repositioned on exhaust manifold to prevent cracking
- Revised manual transmission internals.
- Air filter rerouted to the trunk and continues around the trunk towards the air vent on the opposite side of the engine bay.
- Chassis changes:
- Slight unibody changes
- Radiator tilted back at an angle to force air down towards the bottom of the car
- Revised rear suspension
- Larger 258 mm (10.16 in) front and 262 mm (10.31 in) rear brake rotors
- New tail lights (UK models retained old tail light design with different integrated reflector)
- New front lip and front bumper
- Radio antenna moved to rear right quarter panel for t-top/sunroof models
- T-bar roof available in North America and Europe
- Interior changes:
- LHD models now has parking brake on the right side
- New center console, center armrest
- Glovebox lock
- Double-din radio, rear speakers added to the upper C pillar
- Door panels, three-spoke steering wheel, gauge cluster markings
- Seat changed to single-color velour and perforations added for leather seats
- 1987 (MY 1988)
- Supercharged model available in North America
- Color-coded side mirrors and new engine lid for supercharged models
- Full-length side skirts now standard on all models
- 1988 (MY 1989)
- T-bar glass panels changed from smoked (clear) to mirrored (opaque)
- Color-code door handle and side mirrors for all models
- Incandescent third brake lamp replaced by LED strip integrated into the rear spoiler
- More aerodynamic wing mirrors introduced, with optional power retract mechanism
- North American supercharged models equipped with rear anti-roll bar
The changes in MY 1986 and MY 1987 occurred in parts. Instead of a drastic change in MY 1987 models for the above MK1b upgrades, some MK1a parts continued on in early MY 1987 cars while some MK1b parts came on MY 1986 cars as options. An example is that some MY 1987 cars still retained the old "flat" front bumper despite having MK1b upgrades everywhere else on the car. Some early MY 1987 7-rib engines came with the earlier blue top valve cover. This was also noticed in the rear sway bar removal for the MY 1986. Some MY 1986 cars have a rear sway bar, while the mounting tabs on the strut housing were either there for both sides, only one side, or none at all depending on when Toyota ran out of the older rear struts with mounting tabs as production used up parts.
American car magazines Road & Track and Car and Driver both chose the MR2 on their lists of ten best cars. The Australian Wheels magazine chose the 1988 MR2 as its favourite sports car. The MR2 was Motor Trend's Import Car of the Year for 1985. The MR2 was also on Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1986 and 1987. In 2004, Sports Car International ranked the MR2 number eight on the list of Top Sports Cars of the 1980s.
In 1988 and 1989 Toyota produced two final production runs of fully optioned "Super Edition" MR2s, based upon the supercharged Japanese market model, and only sold in Japan. The 1988 'Super Edition' was a run of 300 units, had white/gold two-tone paint, bronze glass, unique half-leather and half-cloth seats, along with a MOMO-commissioned steering wheel and gear knob. The 1989 model, a run of 270 units, featured a special Midnight Blue paint, the MOMO-commissioned steering wheel and gear knob, Recaro "Milano" seats with matching door panels. The 1989 model also benefited from some of the last G-Limited model options, such as the LED rear spoiler brake light and more aerodynamic wing mirrors. Both "Super Edition" models had unique decals on the rear visor and side stripes.
Toyota 222D rally car
While Toyota's front-engine, rear-drive Celica rally cars proved dominant in the African Group B rallies of the 1980s, they were at a disadvantage on the twistier European stages. Thus, in 1985 Toyota Team Europe started a rally project codenamed "222D" based on the MR2, for competition in Group S and potentially Group B as well. Though somewhat similar on the outside, it's clear that it shared very little with the production car. Little is known about this project because it never competed. With Group B cancelled in 1986, the proposed Group S regulations suffered the same fate, and the car was reduced to a museum piece.
During a surprise appearance at the 2006 Goodwood Festival of Speed, Toyota drove and displayed a black 222D. The race-ready car weighed around 750 kg (1,650 lb) and its transverse-mounted, four-cylinder, turbocharged engine (what appears to be a 503E race engine, though other prototypes may have used the 4T-GTE) was reported to produce as much as 750 hp (559 kW). A V6-powered prototype was also rumored to exist, but has never been seen in public.
Second generation (W20; 1989–1999)
|Production||1989 – August 1999|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||2-door coupé or T-top|
|Wheelbase||2,400 mm (94.5 in)|
|Length||4,171 mm (164.2 in)|
|Width||1,699 mm (66.9 in)|
|Height||1,234 mm (48.6 in)|
The MR2 went through a redesign in 1989 (though North America did not receive them until late 1990 as 1991 models). The new car was larger, weighed 350 to 400 pounds (160 to 180 kg) more than its predecessor due to having a more luxurious and spacious cabin, larger engine sizes, sturdier transaxle, and a more durable suspension setup. The overall design of the automobile received a more rounded, streamlined styling, with some calling the MR2 SW20 a "baby Ferrari" as well as "poor man's Ferrari", since the car did have several design cues borrowed from Ferrari.
Like the AW11 before it, Toyota spent countless hours fine-tuning the handling capabilities of the SW20, seeking advice from professional race car drivers, including Dan Gurney of Formula One, NASCAR, and Le Mans fame.
When the AW11 was still in production and before the SW20 was officially shown to the public, several rumors were spreading stating that Toyota was building yet another mid-engine sports car, one that would have a 3.0L V6 engine that could directly compete with the 348, though this specific rumor was later shot down under the pretense that such a car would belong under the Lexus branding.
- Japanese market trim levels:
- G with an NA 2.0L 3S-GE engine producing 165 PS (121 kW; 163 hp); with an A/T standard and an optional M/T. The G was the base model of the SW20 line-up. Standard features included: climate control, electric mirrors, and fabric door/seat trim.
- G-Limited with the NA 2.0L 3S-GE engine; an A/T was standard or an M/T was optional. The G-Limited was the higher-specification naturally aspirated SW20. Additional standard features: electric folding mirrors, steering fog lamps, and rear spoiler.
- GT-S with a turbocharged 2.0L 3S-GTE engine producing 221 PS (163 kW; 218 hp); an M/T was the only choice. The GT-S had the same standard features as the G-Limited.
- GT with the turbocharged 2.0L 3S-GTE engine and manual transmission. The GT was considered as the luxury specification in the SW20 line-up and had alcantera/leather door and seat trim in addition to G-Limited standard features. All Japanese market cars came equipped with electronic climate control featuring 2 stage air conditioning.
- European market trim levels:
- Coupe with the NA 2.0L 3S-FE engine producing 138 hp (103 kW) (not available with T-bar roof). This model had no rear spoiler or front fog lights
- GT Coupe with the NA 2.0L 3S-GE engine producing 154 PS (113 kW; 152 hp).
- GT T-Bar with the NA 2.0L 3S-GE engine. Options included as standard were full leather seats/door cards and the premium 8 speaker audio system.
- There were no turbo models officially offered to the European market; however, many Japanese models were sold via the grey market.
- US market trim levels:
- MR2 with a NA 2.2L 5S-FE engine producing 130 hp (97 kW) and offered with a four-speed A/T or five-speed M/T.
- MR2 Turbo with a turbocharged 2.0L 3S-GTE engine producing 200 bhp (203 PS; 149 kW) at 6,000 rpm and 200 lb⋅ft (271 N⋅m) at 3,200 rpm of torque, offered only with a 5-speed M/T (offered solely with the T-bar roof after early 1993).
Differences between the normally aspirated and turbocharged models include the "Turbo" emblem (US) on the rear trunk, 'TWIN CAM 16 TURBO' decal above the side intake (Japanese market), a fiberglass engine lid with raised vents, fog lights, and an added interior center storage compartment located between the two seats. All SW20 MR2s came with a staggered wheel setup, with wider wheels and tires in the rear than in the front.
Mechanical differences on the Turbo models include:
- 3S-GTE engine with associated air-to-air intercooler and different exhaust configuration;
- Stronger and heavier E153 gearbox with different ratios and stronger axles;
- Larger fuel pump and radiator.
- Models with 3S-GE and 3S-GTE engines had twin-piston front brake calipers. Models with the 5S-FE engine had only single-piston calipers.
The stock US market MR2 Turbo model was able to accelerate from 0–60mph in 6.1 seconds and finish the 1/4 mile in 14.7 seconds.
Revision 2 cars were fitted with Yokohama A022s, coincidentally the NSX also uses a special variant of the A022.
A stock Japanese market Rev 3 GT-S Turbo was able to run the 1/4 mile in 13.1 seconds, beating out more expensive and higher powered automobiles such as the Honda NSX, Toyota Supra RZ, and even the Ferrari 348 TB.
Best Motoring, a popular Japanese automobile TV show featured an episode that had them battle a factory stock Rev 5 GT-S Turbo versus other Japanese market contemporaries on the Tsukuba Circuit, with the MR2 winning the circuit race. In the rankings of personal bests, a Rev 2 GT-S is able to clock 1:08.00 at Tsukuba Circuit.
Revisions and model year changes
The second-generation MR2 underwent a variety of changes during its 10 years of production, grouped in four different periods:
- 1989 (Revision 1)
Introduction of the new generation.
- January 1992 (Revision 2, MY 1993)
- Fitment of a catalytic converter, lowering the power to 156 hp
- Revised rear suspension with longer toe links
- Revised front suspension which removed castor angle adjustment
- Larger front lip
- 15-inch wheels and wider tires on all models (Front: 195/55/15, Rear: 225/50/15)
- Larger brakes (turbo only in US market, All cars for Japanese and European markets)
- Shorter shift lever and smaller knob
- Viscous LSD option (turbo only)
- Upgraded transmission synchronizers
- US turbo models now only sold with T-bar roof (except for a few sold in early 1993)
- Canadian sales cease after 1993
- EBFD and TC added as options on Japanese market models
- November 1993 (Revision 3, MY 1994–1995)
- European & Japanese market 3S-GE now rated at 173 hp
- Japanese market 3S-GTE (Gen 3) now rated at 245 PS (180 kW; 242 hp)
- American market 5S-FE now rated at 135 hp (101 kW).
- American market Turbo models retained the Gen 2 3S-GTE.
- Round "Kouki" tail lights
- Prior 3-piece rear wing replaced with revised one-piece
- Color-coded center panel, front lip, and side skirts.
- Passenger airbag (not available for the Japanese market)
- Viscous LSD added as standard in Japanese market Turbo models
- Japanese market E153 gearbox revised with upgraded synchros
- Cruise control no longer an option on Japanese market models
- Upgrades made to ABS system, which now induced an acceleration sensor located behind the gear stick
- Upgrades to electronic power steering system (EHPS) to boost assist at low speeds and reduce assist at high speeds
- Strengthening pieces added to rear strut towers
- American sales cease in 1995; turbo models are not offered in California-emission states after 1994
- June 1996 (Revision 4, MY 1996–1997)
- Fender mounted turn signals on all models
- 5 spoke alloys featured diamond cut faces
- Passenger airbag added as an option in Japanese market
- Revisions to ABS system
- European 3S-GE down-rated to 168 hp due to the introduction of EGR.
- Unavailable in North America
Revision 5 : 1998–1999 Model (Introduced Nov-1997):
- Clear fender mounted turn signals
- New 15-inch wheels featuring narrower spokes
- Adjustable rear spoiler, revised from the earlier versions
- Red rings around gauges, red stitching on leather shift knob (and on leather seats on turbos)
- Japan receives the new BEAMS 3S-GE rated at 200 PS (150 kW; 200 hp)
Changes to the suspension geometry, tire sizes and power steering in January 1992 (MY 1993) were made in response to journalist reports that the MR2 was prone to "snap-oversteer". As a counterpoint to the snap-oversteer phenomenon of the MR2, other journalists point out that most mid-engine and rear engine sports and super cars exhibit similar behaviour, and that a change to the driver's response to oversteer is really the solution. In any car, braking shifts the weight forward, and acceleration to the rear. When drivers enter a corner with too much speed, and lift the throttle mid-corner, the weight transfers forward causing the rear tires to lose traction (called lift-off oversteer), which can result in a spin. When improper steering inputs were made attempting to correct this non-power-on oversteer, the rear of the MR2 would swing one way, then wildly (and quickly) the other—thus the term "snap" oversteer. Toyota elected to change the MR2 suspension and tires to reduce the likelihood that this would occur, though many drivers would lament the change and claim that it "neutered" the sharp edge the MR2 was known for. Toyota claimed that the changes were made "for drivers whose reflexes were not those of Formula One drivers".
In 1998, Toyota Racing Development offered an official kit body conversion and tuning program for MR2 owners to transform their existing SW20 MR2 into a wide-body TRD2000GT replica car. This was to pay homage to the TRD2000GT wins in the GT-C Japanese racing series, since the TRD2000GT racing series cars were based on the SW20 floor pan. The TRD2000GT body kit widened the MR2 by a total of 100 mm (4 in). Prior to MR2s being fitted with the TRD2000GT body kit, TRD had its customers select which additional engine, suspension, wheel, and interior upgrades they wanted. For these reason, no two TRD2000GT MR2s are alike. It is rumored that at least one was built to produce up to 370 kW (500 bhp) whereas some others had few modifications to their engines.
In order to ensure exclusivity, a high price tag was charged and total of just 35 factory car conversions were completed by Toyota Technocraft Ltd. Each official Technocraft-converted car was made using lightweight fiberglass components (front fenders, trunk lid extension, rear quarter panels, gas door, front and rear bumpers, 3-piece wing) and re-classified as completely new cars (with their own specially numbered TRD VIN plate riveted to the body to indicate their authenticity and rarity).
The Toyota Technocraft Ltd. TRD2000GT had a 60 mm (2.4 in) wider front and rear track (due to the addition of wider wheels and tires). Virtually every car converted also had other TRD parts fitted too, including extensive changes to both the suspension and engine. Most cars left the factory making more power due to TRD bolt-ons, some cars even left the factory boasting up to 500 PS (370 kW; 490 hp) and less than 1100 kg (2425 lb) for a very impressive power-to-weight ratio. While TRD Japan only offered a small number of kits with all body parts required for third-party conversion, Toyota Technocraft Ltd. offered complete car conversions.
Apart from the cars listed on the TRD2000GT register it is unknown how many original Toyota Technocraft Ltd. cars still exist today, but it is rumored that approximately 10 conversion kits were imported from TRD Japan into the US for conversions. In many respects, the extended body can be compared to that of a Porsche 911 Slantnose modification. The car's width is extended and body dimensions dramatically changing the car's overall visuals. Very little is known about these cars outside Japan.
Apart from Toyota Racing Development, TOM'S also released official body kits and a variety of tuning parts for the MR2. The "T020" as it was called, was powered by a naturally aspirated 2.2L stroked 3S-GE that produced 175 kW (235 bhp) at 6,800 rpm, this was due to more aggressive "F3" cams, a stroker kit, better intake flow with the aid of the "TOM'S Hyper Induction Carbon" intake kit, and an upgraded exhaust system labeled the "TOM'S Barrel", a lightened flywheel was also equipped to help the engine rev easier. The T020 also featured a more race-oriented suspension/chassis set up via camber kits, upgraded tie-rods, strut bars, roll center adjusters, stiffer springs, race shock absorbers, and sports brake pads. These modifications lowered the vehicle's center of gravity for increased agility and stability while cornering, and combined with the engine modifications enabling the T020 to accelerate from 0–60 mph (97 km/h) in 4.9 seconds, in turn further made the SW20 chassis a much more capable track machine. A sportier look was given to the vehicle as well through engine scoops, side skirts, a Ferrari 348-esque rear light grille, forged wheels, revised bumper designs, and a larger rear spoiler.
Though undeniably still an MR2, the T020 was in all essence a more refined automobile, as is the nature of any TOM'S outfitted vehicle. Whilst the T020 was a normally aspirated vehicle, TOM'S also produced equipment for turbocharged models — e.g. wastegates, boost controllers, air filters, a 3S-GTE version of their "TOM'S Barrel" exhaust system, and "T.E.C. II" Engine Control Units. Despite the fact that these products are no longer purchasable brand new, some of these modification parts may still be procured as second-hand items, and are highly sought after by the MR2 community. TOM'S still keeps a T020 part list on their website, and there are still T020 part catalogues in circulation between enthusiasts to this day, albeit second-hand.
Between 1996 and 1999, Toyota TechnoCraft (TTC) produced 91 MKII SW20 MR2 Spiders. These cars featured a retractable, cloth softtop roof, wingless trunk lid, and an engine lid that was unique to the SW20 spider. Most of these cars were automatics and nearly all of them sported a naturally aspirated engine. Toyota decided against putting its name or logo on these cars as a result of its desire to distance itself from cars that featured leaky roofs. Most of the Spiders came in Lucerne Silver with a blue side moulding and featured black and blue accented cloth seats.
Several of these cars have been imported into the UK.
Early in the 1990s, the SW20 enjoyed considerable success throughout the world. Several teams fielded the MR2 in the Swiss Touring Car Championship, as well as in the South-East Asian Supercar Championship, with much success. The chassis was also used for a time during the mid 90s in the Fuji Freshman Series in Japan in which the SW20 succeeded the earlier AE86 chassis. Currently both the SW20 and ZZW30 chassis are used in 750 Motor Club's MR2 Championship in the UK which started in the early 2000s.
Le Mans: SARD MC8-R
The Sard MC8-R was a modified and lengthened version of the SW20 built for GT racing by Toyota's works team SARD (Sigma Advanced Research Development). The MC8-R housed a twin-turbo version of the 4.0-liter 1UZ-FE V8 producing 600 bhp (450 kW). Eligible for the GT1 category, the MC8-R lacked pace against the new generation sports cars and homologation specials such as Porsche 911 GT1, but did compete alongside a similarly modified Toyota Supra.
One MC8 road car was built in order to meet homologation requirements. The car disappeared from public eye within a year of its construction, but surfaced again on the Japanese collector car website SEiyaa in 2015, two decades after its disappearance. The car is assumed to be in the possession of a private collector, as the vehicle's sales listing has since been removed from SEiyaa.
1995 and 1996
- The MC8-R made its first outing in the 1995 24 Hours of Le Mans piloted by Alain Ferté, Kenny Acheson, and Tomiko Yoshikawa. It retired after 14 laps. Later that year the car attempted the 1000km Suzuka, this time managing to finish 26th overall.
- One MC8-R was entered in the 1996 24 Hours of Le Mans, piloted by Masanori Sekiya, Hidetoshi Mitsusada, and Masami Kageyama. The team qualified 37th and finished 24th, second-to-last of finishers.
- The team also entered the 1997 24 Hours of Le Mans, but driver Olivier Grouillard failed to make it past pre-qualifying. Two cars were also entered in the FIA GT Championship round at the 1997 Suzuka 1000km (one by Team Menicon SARD and one entered by IDC Ootsukakagu SARD), but neither car managed to finish. It was replaced for the following year with the Toyota GT-One.
Japanese Grand Touring Championship (now Super GT)
With JGTC being the highest form of sports car racing in Japan, many manufacturers and private teams alike spent countless hours of research and development into perfecting their respective chassis. Toyota would enter their premier production cars, namely the Celica, MR2, and Supra. Unlike the experimental MC8-R, the MR2 JGTC shared more qualities chassis wise to the road-going production car, though it had a lower ride height than the standard SW20s, was wider, featured advanced aerodynamics and Brembo racing brakes. While it kept the MacPherson suspension setup from the road car, these components too were heavily modified (strut towers were more inward). The standard E153 5-speed transmission was swapped out for a race sequential transmission, which was mated to a race-spec version of the 3S-GTE engine. With the car's interior gutted, the intercooler was placed in the forward section of the vehicle with pipes travelling to and fro inside the cabin, as opposed to in the engine bay as a "side-mount" in production MR2s. Having won back to back in the years 1998 to 1999 against arguably more sophisticated race cars such as the BMW M3, Porsche 911, Ferrari F355, Toyota has proven that the SW20 chassis was competitive enough for top level sports car racing.
- Team Taisan Jr. with Tsuchiya campaigned a MR2 #25 powered by the factory 3S-GTE powerplant in the 1998 JGTC season. Keiichi Suzuki and Shingo Tachi drove an amazing five GT300 victories out of six races (as the Fuji Speedway race was cancelled due to inclement weather and several accidents), winning the teams' and drivers' championship for GT300 accumulating a total of 106 points. Their #25 MR2 also participated and won the "All-Star race" at the end of the year.
- For following year, Team Taisan Jr. moved to a Porsche chassis in GT300, while MOMOCORSE A'PEX Racing Team with Tsuchiya campaigned a crimson MR2 and won both teams' and drivers' championships. Morio Nitta and Shin'ichi Takagi drove to one victory, two 2nd places, and one third place to secure the teams' championship, with Nitta winning the drivers' championship by just one point over the Nismo Silvia that was driven by Takeshi Tsuchiya and Yuji Ide. Momocorse Racing would move to the MR-S chassis for the 2000 season, marking the end of the SW20's participation in JGTC.
Land speed record
In 1992, Dennis Aase, a member of Toyota's American factory team, became the first driver to achieve over 320 km/h (200 mph) in the car's class as he took his SW20 to a 339.686 km/h (211.071 mph) average. The car posted 326.697 and 352.068 km/h (203 and 218.765 mph) on the two opposing runs required for the record.
The car, that previously saw action at the Firestone Firehawk Endurance Championship by P. J. Jones, ran with a boost of 16 psi (1.1 bar) with changes to the intake and exhaust systems and the cam timing, output a maximum of 494 PS; 363 kW (487 hp). The car ran with its stock body apart minus wing mirrors and wiper blades. His attempt at improving his record the following year was thwarted by poor weather.
During its era the SW20 enjoyed a myriad of tuning parts from world renowned Japanese tuners such as HKS, Blitz, Phoenix Power, etc. While some companies only offered aesthetic modifications for the SW20, others such as Phoenix Power delivered a more comprehensive experience for customers, modifications such as a tuned ECU, longblock modifications, and a trunk mounted intercooler combined with a T04R Turbocharger were fitted. The Phoenix Power MR2 also featured a large rear wing reminiscent of the 911 (993) GT2 for massive downforce at high speeds, and a reworked suspension set up with Öhlins equipment, all of this turned the SW20 into a "street" monster that can feel equally at home on the track. Japanese tuner Border Racing, made available several parts as well, consisting mostly of parts that improved the car's suspension geometry, namely roll-center adapters, extended tie rods, etc., though they have also produced intercooler kits for the car and several interior pieces. AP Racing at a time also produced a brake kit as well for the MR2, but this has now long been discontinued. Performance parts manufacturer JUN offered engine upgrades for the MR2's 3SGTE engine which came in the form of stroker kits, which were co-developed with Cosworth, these are currently still available alongside, lightened flywheels, cam gears, and camshafts.
The SW20 garnered generally favorable reviews during its production life, with various sources complementing the styling, power, and responsive handling. Car and Driver noted the revised SW20's braking capabilities to be superb, stating that 70 mph to standstill could be done in 157 feet, rivaling that of the Honda NSX. Former Top Gear host and racing driver Tiff Needell commends the SW20's handling having said that it "encourages you to drive with enthusiasm" in a review back in 1990. He does note however, that the sudden transition from understeer to oversteer may be startling for some people.
The car is infamous for its "snap-oversteer", this notoriety comes from numerous instances where individuals crash their SW20 either on or off the race track due to inexperience with a mid-ship platform, as MR layouts handle very differently in comparison to the common FF or even FR layouts. Even in its revised state the SW20 still has a large enough following that labels it to be a very challenging car to push to its limits, with some even labeling it as "the most dangerous car that you can buy", such a label may be true since MR2s are relatively cheaper than most automobiles with an MR platform (Honda NSX, Ferrari F355, Lotus Elise) and that it is readily accessible to more people.
In 1997 the video game Gran Turismo for the PlayStation, featured the MR2 SW20 alongside other 1990s Japanese market cars such as the Honda NSX, Mitsubishi FTO and Nissan Skyline. The 1999 sequel Gran Turismo 2 introduced other variants of the MR2, including the TOM'S T020, the TRD2000GT, and the MOMOCORSE MR2 JGTC.
Third generation (W30; 1999–2007)
|Also called||Toyota MR-S (Japan) |
MR2 Spyder (United States)
MR2 Roadster (Europe)
|Production||October 1999 – July 2007|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||2-door convertible|
|Engine||1.8 L (1,794 cc) 1ZZ-FED I4 (ZZW30)|
|Power output||138 bhp (140 PS; 103 kW) and 126 lb⋅ft (171 N⋅m) of torque|
6-speed manual (Europe)
6-speed Sequential Manual
|Wheelbase||2,451 mm (96.5 in)|
|Length||3,886 mm (153 in)|
|Width||1,694 mm (66.7 in)|
|Height||1,240 mm (48.8 in)|
|Curb weight||996 kg (2,195 lb)|
The third-generation MR2 was marketed as the Toyota MR-S in Japan, Toyota MR2 Spyder in the US, and the Toyota MR2 Roadster in Europe.
The first prototype of MR-S appeared in 1997 at the Tokyo Motor Show. The MR2 Spyder chief engineer Harunori Shiratori said, "First, we wanted true driver enjoyment, blending good movement, low inertia and light weight. Then, a long wheelbase to achieve high stability and fresh new styling; a mid-engine design to create excellent handling and steering without the weight of the engine up front; a body structure as simple as possible to allow for easy customizing, and low cost to the consumer."
The only engine available for the ZZW30 was the all-aluminium alloy 1ZZ-FED, a 1.8 L (1,794 cc) Inline-four engine. Like its predecessors, it used DOHC and 4 valves per cylinder. The intake camshaft timing was adjustable via the VVT-i system, which was introduced earlier on the 1998 MR2 in some markets. Unlike its predecessors, however, the engine was placed onto the car the other way round, with the exhaust manifold towards the rear of the car instead of towards the front. The maximum power of 138 bhp (140 PS; 103 kW) at 6,400 rpm and 126 lb⋅ft (171 N⋅m) of torque at 4,400 rpm was quite a drop from the previous generation, but thanks to the lightness of the car it could still move quite quickly, accelerating from 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) in 6.8 to 8.7 seconds depending on the transmission option, the Sequential Manual being unable to launch and shift as quickly as the clutch operated manual. Curb weight is 996 kg (2,195 lb) for manual transmission models.
In addition to the 5-speed manual transmission, a 6-speed manual or 5-speed Sequential Manual Transmission (SMT) was also available starting in 2002. SMT is standard feature in Australian market; however, air conditioning was optional. After 2003, a 6-speed SMT was an option. The SMT had no conventional H-pattern shift lever or clutch pedal. The driver could shift gears by tapping the shift lever forward or backward or by pressing steering-wheel mounted buttons. Clutch engagement is automatic, and the car will automatically shift to second and then first gear when stopping. Cruise control was never offered with the manual transmission, but was standard for SMT cars.
The MR2 Spyder featured a heated glass rear window. A hard top was also available from Toyota in Japan and Europe.
- October 1999 (MY 2000)
The MR-S was introduced in October 1999 to the Japanese market in three trim levels: the "B", the "Standard", and the "S". The "S" trim level included power windows, locks, mirrors, AM/FM/CD radio, cloth seats, tilt steering wheel, and alloy wheels.
In March 2000, the car was introduced into the US and Europe as a "monospec" level, which included the same features as Japan's "S" trim level. In October 2000 the car was introduced in Australia as a 5-speed sequential manual transmission (SMT) only.
- 2001 (MY 2002)
- 5-speed Sequential Manual Transmission introduced in USA.
- 2002 (MY 2003)
- New paint colors
- New front and rear fascias, standard fog lights, power antennae, and color-matched side air intakes
- 16-inch rear wheels with larger tires
- New seats, slight changes to the gauge cluster and interior
- Sequential Manual Transmission now has six forward gears and faster shifting
- New springs, dampers, and a new underbody brace
- 2003 (MY 2004)
- Torsen (helical) limited-slip differential available as an option (C65-01B transmission)
- Strengthened unibody for crash intrusion protection (resulting in 10 kg (22 lb) greater curb weight)
- Ride height increased approximately 1" in all markets
- 2004 (MY 2005)
- 6-disc in-dash CD player standard
- Last year of sales in North America
- 2006 (MY 2007)
- Last year of sales
- Special "V-Edition" and "TF300" editions sold only in the United Kingdom.
Performance and handling
The feedback for the new model was somewhat mixed. Some liked its all new design concept, while the fans of the SW20 would've liked it to continue along the path of the previous model. All agreed, however, that the ZZW30 had nearly perfect handling. The ZZW30 is considered to be the best-handling MR2 in both overall limit and controllability. For example, Tiff Needell, a very experienced race driver and the former host of the BBC TV show Top Gear, praised the handling of the ZZW30. Although some complained of the relative lack of power, many owners have opted to switch out the 1ZZ-FE engine in exchange for the 141 kW; 189 bhp; 192 PS 2ZZ-GE found in the US-market Celica GTS, US-market Corolla XRS, US-market Matrix XRS, Pontiac Vibe GT, Australian-market Celica SX and ZR, Australian-market Corolla Sportivo, European-market Corolla RunX and Lotus Elise.
The end of the Spyder
In July 2004, Toyota announced that sales of the MR2 (as well as the Celica) would be discontinued in the US at the end of the 2005 model year because of increasing competition and lack of sales. The ZZW30 sold 7,233 units in its debut year, falling to just 901 for the 2005 model, for a total of 27,941 through its six years of production in the US. The 2005 model year was the last for the MR2 in the US. While the MR2 Spyder was not sold after 2005 in the US, it was offered in Japan, Mexico, and Europe until 2007. Production of the car ceased permanently in July 2007.
- In 2002, Morio Nitta and Shinichi Takagi shared the GT300 drivers' championship in the ARTA MR-S.
- Team Reckless's MR-S won both drivers' and teams' championships in 2005, driven by Kota Sasaki and Tetsuya Yamano.
- For 2007, Kazuya Oshima and Hiroaki Ishiura shared the drivers' championship in the Toy Story APR MR-S, with wins at Okayama and Sepang, but lost the teams' championship by six points to the Mooncraft Shiden prototype racer of team Privée Kenzo Asset Shiden.
As a farewell to the MR2, Toyota produced 1000 limited-production V-Edition cars for Japan and the UK. They are distinguished by different color wheels, titanium interior accents, minor body changes, a helical limited slip differential, and different steering wheel trim.
Also for model year 2007, the United Kingdom received 300 models in a special numbered TF300 series. A special 136 kW (182 bhp) turbocharged variant called the TTE Turbo (TTE standing for Toyota Team Europe) was available as a dealer-installed package. This package was also available for fitting to customer MR2s.
The Toyota VM180 Zagato was designed by Zagato, based on the MR-S, and built at Toyota Modelista International for sale in Japan only through the Toyota Vista dealer network. It was first shown on 10 January 2001 in Tokyo and then at the February 2001 Geneva Motor Show. The body panels are attached to the original MR-S chassis, as can be seen by the recess around the door handles. The stock engine was tuned to produce 116 kW (155 bhp).
In popular culture
Video Games- The second generation Toyota MR2 appears in every main Gran Turismo game to date since the original Gran Turismo . Although initially not available in Gran Turismo Sport, the Toyota MR2 GT-S '97 was later introduced as part of Update 1.13, released on February 28, 2018. While both the first and third generations are available in every game starting from Gran Turismo 2 with the exception of Gran Turismo Sport. The ZZ30 Toyota MR2 was also one of the Cars in Juiced
On March 8, 2017, automotive website and magazine EVO had revealed that Toyota has expressed the desire to have a performance range of cars whose heart has been referred to as "The Three brothers" by Tetsuya Tada, chief of Toyota Gazoo Racing. This includes a lightweight, and mid-engined sports car, rumored to be a spiritual, if not a direct, successor to the MR2 brand.
- Crouch, David (2015-02-25). "The Toyota MR2 – History" (Press release). UK: Toyota. Retrieved 2016-12-09.
- "MR2 History". Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2010-08-06.
- "Affiliates (Toyota wholly-owned subsidiaries)-Toyota Motor East Japan, Inc". Toyota. 2012. Retrieved 2014-07-15.
- "Toyota MR2 Wiki and FAQ - MKI: History". 2007-01-31. Retrieved 2017-11-14.
- "TOYOTA Service bulletin 1988 MR2 SPECIFICATIONS" (PDF). toyotapart.com. 1987. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-17. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
- Hartley, John (September 1984). Cropley, Steve, ed. "Middle ground". Car. London: FF Publishing: 85.
- "Mister Two: The Pocket Rocket". Archived from the original on 2012-09-24. Retrieved 2008-11-12.
- Hartley, p. 86
- "MR2 History". Archived from the original on 2015-07-03. Retrieved 2010-08-06.
- Heitz, Rudolf, ed. (1987). Auto Katalog 1988 (in German). 31. Stuttgart: Vereinigte Motor-Verlage GmbH & Co. KG. pp. 276–277.
- Thompson, Jonathan. "Japan's First Mid-Engine Sportscar", Road and Track Magazine, November 1984.
- Motor Trend Magazine, January 1985.
- Car and Driver Magazine, February 1985.
- "1986 Toyota MR2 Supercharged 1600G Limited AW11 E-AW11-WCMQR specifications". carfolio. 2013-02-28. Retrieved 2018-06-15.
- "Fiero Formula vs MR2 Supercharged Comparison Test", Road and Track Magazine, October 1987.
- "2x2 for the Road". MotorWeek. 1988-02-20.
- "MKI: Changes By Year". Toyota MR2 Wiki and FAQ. US. Retrieved 2016-05-20.
- "Proper 4AGE identification". MR2.com. 2012-04-12. Retrieved 2016-05-20.
- Sharpe, Martin (2008-10-02). "Rallying | Group S | Rally car". Racecar Engineering. Archived from the original on 2010-11-21. Retrieved 2010-07-23.
- "Toyota". Group B Rally. Archived from the original on 2010-01-27. Retrieved 2010-07-23.
- Long, Brian (2002). Toyota MR2 Coupe & Spyders. ISBN 1903706165.
- "TOYOTA Service bulletin 1991 MR2 SPECIFICATIONS" (PDF). toyotapart.com. 1990. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-17. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
- Burton, Nigel (2015). Toyota MR2: The Complete Story. Ramsbury, Marlborough: The Crowood Press LTD.
- Long, Brian (2002). Toyota MR2: Coupes & Spiders. Veloce Publishing.
- Heick, Terrell. Toyota MR2 Performance HP1553. HPBooks.
- Burton, Nigel (2015). Toyota MR2: The Complete Story. The Crowood Press.
- Milonakess (2011-11-21), MR2 Tsukuba Battle (Supra ,Rx7,GT-R, NSX etc.), retrieved 2017-04-29
- FTS TKST (2017-02-24), best motoring video special vol 45 最速ツクバＬＡＰ５０連発, retrieved 2018-10-14
- Toyota MR2 Performance, Heick, Terry, HP Trade, 2009
- "MR2 History". Archived from the original on 2012-04-01. Retrieved 2010-08-06.
- "TRD2000GT register". Retrieved 2011-06-10.
- Seeley, Geoff. "TRD2000GT MR2". Mr2.com. Retrieved 2009-04-28.
- "TOM'S T020". www.tomsracing.co.jp. Archived from the original on 2017-02-08. Retrieved 2017-02-07.
- "mr2TOM'S_T020_parts". sw20.s6.xrea.com. Retrieved 2017-02-07.
- "TOM'S T020 Parts List 2". sw20.s6.xrea.com. Retrieved 2017-02-07.
- "Info / History of the TRD SW20 Spider". mr2.ie/. Archived from the original on 2011-11-13. Retrieved 2013-04-19.
- Long, Brian (2002). Toyota MR2: Coupes & Spyder. Veloce Publishing.
- "750 motorclub".
- "Sard Racing MC8R". Midengine-motorsports.com. Archived from the original on 2011-07-14. Retrieved 2010-10-15.
- "１９９４ｙ サード ＭＣ８ ホモロゲｰション" [1994y SARD MC8 Homologation] (in Japanese). SEiyaa Thayer. 2015-02-15. Archived from the original on 2015-02-15. Retrieved 2015-05-22.
- "Le Mans Register – 1997". Formula2.net. Retrieved 2010-10-15.
- "Feature – 1999 JGTC GT300 MOMO SW20 Toyota MR2". The Octane Report. 2010-07-26. Retrieved 2010-10-15.
- "All Japan Grand Touring Championship". Wspr-racing.com. Retrieved 2010-10-15.
- Burton, Nigel (2015). Toyota MR2: The Complete Story. Crowood. ISBN 9781847979322.
- "Hotrod Hotline ~ Society Of Landspeed Racing Historians Newsletter 107". 2009-04-16. Retrieved 2015-07-02.
- "Car Class Records and Minimums" (PDF). Bonneville 200 MPH Club. 2014. Retrieved 2015-07-02.
- "[ FEATURED VEHICLE | PHOENIX's POWER MR2 street sport [SW20] ] J.D.M. OPTION INTERNATIONAL". www.jdm-option.com. Retrieved 2017-07-10.
- Heick, Terrell. Toyota MR2 Performance HP1553: A Practical Owner's Guide for Everyday. HPBooks.
- "Toyota MR2 Turbo – Archived Instrumented Test". Retrieved 2017-02-21.
- Vanquisher191 (2012-03-15), 1990 Old Top Gear – Toyota MR2 & Celica GT4, retrieved 2017-02-21
- Petrány, Máté. "Is The Toyota MR2 Turbo The Most Dangerous Car You Can Buy?". Jalopnik. Retrieved 2017-02-21.
- "2002 Toyota MR2, 2005 MY ZZW30". carfolio.com. 2013-02-28. Retrieved 2018-07-26.
- "2002 Toyota MR2 Spyder SMT Road Test Review". Sport Compact Car Magazine. Modified.com. Retrieved 2010-07-23.
- "Toyota MR2 Spyder SMT – Short Take Road Test – Auto Reviews". Car and Driver. Archived from the original on 2010-03-07. Retrieved 2010-07-23.
- "Press Kit Details". Australia: Toyota. 2000-10-13. Retrieved 2015-05-10.
- "Tiff Needell – Top gear toyota MR2 MRS review". Uk.youtube.com. YouTube. 2008-09-22. Retrieved 2009-04-28.
- "Toyota To Discontinue Production Of The Celica And MR2". Retrieved 2008-12-08.[dead link]
- "SUPER GT 2007 & JGTC Racing 1993–2006 – History of JGTC". Imca-slotracing.com. 2007-03-08. Retrieved 2010-10-15.
- Lavrinc, Damon (2006-11-21). "Limited edition farewell to the MR2 — Autoblog". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2010-07-23.
- Markus, Frank (2001). "Toyota VM180 Zagato – Auto Shows". Car and Driver (February). Archived from the original on 2011-06-09.
- "Toyota MR-S VM180 Zagato". Retrieved 2010-04-22.
- "Toyota will produce three-strong sports car lineup". Evo. Retrieved 2017-03-09.
- "2000–2005 MR2 Spyder: Year-to-year Changes". Consumer Guide Automotive. Archived from the original on 2012-04-22. Retrieved 2012-03-05.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Toyota MR2.|
|Japan MR2 Production car timeline, 1984–2006|
|MC Rigid Body|
|Subcompact||Tercel||Tercel||Tercel||Tercel||Tercel||Echo||Yaris Sedan||Yaris Sedán||Yaris Sedán|
|Yaris Liftback||Yaris Liftback|
|Starlet||Corolla FX||Prius c|
|Matrix||Matrix||Corolla iM||Corolla Hatch|
|Cressida||Cressida||Cressida||Cressida||Camry Solara||Camry Solara||Prius v|
|Sport compact||Corolla GT-S/SR5|
|Sports car||Celica Supra||Celica Supra||86|
|Note||Vehicle exclusive to Mexico|