|Body and chassis|
|Layout||Front-engine, rear-wheel drive / Four-wheel drive|
|Predecessor||Toyota Pickup Truck|
The Toyota Tacoma is a pickup truck manufactured in the U.S. by the Japanese automobile manufacturer Toyota since 1995. The first generation Tacoma, model years 1995½ through 2004, was classified as a compact pickup. The second generation was classified as mid-size. The Tacoma was Motor Trend Magazine's Truck of the Year for 2005.
As of 2015, the Toyota Tacoma is sold in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, Panama, Bolivia, Chile, and the French territory of New Caledonia.
- 1 First generation (1995-2005)
- 2 Second generation (2005–2015)
- 3 Third generation (2015–Present)
- 4 Toyota Racing Development
- 5 American special forces use
- 6 Sales
- 7 References
- 8 External links
First generation (1995-2005) 
|Production||December 1994 — August 27, 2004|
|Designer||Kevin Hunter (1991, 1992)|
|Body and chassis|
The Tacoma was introduced in the US in February 1995 (March 1995 market launch) as a replacement for the Hilux, which prior to this was marketed in the US under the name Toyota Pickup. Compared with the Hilux, the Tacoma is engineered with a greater priority on ride quality, handling, comfort, and safety over ruggedness and payload capacity. The design is intended to better suit the needs of the US and Canadian pickup truck market, where pickup trucks, particularly compact and mid-sized models, are often used as personal vehicles, and less exclusively for commercial, agricultural, and off road use. The name was derived from the Coast Salish peoples' name for Mt. Rainier in Washington state.
Development began in 1989, following launch of the fifth generation Toyota Pickup in late 1988 and concluded in 1994. Design work was done at Calty Design Research in California from 1990 to 1992, when Kevin Hunter's exterior design proposal was chosen in the autumn of 1991 and in final form, frozen for production in 1992. Patents for the production design were filed in Japan in April 1993 and October 28, 1993 in the United States.
There were a total of three engines available for the Toyota Tacoma:
- 2.4 L four-cylinder rated at 142 hp (106 kW) and 160 lb·ft (217 N·m) of torque
- 2.7 L four-cylinder rated at 150 hp (112 kW) and 177 lb·ft (240 N·m) of torque
- 3.4 L V6 rated at 190 hp (142 kW) and 220 lb·ft (298 N·m) of torque.
The 2.4 L gave 29 miles per US gallon (8.1 L/100 km; 35 mpg-imp) (highway cycle), the 2.7 L gave 26 miles per US gallon (9.0 L/100 km; 31 mpg-imp) (highway), and the 3.4 L delivered 22 miles per US gallon (11 L/100 km; 26 mpg-imp) (highway ).
Two-wheel drive Tacomas had 5-stud wheel lug patterns. The 2.4 L and 3.4 L engines were available in this vehicle depending on options. Automatic and manual transmissions were available.
Four-wheel drive Tacomas (also 2WD crew cabs 2000–present) had six-stud wheel lug patterns, which had been used on the prior pickups (pre-Tacoma trucks). The truck's frame is fully boxed until immediately after the front leaf spring mount bracket where it transitions into a c-frame section. The 3.4 V6's manual transmission was an R150F while the automatic transmission was an A340F (Aisin code is 30-40LE). From 95-97 Single cab Tacomas had the option of a manual transmission with the 3.4 V6 engine. The aftermarket TRD supercharged 3.4L V6 produced 254 bhp (189 kW) and 270 lb·ft (366 N·m). From 1997 on, the single cabs only got a 2.7 L or a 2.4 L 4-cylinder from the factory. TRD packages started in 1997 (if the V6 engine was selected, a differential locker in the rear came with it).
Prerunner models started in July 1997. They share the same front and rear suspension parts and geometry, frame, styling and engine options as the 4x4 Tacomas of this year range. Prerunner Tacomas also had the option of the TRD Off-Road package which (like the 4x4) got a rear differential locker if it was a V6 model (among other suspension variations). The V6 Tacoma automatic transmissions were an A340E. Because of the similarities in the Prerunner and 4x4 models, it is possible to use stock parts to convert a Prerunner to a 4x4.
In its first couple years of production the Tacoma sold very well, attracting many young buyers. The first generation Tacoma underwent a minor headlight upgrade from recessed to flush headlights in October 1996 on 2WD models and a total of two cosmetic facelifts: the first in July 1997, and the second in October 2000. The facelifts mainly entailed grilles (model year MY1998 and 2001) and tailgate badging and emblems (MY1998). Mechanical changes included a switch to distributorless ignitions (coil-on-plug) in 1996 and in 1997 longer rear leaf springs. A passenger-side air bag was added in July 1997, and the driver's side air bag (added in 1995) was "depowered". Most 4x4 models came with Toyota's Automatic Differential Disconnect (ADD) system after the 2000 model year.
The only extra feature from late 2000 was a new crew cab (four-door) model added to the lineup. The crew cab featured four doors, while the extended cabs still opened with two doors. The extended cab featured a 6-foot (2 m) bed while the crew cab featured a 5-foot-5-inch (1.65 m) bed. Many customers were upset with small crew cab beds, but most competitors shared this shortcoming.
In October 2000, along with the front facelift, Toyota had also unveiled an S-Runner trim package which included the 3.4-liter V6 engine. It came with 16-inch (410 mm) alloy wheels, and a 5-speed manual transmission with Tokico gas shocks. There were only 200 produced each month from September 2000 to August 2004. By 2003 the Tacoma had gained 16.5 percent sales from its previous years. The Tacoma's popularity only increased in the next few years. By 2004 it was ahead of the Nissan Frontier, and Dodge Dakota, but still 2.2 percent behind in sales to the Ford Ranger.
In 2008, Toyota proactively announced a 15-year, unlimited mileage corrosion warranty for 1995-2000 model years due to inadequate rustproofing and frame corrosion issues affecting over 800,000 Tacomas. Toyota will either repair the frame or buyback the truck for 1.5 times its KBB retail value. This was later extended to include 2001-2004 model years, but in these cases when a frame was found to be rusty to the point of perforation, the frame is replaced with a new one instead of a buy back.
On November 21, 2012, Toyota recalled about 150,000 Tacoma mid-size pickup trucks from the model years 2001 to 2004 that were sold primarily in 20 cold-weather U.S. states. The recall involves the spare tire and how it could fall off.
|Production Colors ||Model years|
|Black Metallic (204)||96 to 99|
|Black Sand Pearl (209)||00 to 04|
|Cardinal Red (3H7)||95 to 97 and 99 to 00|
|Cobalt Blue Pearl (8K6)||95 to 97|
|Cool Steel Metallic (926)||98|
|Copper Canyon Mica (3M1)||98|
|Evergreen Pearl (751)||95 to 98|
|Horizon Blue Metallic (8N1)||99 to 00|
|Imperial Jade Mica (6Q7)||99 to 04|
|Impulse Red Pearl (3P1)||01 to 04|
|Lavender Steel Metallic (926)||97|
|Lunar Mist Metallic (1C8)||00 to 04|
|Mystic Gold Metallic (4P7)||01 to 04|
|Mystic Purple Mica (938)||98 to 99|
|Natural White (056)||99 to 00|
|Paradise Blue Metallic (754)||95 to 97|
|Pewter Pearl (196)||95 to 96|
|Radiant Red (3L5)||01 to 04|
|Satin Black Metallic (205)||95|
|Sierra Beige Metallic (4M4)||95 to 00|
|Sunfire Red Pearl (3K4)||95 to 00|
|Super White (040)||01 to 04|
|Surfside Green Mica (6P4)||98 to 99|
|White/Super White (045)||95 to 98|
Second generation (2005–2015)
|Production||September 14, 2004–present|
|Designer||Shigeya Hattori, Hideo Karikomi (2002)
Akira Yamaguchi, Jinichi Sato (facelift: 2010)
|Body and chassis|
|Layout||Front engine, rear-wheel drive/four-wheel drive|
Toyota 4Runner/Hilux Surf
Toyota Land Cruiser Prado
Toyota FJ Cruiser
|Engine||2.7 L 2TR-FE I4 (159 hp)
4.0 L 1GR-FE V6 (236 hp)
|Wheelbase||Regular Cab 2WD: 109.4 in (2,779 mm)
Regular Cab 4WD & PreRunner: 110.0 in (2,794 mm)
Access Cab: 127.8 in (3,246 mm)/127.2 in (3,231 mm)
Double Cab Long Bed: 140.9 in (3,579 mm)
|Length||Regular Cab: 190.4 in (4,836 mm)
Access Cab: 208.1 in (5,286 mm)
Double Cab Short Bed: 208.1 in (5,286 mm)
Double Cab Long Bed: 221.3 in (5,621 mm)
|Width||2WD Extended: 74.6 in (1,895 mm)
2WD Regular: 72.2 in (1,834 mm)
4WD: 74.7 in (1,897 mm)
X-Runner: 74.0 in (1,880 mm)
|Height||Extended Cab & 4WD Regular: 69.9 in (1,775 mm)
Double Cab: 70.1 in (1,781 mm)
Regular Cab 2WD: 65.7 in (1,669 mm)
2005-06 X-Runner: 65.2 in (1,656 mm)
2007-Present X-Runner: 72.2 in (1,834 mm)
|Curb weight||3,550–3,950 lb (1,610–1,792 kg)|
In 2000, Toyota began development of the second generation Tacoma under chief engineer Chikuo Kubota. Majority of development work was handled by Hino in Japan. Designers Shigeya Hattori and Hideo Karikomi of Hino, won the internal design competition in 2001. Final designs were frozen for production in 2002, with test mules being tested from early 2003. Prototypes were built later in 2003, with development ending in the second quarter of 2004.
On February 4, 2004 at the Chicago Auto Show, Toyota unveiled a bigger and more powerful Tacoma. This new Tacoma was available in eighteen different configurations, that included three cab configurations, four transmissions, two engines, and two bed lengths. The three cab configurations consist of regular cab, access cab, and double cab. The transmissions come in 4-speed automatic, 5-speed automatic, 5-speed manual, and 6-speed manual. Beds are: 6 ft (1.8 m) long bed, and 5 ft (1.5 m) short bed. The Tacoma's 4.0-liter 1GR-FE V6 took the place of the original 3.4-liter 5VZ-FE V6. The new V6 had many enhancements, such as a tow rating of 6,500 lb (2,948 kg), and a payload capacity of 1,650 lb (748 kg). It produces 236 horsepower (176 kW) and 266 lb·ft (361 N·m) of torque. The smaller, but all-new 2.7-liter 2TR-FE 4-cylinder alternative in less expensive models is rated at 159 hp (119 kW) and 180 lb·ft (244 N·m). of torque.
Toyota also introduced an X-Runner trim, which replaces the slow selling S-Runner trim from the previous generation. The X-Runner features the 1GR-FE paired to a six-speed manual transmission, 18 in (457 mm) alloy wheels, lowered two inches from the factory and included an X-Brace suspension package. Toyota also included a Down-Hill Assist Control (DAC) and Hill-Start Assist Control (HAC), with models that were equipped with the optional Toyota Racing Development (TRD) Off-Road package. DAC automatically applies braking during downhill descents while HAC prevents the vehicle from rolling backwards on hills. A rear locking differential, or limited-slip differential were also some optional features. Every Tacoma was manufactured with a composite inner bed that includes a deck rail system with four tie down cleats, hook-pins, storage boxes. TRD package equipped Tacomas also feature an in-bed 115V/400W AC power outlet. The tie down cleats are rated to hold up to 220 lb (100 kg).
The 2006 model Tacoma was a bit different from the 2005 model. The 2006 model made some options standard. Toyota also added 2 new interior colors for the 2007 model year. 2008 models are carry-ons from 2007. For 2009 safety features were added and the Tacoma no longer offers a mechanical limited slip differential rather an open differential which uses individual wheel braking to simulate a mechanical LSD or "Auto-LSD". TRD off-road models continue to come equipped with a locking rear differential. The second generation Tacomas were assembled in Tijuana, Mexico and Fremont, California while the plastic/composite beds were all built in Mexico. However, in August 2009 Toyota announced that it would relocate Tacoma production from Fremont to San Antonio, Texas.
A minor facelift came for 2009, including a slightly revised grille on some models, new LED taillamps, and on the X-Runner, TRD Offroad and TRD Sport models includes smoked headlamp trim. Auxiliary audio input now comes standard. The Access/Double Cab trucks have two new ceiling mounted speakers and available backup monitor. Four new exterior colors are also added to the Tacoma.
After the bankruptcy of GM, GM ended its joint venture with Toyota. Toyota, needing additional production volume at its Texas and Mississippi plants, ended Corolla and Tacoma production at the Fremont plant. In 2010 all Tacoma production was moved to Toyota's Texas plant in San Antonio. The Tacoma will be built alongside the Tundra. This brought a total of approximately 1,000 new jobs to San Antonio
The 2012 model year refresh featured a restyled front bumper, headlights, grille, hood, new interior and a shark fin antenna for the SiriusXM satellite radio. The 2013 model year comes with touch screen audio system and removes the shark fin antenna and SiriusXM radio capability unless the optional Entune package is installed. 2014 models came with a new SR trim and for 2015 models the regular cab model was discontinued.
SG Automotive manufactures a truck with a similar grille and headlights called the Huanghai Major in China.
Safety and structural integrity
The Tacoma comes standard with anti-lock brakes, brake assist, and electronic brakeforce distribution. For 2008, a rollover sensor was added which would deploy the side curtain airbags in the event of rollover in Tacomas equipped with the optional side airbags. Beginning with the 2009 model year, all Tacomas feature Toyota's Star Safety System which added Vehicle Stability Control and traction control. Front row side torso airbags and side curtain airbags for both rows also become standard as well as active head restraints.
Given the smaller size of pickup trucks in the Tacoma's category, crash testing for these sized trucks lags with how well most full size trucks perform. However, in an Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) test of the Tacoma and other small trucks, only the side airbag equipped Tacoma received the highest overall rating of "Good" in the side impact test. The Tacoma also is rated "Good" in the frontal offset crash test. In 2009 with the active head restraints the Tacoma is given the IIHS's Top Safety Pick award.
|Side Rear Passenger|
The Tacoma came in two TRD packages: Sport and Off-Road. The Sport is targeted more towards improved road performance, while the Off-Road is more geared towards the off-road enthusiast. Both are available in 2WD or 4WD, with rear electronic locking differential.
The TRD Sport package comes in two levels. The first level has a color-matched grille, color-matched front/rear bumpers, color-matched door handles, color-matched mirrors, Bilstein shocks/struts, TRD interior, hood with scoop, A/C inverter in the bed, bed rails with cleats, stainless steel exhaust tip and 17" wheels. The second level includes the above and also adds a towing package, oil and transmission coolers, heavy-duty high output alternator, and an aluminum skid plate. The 2005 to 2008 model years came with a mechanical true limited slip locking differential. The 2009 model year onwards has an open differential with a brake assisted "automatic limited slip" rear differential, similar to a VSC system.
The TRD Off-Road package includes a chrome rear bumper, 16" wheels, skid plates, chrome grille, locking rear differential and no hood scoop. Progressive rate springs are included, along with A-TRAC, Hill Descent assist(Automatic only) and Hill Start assist (six speed only). The Off-Road package has a smaller diameter roll bar compared to the Sport package, which gives the Off-Road more wheel articulation and a smoother ride but allows for more body roll. All-Terrain tires and a heavy duty front tow hook complete the package. This package is not available in Double Cab models with long-bed configuration.
TRD Extreme or T/X Baja
From model years 2010 to 2014 the Tacoma is offered in 1 of 1500 of the T|X BAJA package. Package includes upgraded lifted suspension with Eibach springs and TRD Bilstien coil-overs in the front and TRD Bilstien reservoir shocks in the rear with an additional leaf spring. The bead-lock style wheels are also added wrapped in BF Goodrich All Terrains. The BAJA model also include a stainless steel TRD exhaust. The iconic BAJA shift knob is also available for the 6-speed manual transmission models.
The Toyota X-Runner was a limited production model. The X-Runner is only available in three colors per year, and only five colors total. From 2004 to 2008 the X-Runner was available in Speedway Blue, Radiant Red and Black Sand Pearl. In 2008 for the 2009 model year facelift, Radiant Red was replaced with Barcelona Red Metallic. For the 2012 model year, Speedway Blue was replaced with Nautical Blue Metallic. The X-Runner was discontinued after the 2013 model year.
Key differences between the X-Runner and the other packages include tweaks to the suspension, hood scoop, ground effects kit, driving lights, sports wheel and tires, and a 3.15 final drive ratio (3.73 for V6 PreRunner and 4X4). Toyota added a rear-mounted X-Brace to stiffen up the rear end (hence the name X-Runner). The chassis was further stiffened by adding two more support braces to the frame. An optional big brake kit by TRD is also available on the X-Runner; which consists of a 332 mm slotted rotor and 4 piston caliper. The BBK (big brake kit) was designed by StopTech. The X-runner comes with an Aisin RA60 6-speed manual transmission produced by Aisin Seiki Co.
Third generation (2015–Present)
|Body and chassis|
|Layout||Front engine, rear-wheel drive/four-wheel drive|
Toyota 4Runner/Hilux Surf
|Engine||2.7 Liter 2TR-FE I4 (159 hp)
3.5 Liter 2GR-FKS V6 (278 hp)
The truck has a new exterior profile taking styling cues from the 2014 model year 4Runner SUV and the 2014 model year Tundra pickup and features a much more aggressive and macho look, with a larger grill and new projector beam headlamps. The tailgate and bed were redesigned and featured a debossed Tacoma logo as well as an infused spoiler. New character lines were also observed on the truck as well as an air dam in front of the vehicle – these new features will likely assist in added fuel economy.
Under the hood Toyota will offer a 2.7 Liter I4 paired with a 6-speed automatic transmission or the existing 5-speed manual and a 3.5-liter V6 which runs Toyota's D-4S system switching from port to direct injection based on driving conditions and runs on the Atkinson cycle using VVT-iW variable valve timing. This engine will be offered in both a 6-speed automatic and manual transmissions. EPA-estimated city/highway/combined mpg for the 4x2 automatic is 19/24/21 and 18/23/20 for the automatic. Based on the SAE J2807 tow guidelines the Tacoma can trailer up to 6,800 lb (3,100 kg).
In addition to this, Toyota updated the truck's frame by adding more high strength steel in order to increase the truck's rigidness and to drop weight. The body will also be constructed using ultra-high strength steel that will be integrated using a new hot stamping process that reduces weight. Toyota also updated the suspensions, rear differentials and rear axle to improve the truck's road manners while still keeping it off-road capable. The truck will be available in 5 distinct trims, these are the base SR, mid-level SR5,TRD Off Road, TRD Sport and range topping Limited. The truck will be offered in Access Cab and Double Cab configurations, the Regular Cab model was not carried over for the new generation pickup. The interior of the pickup gets a complete overhaul as well, using a handle-bar theme Toyota made the interior of the Tacoma more luxurious and added a bigger and better touchscreen display as well as an all new instrument panel. Soft-touch materials also replaced the previous generations hard plastics. Toyota has also used an acoustic windshield as well as better insulated doors to reduce cab noise and make the Tacoma more refined and for the first time in any Tacoma, Toyota will offer dual climate control.
The TRD Off Road trim models will feature an all new terrain select mode which will allow the truck to maneuver in even the toughest terrains and a CRAWL mode that will allow the driver to steer the truck in tough terrain while the truck manages braking and acceleration by itself. In addition to this the truck will also feature a moon-roof, key-less remote entry and remote start up, Qi Wireless phone charging capability, easy lower tailgate, blind spot monitoring system, backup camera (standard) and a mounted GoPro holder (standard).
Toyota Racing Development
In 1998 Toyota added a new Toyota Racing Development (TRD) off road package. The package includes off road tires, 16-inch alloy wheels, TRD dampers, a locking rear differential, and the TRD graphics.
In 2003 Toyota introduced a TRD sport package on the Tundra full-size pickup. This package was introduced in 2005 for the Tacoma at the same time as the release of the newly redesigned Tacoma.
Toyota Racing Development offers a TRD supercharger for the FJ Cruiser and Tacoma equipped with 4.0-liter V6 engine, available through Toyota dealerships. The supercharger increases the Tacoma's power output to 304 hp (227 kW) from the original 236 hp (176 kW), and the torque output to 334 lb·ft (453 N·m).
This all-new TRD supercharger is compatible on all 2005 through 2015 model year Toyota Tacoma trucks, and 2007 through 2009 model year FJ Cruiser SUV. This supercharger system features Eaton roots-type rotating components in a one-piece integral manifold, iridium spark plugs, and a five-rib serpentine drive belt system. It produces about six pounds per square inch (psi) of boost pressure.
The supercharger, when installed by an authorized Scion or Toyota dealer, has the same warranty as powertrain, five years or 60,000 miles (97,000 km), or the balance of the new car warranty, whichever is greater. When not installed by an authorized dealer, the supercharger is covered by a 12-month, 12,000-mile (19,000 km) parts-only warranty. The manufacturer's suggested retail price of the TRD supercharger is $4,500, not including installation.
The TRD supercharger program is being discontinued for all vehicles, including Tacoma, as of June 2015.
American special forces use
||This section possibly contains original research. (October 2012)|
During Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation Enduring Freedom, multiple Toyota Tacomas have been observed in use by special forces units of the U.S. Army. Typically, they have been Double Cab models, with SR5 and TRD packages.
Despite the fact that the Hilux, from which the Tacoma is descended, is extremely common in the Middle East, the special forces found it to be easier to purchase Tacomas from American dealerships, modify them appropriately, and ship them to their areas. The gasoline engine used is significantly quieter than the diesel engines used in the HMMWV and some Hilux models. These were modified by eliminating the factory radio, along with almost all exterior lights and door buzzers. The front headlights have been modified to work in IR, in order to work with night vision. The engines are unmodified, but the vehicles have been fitted with brush guards, Warn winches, and a rollbar with a machine gun mount.
|Calendar Year||US Sales|
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