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Trachtenberg (or Trachtenburg) (Russian: Трахтенберг, Yiddish: טראַכֿטנבערג‎; Hebrew: טרחטנברג‎‎ or Hebrew: טרכטנברג‎‎) is a surname of several notable people, typically an Ashkenazi Jewish surname, especially Bessarabian and Ukrainian. Jews from Argentina often spell the name Trajtenberg, according to Spanish spelling norms. Some more recent immigrants from Russia have had the name transliterated as Trakhtenberg when entering the US.

Trachtenburg, literally "a mountain of thoughts" (in German and Yiddish), is actually the former German name of a town in Silesia now called by the Polish name Żmigród, where Jews were a significant part of the population until the Second World War and the Holocaust. Jews who bear this name are usually descendants of families who moved from Trachtenburg, Silesia, to another place in central or eastern Europe (and then elsewhere, later on), and became known in their new communities by their former place of residence.

Isaac Trachtenberg ( 1929 - ), research scientist, holder of 17 patents, leading expert in reliability of photovoltaics