Toyota T engine

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Toyota T engine
TE71 2T-GEU.jpg
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1970-1985
Cylinder block alloy Cast iron
Valvetrain 8 valve chain-driven

The Toyota T series is a family of inline-4 automobile engines manufactured by Toyota beginning in 1970 and ending in 1985. It started as a pushrod overhead valve (OHV) design and later performance oriented twin cam (DOHC) variants were added to the lineup. Toyota had built its solid reputation on the reliability of these engines.

The 4T-GTE variant of this engine allowed Toyota to compete in the World Rally Championship in the early 1980s, making it the first Japanese manufacturer to do so.

Race engines based on the 2T-G include the 100E and 151E.

  • All T engines utilize a timing chain and have a cast iron block with an alloy cylinder head with hardened valve seats and a hemispherical combustion chamber design (HEMI).
  • All T engines are carburated except those with electronic fuel injection, "E" designation.
  • All T engines use a 2 valve OHV design except those with a DOHC performance head, "G" designation.
  • The 12T/13T has a sub-cylinder directly behind the spark plug that leads into a smaller chamber for emission purposes.

Features overview[edit]

Code Bore mm Stroke mm Power PS (kW) Torque lb·ft (N·m) Compression Years Comments
T 80 70 86 at 6,000 rpm 86 at 3,800 rpm 8.5 1970–1979
T-B 80 70 95 at 6,000 rpm 89 at 4,000 rpm 9.0 1970–1975 dual carburetor
T-BR 80 70 91 at 6,000 rpm 86 at 4,000 rpm 8.5 1970–1975 dual carburetor, low compression
T-J 80 70 80 at 6,000 rpm 82 at 3,800 rpm 8.5 1975-1979 Japanese emission controls for commercial vehicles
2T 85 70 102 (76) at 6,000 rpm 101 at 3,800 rpm 8.5 50 kW and 105Nm (South Africa)
2T-C 85 70 88 at 6,000 rpm 91 at 3,800 rpm 8.5 1970–1979 emission controls (EGR)
2T-B 85 70 105 at 6,000 rpm 101 at 4,000 rpm 9.4 1970–1975 dual carburetor
2T-BR 85 70 100 at 6,000 rpm 100 at 4,000 rpm 8.5 1970–1975 dual carburetor, low compression
2T-U 85 70 90 at 6,000 rpm 94 at 3,800 rpm 8.5 1975– Japanese emission controls (TTC-C)
12T 85 70 90 at 6,000 rpm 94 at 3,800 rpm 9.0 Japanese emission controls (TTC-L)
12T-U 85 70 88 at 5,600 rpm 96 at 3,400 rpm 9.3 Japanese emission controls (TTC-V)
12T-J 85 70 Japanese emission controls for commercial vehicles
2T-G 85 70 115 at 6,400 rpm 105 at 5,200 rpm 9.8 1970–1975 DOHC, dual carburetor
2T-GR 85 70 110 at 6,000 rpm 101 at 4,800 rpm 8.8 1970–1975 DOHC, dual carburetor, low compression
2T-GEU 85 70 115 at 6,000 rpm 109 at 4,800 rpm 8.4 1978–1985 DOHC, EFI, Japanese emission controls (TTC-C)
3T 85 78
3T-C 85 78 emission controls (EGR)
3T-U 85 78 Japanese emission controls (TTC-C)
3T-EU 85 78 105 at 5,400 rpm 162 at 3,600 rpm 9.0 EFI, Japanese emission controls (TTC-C)
3T-GTE 85 78 160 at 6,000 rpm 152 at 4,800 rpm 7.8 DOHC, EFI, turbo, twin spark plugs, Japanese emission controls
3T-GTEU 85 78 160 at 6,000 rpm 152 at 4,800 rpm 7.8 1982-1985 Same as 3T-GTE
13T 85 78 Japanese emission controls (TTC-L)
13T-U 85 78 1977-1981 Japanese emission controls (TTC-V)
4T-GTEU 85.5 78.0 180 Road version, DOHC, EFI, turbo, twin spark plugs, Japanese emission controls, 1,791 cc
4T-GTEU 89.0 84.0 180 Race version, DOHC, EFI, KKK turbo, twin spark plugs, 2,090 cc


The first T engine displaced 1,407 cc and was produced from 1970 through 1979. Cylinder bore is 80 mm (3.15 in) and stroke is 70 mm (2.76 in).

Output is 86 hp (64 kW) at 6,000 rpm and 85 lb·ft (115 N·m) at 3,800 rpm. The more-powerful (95 PS) twin-carburetor T-B was produced for the first six years, as well as the single carb T-D which had a somewhat higher compression ratio for 90 PS (66 kW).

From 1977 there was also a T-J, a version with some simple emissions equipment intended for Japanese market commercial vehicles. With an 8.5:1 compression ratio, this produces 80 PS (59 kW) at 6,000 rpm and 11.3 kg⋅m (111 N⋅m; 82 lb⋅ft) at 3,800 rpm.[1]

The T-U also appeared in 1977 with even stricter emission equipment for Japanese market non-commercial vehicles.



The larger 1,588 cc 2T was produced from 1970 through 1984. Cylinder bore is 85 mm and stroke is 70 mm.

The 2T engines are usually coupled with either a T40 4 speed/T50 5 speed manual transmission, or an A40 3 speed automatic transmission.

Output for the early 2T-C bigport design is 102 hp which is also due to different SAE testing methods, while the later version is 75 hp (56 kW) at 5200 rpm and 86 lb·ft (116 Nm) at 3800 rpm, compression at 9.0:1.[2] The twin-carb 2T-B produces 90-105 hp (67-78 kW) and 85–102 lb·ft (115-138 N·m). The 2T-J, for commercial vehicles with less restrictive emissions standards, produces 93 PS (68 kW) at 6000 rpm and 13.1 kg⋅m (128 N⋅m; 95 lb⋅ft) at 3800 rpm.[3]


This engine was also commonly used in Australian Formula Two race cars during the 1970s and 1980s, where they typically made between 180 and 200 hp. The 1979 championship was won by a Toyota 2T powered Cheetah mk6. In 1984 Peter Glover borrowed a Cheetah mk7 powered by Toyota 2T for one round. The car won the round and helped secure the championship.


The 1,588 cc 12T and 12T-U (lean burn) was produced from 1970 through 1983. It produces 88 hp (66 kW) at 5,600 rpm and 96 lb·ft (130 N·m) at 3,400 rpm. There was also a 12T-J version for commercial vehicles, which didn't have to meet as stringent emissions standards in Japan. In response to Honda's CVCC emissions, Toyota introduced "TTC-L", using a lean burn implementation.



A Toyota 2T-G engine

The 2T-G, produced from 1970 through 1983, is a chain driven 8v DOHC version. Output is 110-125 hp (82-93 kW) and 105–109 lb·ft (142-147 N·m). Variants include the air-injected 2T-GR, Japan-spec 2T-GU, and fuel injected 2T-GEU. Twin sidedraft 40mm mikuni-solex PHH carburetors were used in non EFI versions. All 2T-G cylinder heads were cast by Yamaha, however, some are not marked as such.

The 2T-G was replaced by the 4A-GE in most applications.


Like the 2.0 L 18R-G, the 2T-G was considered the flagship engine of Toyota's 1600 class until it was superseded by the 4A-GE in the 1980s. The 2T-G is still a popular engine for conversions to classic Celicas and Corollas and are often suitable for classic and formula racing series.

When bored out to a maximum of 89 mm and combined with a 3T crankshaft, the 2T and 2T-G will have a displacement of almost 2.0L. The 2T and 3T series use the same connecting rod dimensions, with the different pin heights on the pistons. Aftermarket pistons are available from very low (<7:1) through to very high (>13:1) compression ratios. Racing 2T-G engines ("NOVA") featured 87.0 mm bore and 84.0 mm stroke for a 1,997 cc displacement. Output is around 170 PS (125 kW) at 6,000 rpm with a 12:1 compression ratio. This engine was used in Formula 3 cars in both Europe and Japan (where it dominated), as well as in Formula Pacific (FP).[6]


The 3T displaces 1770 cc and was produced from 1977 through 1985. Cylinder bore is 85 mm (3.35 in) and stroke is 78 mm (3.07 in). Originally compliant with Japan's 1976 emissions standards (TTC-C), from October 1977 it used Toyota's lean burn system called TGP ("Turbulence Generating Pot") in order to pass the 1978 emissions standards.

The 3T OHV engines are mated to either of a T40 4-speed, T50 5-speed manual transmission, or an A40 3-speed, or A40D 4-speed automatic transmission.

Output ranges from 70-105 hp (52-78 kW) and 93–120 lb·ft (126-162 N·m) between the California 3T-C and Japan-spec fuel injected 3T-EU.



The 1,770 cc 13T-U was produced from 1977 through 1982. It produces 95 PS (70 kW) at 5,400 rpm and 15.0 kg⋅m (147 N⋅m) at 3,400 rpm with a twin barrel carburettor.



The 3T-GTE, first released in September 1982, is the most performance oriented version of the 1,770cc 3T engine. It features a hemi chambered 8v twin-cam head with twin-spark (two spark plugs per cylinder) design and swirl inlet ports for better efficiency. The EFI system saw the introduction of knock control. It is turbocharged by a Toyota CT20 Turbo (the same unit as used in the 2L-T diesel) to generate 160 PS (119 kW) at 6,000 rpm and 152 lb·ft (206 N·m) at 4,800 rpm. This was the first turbocharged twin-cam engine built in Japan. Units built after May 1983 received a water cooled turbocharger.[10] The engine was considerably over-engineered for durability, for instance featuring doubled cam roller chains, as it was also to form the basis for the 4T-GT competition engines.[11] It either came mated to a W55 5speed manual with a larger 225mm clutch and lighter 8kg flywheel or an A43D 4speed automatic transmission.


3T-GTE powered vehicles are badged as GT-T or GT-TR.


This is the version of the T family which powered Toyota's Group B and World Rally Championship cars. The homologation engine, introduced in November 1982, features a 0.5 mm increase in bore over the 3T, giving 1,791 cc.[10] With a multiplication factor of 1.4 for turbocharged engines, this equalled 2,507 cc in the eyes of the FIA, placing the Celica in the 2,501-3,000 cc class. The smaller 3T engine would have fit snugly under the 2.5-liter limit, but being in the larger class allowed Toyota to stretch the 4T-GT engine to 2,090 cc (89.0 x 84.0 mm for a converted displacement of 2,926 cc) which better suited the comparatively heavy Celica.[12]

In race trim it was a high-performance engine of 2,090 cc with either a Toyota or a KKK/K27 turbocharger, electronic fuel injection, and a twin-spark ignition system, producing 360 to 600 PS depending on race trim.[13] The 1984 Group B rally version produced 326 PS (240 kW) at 8,000 rpm.[12] The road going homologation version (4T-GTEU, 200 built) produces 180 PS (132 kW). The total build number, including modified versions, was 228.[14]


Race engines[edit]

The '151E' engine used 4 valves per cylinder.[citation needed]

The '100E' engine used twin spark plugs with 2 valves per cylinder but was used mainly by a Toyota works team.[citation needed]

Italy Nova Corporation produced a 2.0 L engine based on the 2T-G that was used in most of the world F3 cars for a long time.[when?][citation needed]

The production 1791 cc 4T-GTE was stretched to 2090 cc for race use.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]


  1. ^ a b New Carina Van (in Japanese), Japan: Toyota, August 1977, p. 16, 131153—5208 
  2. ^ "Output". Tekniikan Maailma magazine (in Finnish). No. #10. 1978. 
  3. ^ New Corona Van (brochure) (in Japanese), Toyota Motor Corporation, January 1977, p. 17, 021132-5201 
  4. ^ "Automobile Guide Book". 自動車ガイドブック (in Japanese). Japan: Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association. 23: 163. 20 October 1976. 0053-760023-3400. 
  5. ^ List of RT140 Coronas sold in Japan. Toyota Motor Co., No. 261150
  6. ^ All About the Toyota Twin Cam, 2nd ed., Tokyo, Japan: Toyota Motor Company, 1984, p. 25 
  7. ^ World Cars 1982. Pelham, NY: L'Editrice dell'Automobile LEA/Herald Books. 1982. pp. 382–383. ISBN 0-910714-14-2. 
  8. ^ "Japanese Motor Vehicles Guide Book 1979/1980". 自動車ガイドブック (in Japanese). Japan: Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association. 26: 116. 1979-11-01. 053-790026-3400. 
  9. ^ "Japanese Motor Vehicles Guide Book". 自動車ガイドブック (in Japanese). Japan: Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association. 25: 201. 1978-10-10. 0053-780025-3400. 
  10. ^ a b Toyota Twin Cam, p. 12
  11. ^ Toyota Twin Cam, p. 13
  12. ^ a b Toyota Twin Cam, p. 24
  13. ^ a b "Toyota Celica Twincam Turbo (TA64)". Toyota Team Europe. Archived from the original on 11 March 2000. Retrieved 1 July 2009. 
  14. ^ Toyota Twin Cam, p. 7