This is a good article. Follow the link for more information.

Toyota TS040 Hybrid

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Toyota TS040 Hybrid
Toyota TS040 Silverstone Pits.JPG The No. 8 TS040 at the 2014 6 Hours of Silverstone
CategoryLMP1-H
ConstructorToyota
PredecessorToyota TS030 Hybrid
SuccessorToyota TS050 Hybrid
Technical specifications[1]
ChassisCarbon fibre and aluminium honeycomb monocoque
Suspension (front)Independent
Suspension (rear)Independent
Length4650 mm (2015)
Width1900 mm (2015)
Height1050 mm (2015)
EngineToyota 3.7 L 90-degree V8 aspirated Normally aspirated mid, longitudinally mounted
TransmissionReverse + 7-gear Sequential
FuelTotal Excellium, later Esso and Mobil Synergy race fuels
LubricantsTotal Quartz, later Mobil 1
TiresMichelin radial
Competition history
Notable entrantsToyota Racing
Notable drivers
Debut2014 6 Hours of Silverstone
RacesWinsPolesF.Laps
16544
Constructors' Championships1 (2014 FIA WEC)
Drivers' Championships1 (2014 FIA WEC)

The Toyota TS040 Hybrid is a Le Mans Prototype 1 (LMP1) sports car built and used by Toyota Motorsport GmbH in the 2014 and 2015 seasons of the FIA World Endurance Championship. Work on the car's design began in November 2012, when the Automobile Club de l'Ouest (ACO) published its 2014 technical regulations and Toyota utilised its resources after the 2013 24 Hours of Le Mans. The car is an aerodynamic improvement on its predecessor, the TS030 Hybrid, and its design allowed four-wheel drive. It has two kinetic energy recovery system (KERS) regenerative-braking devices at the front and rear axles to charge a supercapacitor and, in accordance with the 2014 regulations, was placed in the 6 MJ (1.7 kWh) class. The TS040's engine was carried over from the TS030; its displacement was increased from 3.4 l (210 cu in) to 3.7 l (230 cu in) for better efficiency, producing 513 horsepower (383 kW) to the rear wheels.

The TS040 was shown to the press for the first time at the 26 March preseason test session at Circuit Paul Ricard, and was driven 25,000 km (16,000 mi) before the start of the 2014 season. Toyota supplied two cars, driven by six drivers, for the season. Nicolas Lapierre, Anthony Davidson and Sébastien Buemi won the season's opening two races in the No. 8 car; Lapierre aquaplaned, crashing at the 24 Hours of Le Mans before recovering to finish third. After the crash, Lapierre was dropped and Buemi and Nakajima won two more races and had another podium finish to win the 2014 World Endurance Drivers' Championship. Consistent performances from Alexander Wurz, Stéphane Sarrazin, Kazuki Nakajima and reserve driver Mike Conway won Toyota the World Endurance Manufacturers' Championship at the season-ending 6 Hours of São Paulo.

The car was further developed after the 2014 24 Hours of Le Mans in accordance with the 2015 regulations. The front of the TS040 changed, a new suspension preserved tyre life, its supercapacitor was altered for better performance, and two body kits were created to match the car to a track. Although the season began with a third-place finish for the No. 1 car (driven by Buemi, Nakajima and Davidson) at the 6 Hours of Silverstone, the TS040 struggled against rivals Audi and Porsche in the seven remaining rounds before Wurz, Sarrazin and Conway's No. 2 entry finished second at the season-ending 6 Hours of Bahrain; Toyota placed third in the World Endurance Manufacturers' Championship. The TS040 was replaced by the TS050 Hybrid for the 2016 season.

Development[edit]

Concept[edit]

The TS040's initial studies and simulations began immediately after the Automobile Club de l'Ouest (ACO) published its first revision of the 2014 FIA World Endurance Championship technical regulations in November 2012. Toyota gradually increased their involvement in the car's development, focusing on the project after the 2013 24 Hours of Le Mans.[2][3] The TS040, designed to meet the new Le Mans Prototype 1 (LMP1) regulations to improve driver safety and enhance visibility, was an aerodynamic improvement on the TS030 Hybrid.[4] Built at Toyota Motorsport headquarters in the North Rhine-Westphalia city of Cologne, the car's chassis design was supervised by engineer Pascal Vasselon. The TS040's engines were built in Japan, and were directed by the French racing team Oreca.[5]

Design[edit]

The car was refined with hardware-in-the-loop technology and computer-calculation hardware to test individual components based on track data, enabling engineers to optimise its design; and was more efficient than test driving.[4] The new LMP1 regulations made the TS040 10 cm (100 mm) shorter than its predecessor and reduced the width of the tyre arches by 5 cm (50 mm); most attention focused on reducing drag and increasing downforce (improving road grip), lowering its fuel consumption by 25 percent over 2013.[6] The TS040's aerodynamic design was conducted at Toyota Motorsports' wind tunnel in Cologne.[6] Toyota achieved their objective of lowering the car's weight by the mandated 45 kg (99 lb) with design and lightweight components.[2]

Blue-and-white race car on display
The No. 8 Toyota TS040 Hybrid on display at the 2015 Auto Shanghai show
The Toyota TS040 Hybrid 3.7l V8 petrol engine and gearbox assembly on display

The TS040's design permitted four-wheel drive, and its chassis consisted of carbon fibre and aluminium materials.[n 1][7] Front airflow to cool the chassis was enabled with exit ducts under the wing mirror stalk at the back of the front wheel guards.[5] Independent push-rod suspensions are linked to a bellcrank, and the torsion bar is mounted at the pivot point.[5] Total, Toyota's petrol supplier, worked with the team to enhance fuel efficiency and performance.[2] The car's seven-speed sequential gearbox was made of aluminium, and the multiplate clutch was supplied to Toyota by ZF Friedrichshafen. The TS040's driveshaft was the constant-velocity joint type (including tripods), with a viscous-constructed mechanical locking differential. The dual-circuit Brembo brake discs, made of lightweight carbon ceramic materials, enabled hydraulically-activated power steering.[1] Michelin remained the team's tyre supplier.[1]

The car's mid-mounted, naturally-aspirated petrol V8 engine, angled at 90 degrees,[1][8] was carried over from the TS030 Hybrid. Its displacement, increased from 3.4 l (210 cu in) to 3.7 l (230 cu in) for better efficiency,[9] supplied 513 horsepower (383 kW) to the rear wheels.[10] Like its predecessor,[11] the TS040 had two kinetic energy recovery system (KERS) regenerative braking devices (the ACO used the alternate acronym, ERS) produced by Toyota Racing Development at the company's road research and development Higashi-Fuji Technical Center to charge a Nisshinbo supercapacitor.[8][12][13] Additional power was directed to the axles (the rear by Denso and the front by Aisin AW),[8] giving it an automatic horsepower increase of 473 hp (353 kW) for a total of 986 hp (735 kW).[10] Its motor generator unit acted as a generator while braking, harvesting energy from the drive shaft to slow the car and convert into electricity which is stored in the supercapacitor.[8][12] The 2014 regulations divided the motor-generator unit hierarchy into 2 MJ (0.56 kWh) increments, from 0 MJ (0 kWh) to 8 MJ (2.2 kWh).[8] Toyota chose the 6 MJ (1.7 kWh) category, since the 8 MJ (2.2 kWh) class had a negative effect on lap time due to its additional weight.[9]

2015 alterations[edit]

New regulations were enacted for 2015, requiring an 80-percent redesign of the TS040; this included a new front-end crash structure, a suspension optimised to preserve tyre life and additional weight reduction. Two body kits were designed: one for fast tracks and the other for tight turns.[14] Designers added a guide vane below the car's headlights for balance while braking, but felt that a second (at the rear of the vehicle) would create turbulence.[15] Although Toyota considered changing to a battery system, comparing its hybrid technology with that installed in the Porsche 919 Hybrid and switching to the 8 MJ (2.2 kWh) category,[16][17] the manufacturer ultimately decided to remain in the 6 MJ (1.7 kWh) class.[17] However, the TS040's supercapacitor was modified for enhanced performance.[18] Construction of the car began immediately after the 2014 24 Hours of Le Mans, and continued until January 2015.[19]

Preparation and drivers[edit]

Driver Mike Conway, in uniform and dark glasses
Mike Conway joined Toyota as their test and reserve driver in late 2013.

Toyota announced that they would continue participating in the FIA World Endurance Championship with a new car in July 2013.[20] On 26 July, Toyota announced that it had re-signed its drivers from the previous two years: Alexander Wurz, Nicolas Lapierre, Kazuki Nakajima, Anthony Davidson, Stéphane Sarrazin and Sébastien Buemi.[21] Details of the TS040 Hybrid were released to the public by engineer Pascal Vasselon at the 2013 6 Hours of São Paulo meeting on 31 August.[22] It was announced on 3 December that Toyota had signed IndyCar Series driver (and 2013 Le Mans Prototype 2 (LMP2) quadruple winner for G-Drive Racing) Mike Conway as a reserve and test driver.[23] The TS040s' lineups were changed in February 2014, with Sarrazin moving to the No. 7 car and Lapierre to No. 8 entry after Toyota evaluated driver strengths and characteristics.[24]

The TS040 began private testing on the morning of 21 January at the Circuit Paul Ricard, when Wurz and Davidson completed a shakedown session and remained at the track for two days without major problems.[25] The first long-distance pictures of the car being tested at the track were published in the automotive media eight days later,[3] and more photographs and the first video of the TS040 being driven by Davidson in wet weather were released on 3 March.[26] Testing continued into March at the Algarve International Circuit and the Ciudad del Motor de Aragón.[25] On 26 March, the TS040 was introduced to the press during the three-day preseason test session at the Circuit Paul Ricard.[2] The cars had covered 25,000 km (16,000 mi) before their competitive debut at the season-opening 6 Hours of Silverstone in April.[27]

Racing history[edit]

2014[edit]

At Silverstone (despite not topping any of the three practice sessions held before qualifying), the No. 7 TS040 driven by Wurz and Nakajima took pole position by five-thousands of a second from the No. 1 Audi R18 e-tron quattro of Loïc Duval and Tom Kristensen; Davidson and Lapierre's No. 8 car qualified fifth.[28] In the race, Wurz led from the start until he was delayed by traffic and overtaken by André Lotterer in the No. 2 Audi on the fourteenth lap and sometime later Buemi moved up to second. Rain fell soon afterwards; Wurz was on rain tyres, and Buemi was on intermediates. The weather conditions improved afterwards, and Buemi's strategy gave the No. 8 car the overall lead. Lapierre and (later) Nakajima did not cede position for the rest of the rain-shortened race to win; Lucas di Grassi and Benoît Tréluyer crashed their Audi R18s, and Porsche could not challenge the winning Toyota. Sarrazin and (later) Davidson prevailed over Mark Webber's No. 20 Porsche to finish second.[29]

Two weeks later in changeable track conditions at the 6 Hours of Spa-Francorchamps, Neel Jani and Marc Lieb's No. 14 Porsche beat Buemi and Davidson for the pole position in the final seconds of qualifying; Sarrazin and Nakajima placed fourth.[30] The No. 14 Porsche held the lead for the opening two hours, before Buemi took over the position (due to Toyota's double-stinting their tyres) and Lieb stalled in the pit lane which allowed Buemi to increase his advantage over Lieb and (later) Romain Dumas, who slowed with an electrical fault which disabled his hybrid system and resulting in the car losing two laps. Davidson, Buemi and Lapierre's No. 8 TS040 was unhindered thereafter for their second consecutive win. The No. 7 Toyota's oversteer and lack of grip cost Wurz, Nakajima and Sarrazin a battle between the lead Audi of Kristensen, di Grassi and Duval in the second half of the race.[31][32]

White-and-blue car on a track
Kazuki Nakajima put the No. 7 car in pole position for Le Mans, but retired due to a melted wiring loom.

In the trio of qualifying sessions held to determine the grid for the 24 Hours of Le Mans, Nakajima in the No. 7 car bumped Porsche from the top of the time sheets and improved in the following session to secure Toyota's first pole position at Le Mans since the 1999 race. Buemi put the No. 8 car third, separated from Nakajima by Dumas' Porsche.[33] Wurz started in the No. 7 car and led for most of the opening hours, and Lapierre spun from second after leaving a Mulsanne Straight chicane.[34] Lapierre put the No. 8 car out of contention in the second hour, caught by a change in weather conditions between Marco Bonanomi's No. 2 Audi and Sam Bird's No. 81 AF Corse Ferrari 458 on the Mulsanne Straight and aquaplaning into the barriers. Lapierre returned to the pit lane, and the No. 8 car recovered to finish third overall.[35] Sarrazin took over from Wurz, and lost the lead through the pit-stop phase to Porsche drivers Brendon Hartley and Timo Bernhard before reclaiming it in the fourth hour.[36] As Nakajima drove the No. 7 Toyota into its ninth hour in the lead, the car lost power when an FIA-mandated piece of monitoring equipment melted a wiring loom and forced him to abandon the car at Arnage corner.[37]

Seven weeks before the 6 Hours of Circuit of the Americas, it was announced that Conway would take over Nakajima's driving duties in the No. 7 TS040 because Nakajima had a Super Formula commitment that weekend at Autopolis.[38] On a wet track which made driving tricky, Buemi and Davidson achieved another pole position for the No. 7 car; Sarrazin and Conway started fifth.[39] Buemi led for the first hour, with Wurz moving the No. 7 car up to second in the opening laps. A heavy thunderstorm in the second hour stopped the race after Lapierre and Conway aquaplaned off the circuit. This put Lapierre a lap behind the leaders, and Conway was beached in the gravel trap. They restarted in fourth and seventh overall; Buemi drove the No. 8 car to third place, and Wurz finished sixth in No. 7.[40] Lapierre missed the 6 Hours of Fuji due to "personal circumstances"; Toyota did not replace him with Conway, leaving Davidson and Buemi to drive the No. 8 TS040.[41]

They again took the pole position, and Wurz and Nakajima were fourth.[42] The No. 8 car only ceded the lead on the race's first lap and the pit stops to Webber's No. 20 Porsche (which made an unscheduled pit stop to replace a punctured tyre) to win; the No. 7 came second.[43] Going into the 6 Hours of Shanghai, Lapierre was announced as not taking any further part in 2014 and plans were made to substitute him with Conway for the season's two remaining races: the 6 Hours of Bahrain and the 6 Hours of São Paulo.[44] Buemi and Davidson qualified with an identical two-lap average time with Lieb and Dumas in the No. 20 Porsche; pole position was awarded to the latter, since they set their times first. Wurz and Nakajima were a further two-tenths of a second behind in fourth.[45] Buemi and Davidson gained the lead from Porsche in the first minutes of the second hour through better pit-stop strategy and did not relinquish it, setting fast lap times consistently for the rest of the race to win. The No. 7 car had intermittent power issues which were eventually fixed, and finished a minute and twelve seconds behind its sister car in second.[46][47]

Nakajima missed the Bahrain round due to a conflicting Super GT commitment in its season-closing race at Twin Ring Motegi, and Conway took over his role in the No. 7 car.[48] Buemi and Davidson qualified the No. 8 TS040 in second, with Wurz and Conway obtaining a fourth-place starting position for the No. 7 car.[49] The No. 8 car was delayed for a half an hour with an alternator problem in the second hour, allowing No. 7 to win the race; Buemi and Davidson recovered for an eleventh-place overall finish, earning them the 2014 World Endurance Drivers' Championship with a round to spare.[n 2][51][50] Conway was again called up for São Paulo because Nakajima had visa problems.[52] Buemi and Davidson recorded the third-quickest time in qualifying, and Conway and Sarrazin were the fifth-fastest.[53] Toyota battled with rivals Audi and Porsche in the race's early and middle stages,[54] and Davidson's No. 8 TS040 was almost fifteen seconds behind Jani's No. 20 Porsche before competition ended with Webber's serious crash. Sarrazin was closing on the No. 1 Audi of Kristensen until the battle ended in Kristensen's favour.[55] Toyota scored 289 points to win the 2014 World Manufacturers' Championship.[56]

2015[edit]

Three cars on a track
The No. 2 TS040 lapping competitors at the 2015 6 Hours of Spa-Francorchamps

The 2015 TS040 Hybrid was introduced at the Circuit Paul Ricard on 26 March, after 25,000 km (16,000 mi) of testing at the Ciudad del Motor de Aragón and the Algarve International Circuit.[19] There were two driver changes, as Nakajima moved to the renumbered No. 1 TS040 full-time (after leaving Super GT) and Conway was promoted to a full-time spot in the No. 2 car.[57] Former Formula One racer Kamui Kobayashi was signed as Toyota's reserve driver, and Lapierre became the team's test driver.[58] At the season-opening 6 Hours of Silverstone, Davidson and Nakajima qualified the No. 1 car in fourth position, and Sarrazin and Conway placed the sister No. 2 car in sixth.[59] Toyota were briefly first and second, challenging rivals Audi and Porsche before the No. 1 car finished fifteen seconds behind the No. 7 Audi of Marcel Fässler, Lotterer and Treluyer. The No. 2 car finished fourth; Conway had to enter the pit lane for a nose-cone change after running over a thin trackside bollard while lapping the No. 50 Larbre Compétition Chevrolet Corvette C7.R at Becketts corner.[60][61][62]

During practice for the 6 Hours of Spa-Francorchamps, Nakajima collided heavily with the back of Oliver Jarvis's No. 8 Audi on the Kemmel Straight due to spray-impaired visibility and broke his back.[63] He was not replaced by Kobayashi because the latter was unavailable,[64] and Buemi and Davidson drove the No. 1 TS040 as a two-person entry.[63] Starting in sixth place, they held fifth until Duval and di Grassi passed them; Conway and Sarrazin qualified in seventh.[65] Both cars lacked the Audis' and Porsches' speed; the No. 2 car finished fifth, and the No. 1 car finished eighth with throttle and electrical problems.[66] Nakajima was cleared by FIA medical delegate Jacques Tropenat to participate in the 24 Hours of Le Mans test day on 30 May,[67] and was announced as taking part in the race four days later.[68] In its three qualifying sessions, Sarrazin put the No. 2 car seventh; the No. 1 entry, driven by Nakajima, took eighth in the first session.[69] None of Toyota's drivers improved their respective car's times in the later sessions.[70][71]

White-and-blue race car rounding a curve
The No. 2 TS040 at the 2015 24 Hours of Le Mans

Toyota could not match Audi and Porsche's race pace, despite being more than two seconds per lap faster than in 2014. Davidson damaged the front right corner of the No. 1 car when he made contact with a Ferrari he was lapping (affecting its handling), and had another minor collision soon after. A thirteen-minute pit stop for replacement front and rear bodywork and the installation of a new left-rear suspension dropped him five laps behind the leader, and the car finished eighth. The No. 2 car passed the No. 9 Audi (when it had technical problems in the final hours) to finish sixth.[72][73] Buemi and Davidson were nominated to drive the No. 1 TS040 to qualify for the inaugural 6 Hours of Nürburgring as part of the World Endurance Championship and placed fifth, with Wurz and Sarrazin starting from sixth.[74] Both cars again could not match Audi and Porsche's pace, finishing three and four laps behind for fifth and sixth place.[75]

In qualifying for the 6 Hours of Circuit of the Americas, Buemi and Davidson's No. 1 car narrowly clinched fifth place ahead of teammates Sarrazin and Conway in the No. 2 car.[76] Buemi briefly moved to fourth place on the opening lap, with Wurz fifth. Davidson later relieved Buemi, but was issued a stop-and-go penalty for missing the pit-lane entry and narrowly avoided running out of fuel. After a 12-minute full-course yellow when an LMP2 car crashed, Conway spun to avoid hitting slower LMGTE traffic he was lapping. He soon lost control of the No. 2 car on turn eleven kerbing while going past slower cars, and retired after a heavy impact with the barrier. Nakajima later drove the No. 1 car to fourth after the No. 18 Porsche experienced technical problems.[77][78] Buemi and Nakajima qualified fifth, and Sarrazin and Conway took sixth for the 6 Hours of Fuji.[79] Changeable weather conditions in the race's first two hours allowed Toyota to challenge Audi and Porsche until they were distanced.[80] Sarrazin hit the No. 88 Abu Dhabi-Proton Racing Porsche 911 RSR in the third hour, losing thirteen minutes as the No. 1 car's cooling system needed replacing; multiple penalties for the car's crew meant they finished no higher than sixth.[81][82]

Identical cars, side by side
TS040 duo in formation at the 2015 6 Hours of Shanghai

At the 6 Hours of Shanghai, Toyota once again qualified on the third row of the grid; Buemi and Davidson started from fifth place, and Wurz and Conway secured the sixth position.[83] After some positional changes following the safety car start due to morning rain, Davidson ran fifth until a slow puncture forced him into the pit lane. He regained the place until Wurz spun on the wet track and Nakajima spun into the gravel trap on the track's final turn. The track gradually dried, and Buemi drove the No. 1 car to a fifth-place finish; Sarrazin took sixth in the No. 2 car.[84] Toyota again began from the third row of the grid, with Davidson and Nakajima going faster than Wurz and Sarrazin at the season-ending 6 Hours of Bahrain.[85] Both cars moved into fourth and fifth after the No. 17 Porsche was forced into the pit lane for repairs. Later, Nakajima was forced into the pit lane to change the No. 1 vehicle's front bodywork after hitting the No. 36 Signatech Alpine A450b. The No. 2 car moved into third when the No. 8 Audi required repairs, and held the position for the rest of the race; the No. 2 car was close behind in fourth.[86][87] Competing with the TS040 Hybrid for the second consecutive year, Toyota accumulated 164 points and finished third in the World Endurance Manufacturers' Championship.[88]

Retirement from competition[edit]

A TS040 was driven by Sam Bird (who shared it with Conway and Davidson) at the post-season rookie test session at the Bahrain International Circuit the day after the 6 Hours of Bahrain.[89] A 2015-specification TS040 chassis was tested in January 2016 at the Ciudad del Motor de Aragón and the Circuit Paul Ricard with its successor, the TS050 Hybrid.[90]

World Endurance Championship results[edit]

Results in bold indicate pole position. Results in italics indicate fastest lap.

Year Entrant Class Drivers No. Rounds Points Pos
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
2014 Toyota Racing LMP1-H Alexander Wurz
Stéphane Sarrazin
Kazuki Nakajima
7 SIL
2
SPA
3
LMS
DNF
COA
6
FUJ
2
SHA
2
BHR
1
SÃO
4
289 1st
Anthony Davidson
Sébastien Buemi
Nicolas Lapierre
8 SIL
1
SPA
1
LMS
3
COA
3
FUJ
1
SHA
1
BHR
11
SÃO
2
2015 Toyota Racing LMP1 Anthony Davidson
Sébastien Buemi
Kazuki Nakajima
1 SIL
3
SPA
4
LMS
8
NÜR
5
COA
4
FUJ
5
SHA
6
BHR
4
164 3rd
Alexander Wurz
Stéphane Sarrazin
Mike Conway
2 SIL
4
SPA
6
LMS
6
NÜR
6
COA
Ret
FUJ
6
SHA
5
BHR
3

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The TS040 Hybrid was the first four-wheel drive racing car built by Toyota since the 2007 Supra HV-R that won the Tokachi 24 Hours outright that year.[2]
  2. ^ Buemi and Davidson's Drivers' Championship victory was Toyota's first in international motorsport since Didier Auriol won the 1994 World Rally Championship.[50]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Technische Daten des Toyota TS040 Hybrid". motorsport-total.com (in German). 26 March 2015. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d e Joseph, Noah (27 March 2014). "Toyota reveals new TS040 Hybrid LMP1 [w/videos, poll]". Autoblog. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  3. ^ a b Watkins, Gary (30 January 2014). "Toyota releases new photos of new TS040 Hybrid LMP1 car, sort of, ahead of WEC season". Autoweek. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  4. ^ a b Goodwin, Graham (30 January 2014). "Toyota Reveal Details Of New TS040 Hybrid". DailySportsCar. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  5. ^ a b c Collins, Sam (19 April 2014). "Toyota TS040". Racecar Engineering. Archived from the original on 21 June 2017. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  6. ^ a b Galvin, John (10 April 2014). "TOYOTA Racing Preps For 2014 Endurance Champs With TS040 Hybrid". DriveLife. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  7. ^ "Toyota TS040: A Next Gen Hybrid". British Gas. 9 September 2014. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  8. ^ a b c d e Meiners, Jens (27 March 2014). "Toyota Debuts 988-hp TS040 Hybrid Le Mans Racer, Takes Aim at Porsche and Audi". Car and Driver. Archived from the original on 20 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  9. ^ a b Watkins, Gary (27 March 2014). "New Toyota LMP1 WEC car close to 1000bhp". Autosport. Archived from the original on 20 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  10. ^ a b Lavrinc, Damon (28 March 2014). "Toyota's New Hybrid Racer is a 1,000 Horsepower Beast". Wired. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  11. ^ Edelstein, Stephen (3 March 2014). "Toyota TS040 Hybrid prepares to do all-wheel drive battle with Audi and Porsche at Le Mans". Digital Trends. Archived from the original on 20 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  12. ^ a b Abrams, Steve (31 January 2014). "Toyota goes their own way with the AWD TS040 LMP1 car". Road & Track. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  13. ^ Kew, Ollie (27 March 2014). "Toyota TS040 Hybrid (2014) first official pictures". Car. Archived from the original on 20 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  14. ^ Rus, Tudor (27 March 2015). "Toyota Uncovers the 2015 TS040 Hybrid Le Mans Prototype". Auto Evolution. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  15. ^ Ruitenberg, Stefan (30 July 2015). "TECH: Toyota TS040 – Struggling for 2015". SportsCarGlobal. Archived from the original on 20 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  16. ^ Watkins, Gary (26 November 2014). "Toyota could switch to battery option for 2015 WEC LMP1". Autosport. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  17. ^ a b Dagys, John (26 March 2015). "Toyota Remains in 6 MJ Hybrid Subclass". SportsCar365. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  18. ^ Schurig, Marcus (10 June 2015). "Toyota TS040 Hybrid im Technik-Check: Diesmal nur Geheimfavorit". Auto motor und sport (in German). Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  19. ^ a b "2015 Toyota Le Mans racer begins test". Toyota. 27 March 2015. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  20. ^ Broomhead, James (26 July 2013). "Toyota Racing Announce Altered WEC Plans". The Checkered Flag. Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
  21. ^ Watkins, Gary (26 July 2013). "Toyota retains whole Le Mans and WEC driver line-up for 2014". Autosport. Archived from the original on 31 July 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  22. ^ Dagys, John (5 September 2013). "Toyota Reveals Details on 2014 LMP1 Car". SportsCar365. Archived from the original on 28 December 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  23. ^ Runschke, Oliver (2 December 2013). "Toyota holt Mike Conway als Test- und Ersatzfahrer" (in German). Speedweek. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  24. ^ Miller, Fiona (13 February 2014). "Toyota announce re-shuffle in driver line ups". FIA World Endurance Championship. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  25. ^ a b Watkins, Gary (23 January 2014). "New Toyota LMP1 completes first run ahead of 2014 WEC season". Autosport. Archived from the original on 20 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  26. ^ Brindusecu, Gabriel (3 March 2014). "Toyota Teasing TS040 Hybrid Le Mans Prototype". Auto Evolution. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  27. ^ Miller, Fiona (14 April 2014). "Toyota ready to start the season with its TS040 Hybrid". FIA World Endurance Championship. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  28. ^ "Toyota on pole with late flyer at Silverstone". Speedcafe. 19 April 2014. Archived from the original on 1 September 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  29. ^ Hobbs, David (20 April 2014). "6 Hours Of Silverstone: Toyota Wins Opening Race Of WEC (PHOTOS)". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 20 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  30. ^ Dagys, John (2 May 2014). "Porsche Claims Spa Pole in Qualifying Thriller". SportsCar365. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  31. ^ Richards, Giles (4 May 2014). "Anthony Davidson and Toyota win Spa in promising portent for Le Mans". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  32. ^ Watkins, Gary (3 May 2014). "Spa WEC: Toyota wins again with Davidson, Lapierre and Buemi". Autosport. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  33. ^ Potts, Marcus (12 June 2014). "Le Mans 24 Hours: Thursday, Qualifying 2 Report". DailySportsCar. Archived from the original on 11 July 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  34. ^ DiZinno, Tony (14 June 2014). "Toyota's Wurz Leads After First Hour in Le Mans". SportsCar365. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  35. ^ Barstow, Ollie (15 June 2014). "Le Mans 24 Hours: Lapierre, Bird 'unsure' of early crash cause". Crash. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  36. ^ ten Caat, Marcel (14 June 2014). "Porsche Still Leads Overall After Four Hours at Le Mans". SportsCar365. Archived from the original on 5 July 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  37. ^ Watkins, Gary (16 June 2014). "Why Le Mans 2014 was almost a classic". Autosport. Archived from the original on 12 April 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2014. (Subscription required (help)).
  38. ^ "Mike Conway titulaire chez Toyota à Austin". Auto Hebdo (in French). 1 August 2014. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  39. ^ Dagys, John (19 September 2014). "Toyota Claims FIA WEC Pole at COTA". SportsCar365. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  40. ^ "Wet and Wild in Texas for Toyota Racing" (Press release). Toyota Motorsport. 21 September 2014. Archived from the original on 20 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  41. ^ DiZinno, Tony (6 October 2014). "Lapierre out, Nakajima back, Conway to watch Toyota in Fuji". NBC Sports. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  42. ^ Watkins, Gary (11 October 2014). "Fuji WEC: #8 Toyota denies Porsche pole in dying seconds". Autosport. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  43. ^ Kilbey, Stephen (12 October 2014). "FIA WEC: Fuji Race Report, Toyota Score Dominant 1-2 On Home Soil". DailySportsCar. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  44. ^ Runschke, Oliver (26 October 2014). "Toyota ohne Lapierre, Buemi/Davidson weiter als Duo" (in German). Speedweek. Archived from the original on 23 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  45. ^ Watkins, Gary (1 November 2014). "Shanghai WEC: Porsche and Toyota tie for pole". Autosport. Archived from the original on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  46. ^ Dagys, John (2 November 2014). "Toyota Dominates 6H Shanghai". SportsCar365. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  47. ^ Goodwin, Graham (2 November 2014). "FIA WEC: Shanghai Report, Toyota & Ligier Dominate, Disaster For Ferrari & Aston Martin". DailySportsCar. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  48. ^ Miller, Fiona (11 November 2014). "Toyota's title fight moves to Bahrain". FIA World Endurance Championship. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  49. ^ Watkins, Gary (14 November 2014). "Bahrain WEC: Jani, Dumas give Porsche third pole of 2014". Autosport. Archived from the original on 7 February 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  50. ^ a b Richards, Giles (16 November 2014). "Anthony Davidson wins drivers' FIA World Endurance Championship". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  51. ^ Handley, Jake (15 November 2014). "Toyota Win in Bahrain, Claims Drivers' Championship". The Checkered Flag. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  52. ^ DeGroot, Nick (19 November 2014). "Visa issue forces Nakajima to sit out WEC season finale". motorsport.com. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  53. ^ Dagys, John (29 November 2014). "Porsche Sweeps Front Row for 6H Sao Paulo". SportsCar365. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  54. ^ Dagys, John (30 November 2014). "Porsche Claims Maiden Win in Incident-Filled 6H Sao Paulo". SportsCar365. Archived from the original on 20 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  55. ^ Watkins, Gary (30 November 2014). "Interlagos WEC: Porsche takes first win, big crash for Mark Webber". Autosport. Archived from the original on 7 November 2015. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  56. ^ "WEC Classification – 2014 FIA World Endurance Manufacturers' Championship". FIA World Endurance Championship. Archived from the original on 3 December 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  57. ^ Watkins, Gary (30 January 2015). "Nakajima joins Davidson and Buemi in 2015 Toyota WEC LMP1 reshuffle". Autosport. Archived from the original on 18 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  58. ^ Garcia, Alex (26 March 2015). "Toyota presenta su programa para el WEC y se compromete hasta 2017" (in Spanish). Diario Motor. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  59. ^ "World Champions Toyota Racing Ready for Race One" (Press release). Toyota Motorsport. 11 April 2015. Archived from the original on 20 March 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  60. ^ Kilshaw, Jake (15 April 2015). "Toyota Racing finish 3rd and 4th at Silverstone". The Checkered Flag. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  61. ^ Dagys, John (12 April 2015). "Audi Battles Toyota, Porsche; Wins Silverstone Thriller". SportsCar365. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  62. ^ Conway, Mike (20 April 2015). "Conway column: A learning weekend at Silverstone". motorsport.com. Archived from the original on 16 August 2018. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
  63. ^ a b "Nakajima fractures vertebra in WEC Spa shunt". Speedcafe. 1 May 2015. Archived from the original on 2 May 2015. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  64. ^ Watkins, Gary (30 April 2015). "Toyota driver Kazuki Nakajima breaks vertebra in Spa WEC crash". Autosport. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  65. ^ Errity, Stephen (1 May 2015). "FIA WEC: Spa Francorchamps, LMP Qualifying, #17 Porsche On Pole". DailySportsCar. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
  66. ^ Watkins, Gary (2 May 2015). "Lotterer, Treluyer and Fassler beat Porsche to win Spa WEC for Audi". Autosport. Archived from the original on 6 May 2015. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  67. ^ "Nakajima toipui ajokuntoon Le Mansiin". Turun Sanomat (in Finnish). 30 May 2015. Archived from the original on 20 March 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  68. ^ Lauraux, Matthieu (3 June 2015). "24 Heures du Mans 2015 : Les Audi, Toyota, Porsche et Nissan décryptées" (in French). TF1. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  69. ^ "Busy Start for Toyota Gazoo Racing" (Press release). Toyota Motorsport. 11 June 2015. Archived from the original on 20 March 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  70. ^ "Porsche still on top after shortened Le Mans qualifying session". Autosport. 11 June 2015. Archived from the original on 14 June 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
  71. ^ DiZinno, Tony (11 June 2015). "Porsche Powers to Pole at Le Mans". SportsCar365. Archived from the original on 15 June 2015. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  72. ^ "Le Mans Disappointment for Toyota Gazoo Racing" (Press release). Toyota Motorsport. 14 June 2015. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  73. ^ Potts, Marcus; Little, Martin; Errity, Stephen; Kilbey, Stephen (13 June 2015). "Le Mans 24 Hours: Hour 5 Report, New Race Lap Record From Audi". DailySportsCar. Archived from the original on 13 August 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  74. ^ "Toyota hadert mit Tempo und "Ring-Verkehr"" (in German). motorsport-total.com. 29 August 2015. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  75. ^ Richards, Giles (31 August 2015). "Mark Webber and Porsche take win at Six Hours of Nürburgring". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 December 2017. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  76. ^ Watkins, Gary (19 September 2015). "Austin WEC: Neel Jani takes dramatic pole for Porsche". Autosport. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  77. ^ "Fourth Place in Texas" (Press release). Toyota Motorsport. 19 September 2015. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  78. ^ Goodwin, Graham (20 September 2015). "FIA WEC: COTA, Race Review". DailySportsCar. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  79. ^ "Fuji: Toyota von Quali-Performance beim Heimspiel enttäuscht" (in German). motorsport-total.com. 10 October 2015. Archived from the original on 20 March 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  80. ^ Goodwin, Graham; Kilbey, Stephen (11 October 2015). "FIA WEC: Fuji, Wrap Up, Porsche Score 1-2 In Fuji Thriller". DailySportsCar. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  81. ^ Dagys, John (11 October 2015). "Porsche Dominates Rain-Affected 6H Fuji". SportsCar365. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  82. ^ "Toyota Gazoo Racing déçu de sa prestation à domicile" (Press release) (in French). Endurance-Info. 12 October 2015. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  83. ^ Watkins, Gary (31 October 2015). "Shanghai WEC: Mark Webber/Brendon Hartley put Porsche on pole". Autosport. Archived from the original on 3 November 2015. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  84. ^ "Shanghai Struggle" (Press release). Toyota Motorsport. 1 November 2015. Archived from the original on 20 March 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  85. ^ Watkins, Gary (20 November 2015). "Bahrain WEC: Hartley/Bernhard/Webber Porsche takes pole for decider". Autosport. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  86. ^ Goodwin, Graham (21 November 2015). "FIA WEC: Bahrain, Brief Race Report, LMP1, Dramas Galore!". DailySportsCar. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  87. ^ "Toyota Gazoo Racing Back on the Podium" (Press release). Toyota Motorsport. 21 November 2015. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  88. ^ "WEC Classification – 2015 FIA World Endurance Manufacturers' Championship". FIA World Endurance Championship. Archived from the original on 22 November 2015. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  89. ^ Bonardel, Cécile (23 November 2015). "WEC – Rookies enjoy time in the limelight". Automobile Club de l'Ouest. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  90. ^ Smith, Sam; Davoine, Basile (11 February 2016). "Toyota to give TS 050 maiden test this month". motorsport.com. Archived from the original on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 19 March 2018.

External links[edit]