Toyota Type A engine

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The Type A engine was a straight-six engine produced from 1935 through 1947 by Toyota.

The Type B was a technically more advanced version of the Type A. There was an enlarged version of this, called the Type D, but it did not enter production.

The Type C was a straight-four engine derived from the Type A.

Many parts were interchangeable between the Type A, Type B and Type C engines (e.g. pistons, valves, rods). Many of the same parts were also interchangeable with the Chevrolet Stovebolt engine, from which it was derived.

The Type E was a copy of a DKW engine.

The Type S was a straight-four engine that replaced the Type A, B and C in Toyota's passenger cars.

Type A[edit]

Type A
1935 Toyota A Type engine.jpg
Overview
ManufacturerToyota
Production1935–1947
Layout
ConfigurationI6
Displacement3,389 cc (3.4 L; 206.8 cu in)
Cylinder bore84.1 mm (3.3 in)
Piston stroke101.6 mm (4.0 in)
Block materialiron
Head materialiron
ValvetrainOHV
Combustion
Fuel systemcarburettor
Fuel typeGasoline
Output
Power output62 PS (46 kW; 61 hp)

The Type A engine was Toyota's first production engine, being produced from 1935 through 1947.

This engine was a 3,389 cc (3.4 L; 206.8 cu in) pushrod, overhead valve, 6-cylinder, three bearing engine copied from the 1929–36 Chevrolet Gen-1 3 bearing Stovebolt L6 OHV engine. By virtue of a modified intake manifold it produced 62 PS (46 kW), while the Chevrolet engine produced 60 PS (44 kW). GM used a number of local Japanese suppliers for the smaller engine parts (e.g. carburettors). Toyota was able to use the same suppliers for its cars. The parts were identical enough that pistons, rods, valves, etc. could be used in both the Chevrolet and Toyota engines interchangeably. There are several recorded instances of parts intended for one being used to repair the other.[1]

Toyota had initially considered copying the Ford flathead V8 because it was the most popular engine in Japan at the time. However, the machining of two separate banks of cylinders would add too much to the production cost, so the Chevrolet engine was copied instead.[1]

Other references to the Chevy engine claim different power figures. Different manufactures used different measuring techniques (e.g. with or without the generator/alternator connected), engines differed from year to year and that some manufacturers simply lied. In this case, Toyota did back to back comparisons using the same techniques, so it is likely that the Toyota engine did in fact produce slightly more power than the Chevy engine on which it was based. Also, the Chevy engine was likely to be a year or two old, so the current Chevy engine may have produced even more power.

Applications[edit]

  • A1 prototype car
  • AA sedan
  • AB cabriolet
  • G1 truck
  • GA truck

Type B[edit]

Type B
Overview
ManufacturerToyota
Production1938-1956
Layout
ConfigurationI6
Displacement3,386 cc (3.4 L; 206.6 cu in)
Cylinder bore84.1 mm (3.3 in)[2]
Piston stroke101.6 mm (4.0 in)[2]
Block materialiron
Head materialiron
ValvetrainOHV
Compression ratio6.4:1[2]
Combustion
Fuel systemcarburettor
Fuel typeGasoline
Output
Power output75-85 HP
Chronology
SuccessorToyota F engine

The 3,386 cc (3.4 L; 206.6 cu in) Type B was a more technically advanced version of the Type A. Production commenced in November 1938 with the opening of Toyota's Koromo plant.[3] The design was based on the Chevrolet 207 engine, and built under license but with metric dimensions and minor revisions to suit the local market. It had a four-bearing crank and shaft-mounted rocker arms, as did the Chevrolet engine. The type B engine remained in production until 1956 at least.

The original output was 75 PS (55 kW) at 3000 rpm. In January 1940 this was increased to 78 PS (57 kW) at the same engine speed. Another bump, to 82 PS (60 kW) occurred at the time of the BM truck's introduction in March 1947.[3] A 1944 prototype for a large passenger car called "Toyota Large B" also received the B-series engine, although with a higher 6.9:1 compression ratio and producing 85 PS (63 kW).[4] This was also the output of the improved engine fitted to the 4-ton BA and 2.5-ton BC trucks which were built until February and July 1956 respectively.[5][6]

The Type B was complemented and eventually supplanted by the similar 3.9 L Type F which first appeared in 1951. The Type F is based on the larger GMC OHV straight-six engine built from 1939 until 1963 in the same way that the Type A and Type B were based on the Chevrolet engines of their times. There was also an experimental 4-liter version called the Type D.

An unrelated four-cylinder diesel engine introduced in the 1970s was also called the Type B.

Applications[edit]

  • Toyota AC sedan
  • 1938-1942 Toyota GB truck
  • 1940-1941 Toyota HB truck, a shortened GB
  • 1942-1944 Toyota KB truck
  • 1943-1947 Toyota KC/KCY truck
  • 1947-1951 Toyota BM truck, also shorter wheelbase BS model from 1949
  • 1949- Toyota BL bus
  • 1951-1955 BX/BZ truck (82 PS)[7]
  • 1951-1955 BJ Jeep (predecessor to the Land Cruiser)
  • 1952- Toyota BQ 3/4-ton 4WD truck, reserved for security and police forces
  • Toyota BH26 Police Patrol Car (using a modified Toyopet Crown RS body)
  • Toyota BH28 Ambulance
  • 1954-1956 BA/BC truck (85 PS, improved BX type)

Type C[edit]

Type C
Overview
ManufacturerToyota
Production1939-1941
Layout
ConfigurationI4
Displacement2,259 cc (2.3 L; 137.9 cu in)
Cylinder bore84.1 mm (3.3 in)[8]
Piston stroke101.6 mm (4.0 in)
Block materialiron
Head materialiron
ValvetrainOHV
Compression ratio6.4:1
Combustion
Fuel systemcarburettor
Fuel typeGasoline
Output
Power output49 PS (36 kW; 48 hp)
Torque output152 N⋅m (112 lb⋅ft) @ 1400 rpm

The 2,259 cc (2.3 L; 137.9 cu in) Type C was produced from 1939 through 1941. It was formed by removing two cylinders from a Type A engine.

Applications[edit]

Type D[edit]

Type D
Overview
ManufacturerToyota
Production1944 (prototype)
Layout
ConfigurationI6
Displacement4,052 cc (4.1 L; 247.3 cu in)
Cylinder bore92.0 mm (3.6 in)[3]
Piston stroke101.6 mm (4.0 in)
Block materialiron
Head materialiron
ValvetrainOHV
Combustion
Fuel systemcarburettor
Fuel typeGasoline
Chronology
SuccessorToyota F engine

The 4,052 cc (4.1 L; 247.3 cu in) Type D was a larger version of the B engine developed in early 1944, featuring an increased bore while retaining the same stroke. It was a direct response to a national order issued in 1940, instructing Toyota to develop a higher output engine based on the B.[3] It did not enter series production, with Toyota instead developing the somewhat smaller Type F engine after the war. Output was 100 PS (74 kW).[3]

Type E[edit]

Type E
Overview
ManufacturerToyota
Production1938
Layout
ConfigurationI2 two-stroke
Displacement585 cc (0.6 L; 35.7 cu in)[8]
Combustion
Fuel systemcarburettor
Fuel typeGasoline

The 585 cc (0.6 L; 35.7 cu in) Type E was produced in 1938 only for the prototype EA sedan. It was a copy of the two-stroke engine used in the DKW F7.

Applications[edit]

Type S[edit]

Type S
1947 Toyota S Type engine.jpg
Overview
ManufacturerToyota
Production1947-1959
Layout
ConfigurationI4
Displacement995 cc (1.0 L; 60.7 cu in)
Cylinder bore65 mm (2.6 in)[8]
Piston stroke75 mm (3.0 in)
Block materialiron
Head materialiron
Valvetrainside valve
Compression ratio6.5:1
Combustion
Fuel systemcarburettor
Fuel typeGasoline
Output
Power output27 PS (20 kW; 27 hp)
Torque output98 N⋅m (72 lb⋅ft) @ 2400 rpm
Chronology
PredecessorNone
SuccessorToyota P engine

The 995 cc (1.0 L; 60.7 cu in) Type S was produced from 1947[9] through 1959. It was unrelated to previous Toyota engines, being designed by reverse-engineering a 1930s Adler Trumpf Junior's engine.[citation needed]

Applications[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Hall, Bob (March–April 1977). "Japan's Toyota with Stovebolts". Special-Interest Autos. No. 39. Bennington, VT. pp. 20–21.
  2. ^ a b c Toyota Land Cruiser Data Library Archived 2011-07-22 at Archive.today
  3. ^ a b c d e "Section 8. Debut of the Toyopet Crown, a Full-Fledged Passenger Car: Item 2. Development of Large Trucks, Four-wheel-drive Vehicles, and Diesel Engines". 75-Year History. Toyota Motor Corporation. Archived from the original on 2019-07-21.
  4. ^ "Section 5. Wartime Research and Production: Item 8. Prototype Production of a Range of Vehicles". 75-Year History. Toyota Motor Corporation. Archived from the original on 2019-03-03.
  5. ^ "Toyota Model BA Truck: Description". Vehicle Lineage. Toyota Motor Corporation. Archived from the original on 2017-11-16.
  6. ^ "Section 8. Debut of the Toyopet Crown, a Full-Fledged Passenger Car: Item 2. Development of Large Trucks, Four-wheel-drive Vehicles, and Diesel Engines (a)". 75-Year History. Toyota Motor Corporation. Archived from the original on 2017-12-16.
  7. ^ Barr, Jonathan, ed. (July–September 2003). "Working Classics: 1951 Toyota BX Truck". The Japanese Restorer in Australia. Bald Hills, Queensland, Australia (4): 23.
  8. ^ a b c "The Japanese Automobile Industry: Technology and Management at Nissan & Toyota", Michael Cusumano, Cambridge (Mass.) & London: The Harvard Univ. Press, 1985, ISBN 0-674-47256-X
  9. ^ "Fifty Years of Toyota Concept Cars", in "the wheel extended", vol 17, no.3, 1987, Toyota Motor Corporation, ISSN 0049-755X