Tracheomalacia

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Tracheomalacia
Specialty Pulmonology Edit this on Wikidata

Tracheomalacia is a condition where the cartilage that keeps the airway (trachea) open is soft such that the trachea partly collapses especially during increased airflow. The usual symptom is stridor when a person breathes out.

The trachea normally opens slightly during breathing in and narrows slightly during breathing out. These processes are exaggerated in tracheomalacia, leading to airway collapse on breathing out.

If the condition extends further to the large airways (bronchi) (if there is also bronchomalacia), it is termed tracheobronchomalacia. The same condition can also affect the larynx, which is called laryngomalacia. The term is from trachea and the Greek μαλακία, softening

Classifications[edit]

There are three types of tracheomalacia:[1]

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Diagnosis[edit]

Treatment[edit]

If the symptoms are severe enough, treatment may be needed. These range from medical management over mechanical ventilation (both continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), or bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) to tracheal stenting and surgery.

Surgical techniques include aortopexy, tracheopexy, tracheobronchoplasty, and tracheostomy.[2][3] The role of the nebulised recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase) remains inconclusive.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Austin J, Ali T (January 2003). "Tracheomalacia and bronchomalacia in children: pathophysiology, assessment, treatment and anaesthesia management". Paediatr Anaesth. 13 (1): 3–11. doi:10.1046/j.1460-9592.2003.00802.x. PMID 12535032. 
  2. ^ van der Zee DC, Bax NM (2007). "Thoracoscopic tracheoaortopexia for the treatment of life-threatening events in tracheomalacia". Surgical endoscopy. 21 (11): 2024–2025. doi:10.1007/s00464-007-9250-8. PMID 17356936. 
  3. ^ Goyal, Vikas; Masters, I. Brent; Chang, Anne B. (2012-10-17). "Interventions for primary (intrinsic) tracheomalacia in children". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 10: CD005304. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005304.pub3. ISSN 1469-493X. PMID 23076914. 
  4. ^ Goyal, Vikas; Masters, I. Brent; Chang, Anne B. (2012-10-17). "Interventions for primary (intrinsic) tracheomalacia in children". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 10: CD005304. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005304.pub3. ISSN 1469-493X. PMID 23076914. 

External links[edit]

Classification
External resources