Trưng Trắc

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Trưng Trắc (Chinese: 徵側; ?-43) is a notable national heroine of Vietnam, the head of the rebellion against the domination of the Eastern Han, who established an independent government at the capital is Mê Linh. Although the revolt was defeated under the control of Mã Viện later, in Vietnamese culture, the revolt symbolizes the dauntlessness. Historian Lê Văn Hưu commented: "Trưng Trắc, Trưng Nhị is a woman, who had just exhorted, and all the districts responded. They both established a kingdom and ruled as queen and vicegerent as easily as moving hands, these are enough to know that we could establish a nation successfully ".[1]

Identity[edit]

The first historical document is said to have recorded her identity is Book of the Later Han of Fan Ye, which was written around 432-445. Accordingly, the content is said to be recorded her name as Trưng Trắc (徵側) with her younger sister Trưng Nhị (徵貳):[2]

41 AD, two Jiaozhi ladies called Trưng Trắc and Trưng Nhị, who betrayed the government, attacked many districts.[3]

Another ancient Chinese historical document is Thủy kinh chú, which was written by Lịch Đạo Nguyên around 515-524, according to another document "Giao Châu ngoại vực ký", which wrote that her name is Trung Trắc, the daughter of Lord Chu Diên.[4][5]

The first main Vietnamese historical is Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, which wrote that her clan name is Lạc (a renowned lineage) properly, wife of Thi Sách.

However, according to modern historians, at that time, the Vietnamese people had no clan name (family name). About Trưng Trắc and Trưng Nhị's names, they derived from traditional Vietnamese silk weaving craft, similar to the way that the Trần Dynasty's emperors were named after the kinds of the fishes. Formerly, in silkworm breeding, the good cocoons was called kén chắc, the worse cocoons was called kén nhì; similarly, the good silkworm eggs was called trứng chắc, the worse silkworm eggs was called trứng nhì. Therefore, according to Nguyễn Khắc Thuần, simply their names is Trứng Chắc and Trứng Nhì, and their names may be called Trưng TrắcTrưng Nhị according to Chinese transliteration.[6][7]

Rebellion[edit]

Under the brutal and rigorous rule of the Eastern Han, the Vietnamese people are disgusted and intended of fighting against this domination. The couple (Trưng Trắc and Thi Sách) is one of Vietnamese lords and ladies who wanted to fight against the domination. Realized that this would be detrimental, Prefect Su Ding assassinate Thi Sách to suppress the uprising spirit of Vietnamese people. Trưng Trắc and Trưng Nhị brought the native troops to Hát Môn to protect this district.

She married Thi Sách,[8] a man who are also a descendant of the Lạc clan.[9]

March 40, due to resent Su Ding of assassinating her husband, Lady Trắc and sister Lady Nhị gathered supporting forces from all over the nation to begin uprising against the Eastern Han.

Referring to this event, Book of the Later Han wrote:[2]

Jiaozhi's Prefect Su Ding used draconian laws to rule Jiaozhi. Lady Trắc resented about this, thus, she uprose against. Later, supported and responded by other districts (such as Cửu Chân, Nhật Nam, Hợp Phố), she had taken 65 citadels and proclaim herself as vương (king)[10]

The army quickly occupied and defeated Su Ding's army at Luy Lâu. Su Ding fled away, Trưng Sisters had taken more than 50 citadels at that time

Successfully, she changed her surname from Lạc into Trưng and proclaimed herself as "vương" (king), the folk usually call her "Trưng Vương" (King Trưng) or clearly "Trưng Nữ Vương" (Ruling Queen Trưng). She ruled over Lĩnh Nam (the old Jiaozhi but the acreage is less than) for three years.

Defeat[edit]

30 January 41 AD, the Han knew her success, commanded the districts Trường Sa, Hợp Phố and Giao Châu to repair roads and bridges, Ma Yuan was knighted as Veteran General and led a large army to Lĩnh Nam fighting against Trưng Sisters. 43 AD, Trưng Sisters defended against Ma Yuan's army at Cấm Khê. According to Book of the Later Han, they two were killed by Ma Yuan. While Book Đại Việt sử ký tiền biên wrote: They two lost, fled to Hy Sơn Mountain, later nobody could find them.[11] Trưng Trắc is the only queen regnant in Vietnamese history.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, Kỷ Trưng Nữ Vương
  2. ^ a b Book of the Later Han 86: Nam man Tây Nam di liệt truyện.
  3. ^ Original: 至十六年,交阯女子徵侧及其妹徵贰反,攻郡。. Note: The punctuation is added by the later generations.
  4. ^ Thủy kinh chú, quyển 37.
  5. ^ Nguyên văn: 後朱䳒雒將子名詩,索𥹆泠雒將女名徵側爲妻. Note: The punctuation is added by the later generations.
  6. ^ Phan Huy Lê, Trần Quốc Vượng, Hà Văn Tấn, Lương Ninh, sách đã dẫn, tr 172
  7. ^ Nguyễn Khắc Thuần, sách đã dẫn, tr 40
  8. ^ Đào Duy Anh, sách đã dẫn, tr 490-491
  9. ^ Phan Huy Lê, Trần Quốc Vượng, Hà Văn Tấn, Lương Ninh, sách đã dẫn, tr 173
  10. ^ Original: 交阯太守苏定以法绳之,侧忿,故反。于是九真、日南、合浦蛮里皆应之,凡略六十五城,自立为王。. Note: The punctuation is added by the later generations. Possibly this translation is not correct.
  11. ^ Đại Việt sử ký tiền biên, p.92