Track cycling

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Track Cycling
Track Cycling - Cali 2015.jpg
A track cycling race at the third round of 2014–15 UCI Track Cycling World Cup in the Velódromo Alcides Nieto Patiño in Cali, Colombia
Highest governing bodyUCI
Characteristics
ContactNo, although occasionally unavoidable
Team membersIndividuals and team
Mixed genderNo
TypeCycle sport
EquipmentTrack bicycle
VenueVelodrome
Presence
Country or regionWorldwide
OlympicYes, men's since 1896 and women's since 1984 (with restrictions until 2012)
ParalympicYes, men's and women's since 1996

Track cycling is a bicycle racing sport usually held on specially built banked tracks or velodromes using track bicycles.

History[edit]

An outdoor track race in Paris in 1908 featuring Major Taylor, the first African-American cyclist to become world champion

Track cycling has been around since at least 1870. When track cycling was in its infancy, it was held on velodromes similar to the ones used today.[1] These velodromes consisted of two straights and slightly banked turns, though they varied more in length and material than the modern 250m track.[2][3]

One appeal of indoor track racing was that spectators could be easily controlled, and hence an entrance fee could be charged, making track racing a lucrative sport. Early track races attracted crowds of up to 2000 people. Indoor tracks also enabled year-round cycling for the first time. The main early centers for track racing in Britain were Birmingham, Sheffield, Liverpool, Manchester and London.

The most noticeable changes in over a century of track cycling have concerned the bikes themselves, engineered to be lighter and more aerodynamic to enable ever-faster times.

With the exception of the 1912 Olympics, track cycling has been featured in every modern Olympic Games. Women's track cycling events were first included in the modern Olympics in 1988.[4] The sport was moved indoors since 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney.[5]

Along the decades, track lengths have been gradually reduced. Early velodromes varied in length between 130 and 500 metres long. By the 1960s, a standard length of 333.33 metres length was commonly used for international competitions. Since 1990, international velodromes are built with a length of 250 meters, though tracks of many lengths are still in use.[6]

Main Centres[edit]

Indoor cycling at the Sportpaleis Alkmaar, Netherlands

Track cycling is particularly popular in Europe, notably Belgium, France, Germany and the United Kingdom where it is often used as off-season training by road racers who can frequently be seen at professional six-day events (races entered by two-rider teams.)

In the United States, track racing reached a peak of popularity in the 1930s when six-day races were held in Madison Square Garden in New York. The word "Madison" is still used as the name for a type of race.

In Japan, the Keirin race format is a very popular betting sport. The sport is well-regarded, and riders are extensively trained through the Japanese Keirin School. [7]

Race formats[edit]

Track cycling events fit into two broad categories: sprint races and endurance races. Riders will typically fall into one category and not compete in the other.

Sprint[edit]

Sprint races are generally between 3 and a laps in length and focus on raw sprinting power and race tactics over a small number of laps to defeat opponents.[8] Sprint riders train specifically to compete in races of this length, and do not generally compete in endurance events.

The main sprint events are:

Endurance[edit]

Endurance races are held over longer distances. These races test the riders endurance capacity, as well as tactics and speed. The length of track endurance events varies by race type, whether it is a part of the Omnium or not, and the gender of the competitors. [9] Many track endurance riders also compete in road cycling events. [10]

The main endurance events are:

Major Competitive Events[edit]

Olympic Games[edit]

Held every four years as part of the Summer Olympics. There are currently 5 events in the Olympics: team sprint, match sprint, keirin, omnium, and team pursuit. The madison will be added in the Tokyo 2020 Olympics. [11] Each event will be run separately for men and women. It was not until the 2012 Summer Olympics, that women were allowed to compete in the same number of events as men.

World Championships[edit]

The Manchester Velodrome, a banked Siberian Pine-surfaced track, which has hosted the UCI World Championships on three occasions and home to British Cycling.

The UCI Track Cycling World Championships are held every year, usually in March or April at the end of the winter track season. There are currently 20 events in the World Championships, 10 for men and 10 for women. Qualification places are determined by different countries performance during the World Cup Classic series held through the season.

World Cup[edit]

The UCI Track Cycling World Cup series consists of six, held in different countries beginning annually in October, and finishing in January[12]. These meeting include 17 of the 19 events (excluding the omnium for men and women) that take place in a World Championship over three days.

Events won and points scored by the riders throughout this series count towards qualification places individually and for their nation in the World Championships at the end of the season. The overall leader in each event may wear a white points leaders jersey at each race, with the overall winner at the end of the season may keep the jersey and wear it at the World Championships.[13] Riders compete for either national teams or trade teams, though the future of trade teams is unknown after controversial decisions by the UCI to eliminate World Cup events, and replace them with Nation's Cup events. [14]

Ranking[edit]

The UCI Track Cycling World Ranking is based upon the results in all UCI-sanctioned races over a twelve-month period. The ranking includes an individual and a nations ranking and includes the disciplines: individual pursuit, points race, scratch, sprint, time trial, keirin, omnium, team pursuit, team sprint and madison. [15]

See Also[edit]

Gender in Track Cycling[edit]

Women's track cycling was only introduced as an Olympic sport in 1988, and women were not permitted to compete in the same number of events as men until 2012.[16] Though men and women currently compete in the same number of events, there are still significant differences between men's and women's races of the same type. For example, in the team sprint, men race three riders over three laps, whereas women race two riders over two laps, and men's individual pursuit is a 4km race and women only race 3km. [17] It is also the case that women race shorter distances than men in mass start events such as stand-alone scratch and points races, and omnium events. [18]

It must be noted that in many cycle sports, women race shorter distances, are paid less, and receive less air-time.[19][20] It was not until 2018 that the UCI mandated minimum wages for women's cycling at all. [21] It is unclear how this will impact female track cyclists, as track cycling is generally not an athlete's primary source of income (rather they are road cyclists selected for specific events by their national team). There is no talk of changing race distances to create gender parity in time for the 2020 Olympics. [22]

In 2018, Rachel McKinnon became the first transgender World Champion in any sport, with a victory in the Masters Women Age 35-44 age category. [23] In 2019, McKinnon became a repeat champion in the same discipline. Though met with some critique, McKinnon holds her title as transgender athletes are permitted to compete as per the International Olympic Committee. [24]

Riding Position[edit]

Jamie Staff riding a 1 km time trial

Aerodynamic drag is a significant factor in both road and track racing.[25] Frames are often constructed of moulded carbon fiber, for a lightweight design. More recently, track bikes have employed airfoil designs on the tubes of the frame to reduce aerodynamic drag.

Given the importance of aerodynamics, the riders' sitting position becomes extremely important. The riding position is similar to the road racing position, but is ultimately dependent on the frame geometry of the bicycle and the handlebars used. Handlebars on track bikes used for longer events such as the points race are similar to the drop bars found on road bicycles. However, in the sprint event the rider's position is more extreme compared with a road rider. The bars are lower and the saddle is higher and more forward. Bars are often narrower with a deeper drop. Carbon fiber bars of many shapes, as opposed to lighter alloys, are used by many riders for their higher stiffness and durability. [26]

In timed events such as the pursuit and the time trial, riders often use aerobars or 'triathlon bars' similar to those found on road time trial bicycles, allowing the rider to position the arms closer together in front of the body. [27] This results in a more horizontal back and presents the minimum frontal area to reduce drag. Aerobars can be separate bars that are attached to time trial or bull horn bars, or they can be part of a one-piece monocoque design. Use of aerobars is permitted only in pursuit and time trial events.

Formats of track cycle races are also heavily influenced by aerodynamics. If one rider closely follows, they draft or slipstream another, because the leading rider pushes air around themselves; any rider closely following has to push out less air than the lead rider and thus can travel at the same speed while expending less effort. [28] This fact has led to a variety of racing styles that allow skilled riders or teams to exploit this tactical advantage, as well as formats that simply test strength, speed and endurance.

During the early 1990s in individual pursuit events, some riders, most notably Graeme Obree, adopted a straight-armed Superman-like position with their arms fully extended horizontally, but this position was subsequently outlawed by the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the sport's ruling body.

Records[edit]

In addition to regular track racing, tracks are also the venue for many speed records. These are over either a fixed distance or for a fixed period of time. Generally, time trial events (200m, 500m, 1km, and Individual Pursuit) will be recorded for both gender categories as well as several age categories on each track, for each nation, and for the world.

One of the most heavily contested records is the hour record, which involves simply riding as far as possible in one hour. [29]

The history of the hour record has been attempted by some of the greatest names in cycling from both road and track racing (including, among others, Major Taylor, Henri Desgrange, Fausto Coppi, Anna Wilson, Eddy Merckx, Francesco Moser, Jeannie Longo and Tony Rominger).

Attempts are generally made at velodromes with a reputation for being fast. Recently, these have mostly been at high-altitude locations, such as Mexico City, Mexico or Aguascalientes, Mexico, where the thinner air results in lower aerodynamic drag, offsetting the added difficulty of breathing. Innovations in equipment and the rider's position on the bike have also led to dramatic improvements in the hour record, but have also been a source of controversy (see Graeme Obree).

In 2019, the Pan Am Championships held at the newly built velodrome in Cochabamba, Bolivia, Kelsey Mitchell and Nicholas Paul broke the 200m world records int their respective gender categories. The track proved fast for many other events, with Pan Am records being set in nearly all timed events. [30][31]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cycling Track Equipment and History - Olympic Sport History". International Olympic Committee. 2018-05-15. Retrieved 2019-01-19.
  2. ^ "History of track cycling". 2005-12-13. Retrieved 2019-11-06.
  3. ^ "Cycling | sport". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-11-06.
  4. ^ "Cycling: The History of Track Cycling at the Olympic Games" (PDF). Olympic Studies Centre. March 2015. Retrieved 10/05/19. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  5. ^ "Cycling Track Equipment and History - Olympic Sport History". International Olympic Committee. 2018-05-15. Retrieved 2019-01-19.
  6. ^ "Track Cycling Guides - Velodrome from Velodrome Shop". www.velodrome.shop. Retrieved 2019-11-06.
  7. ^ "Keirin – Japan's Olympic Sport". www.unmissablejapan.com. Retrieved 2019-11-22.
  8. ^ "Track Cycling Sprint Events". www.velodrome.shop. Retrieved 2019-11-18.
  9. ^ "Track Cycling Endurance Events". www.velodrome.shop. Retrieved 2019-11-18.
  10. ^ "How to use Track Cycling Workouts to Increase Performance on the Road". www.trainingpeaks.com. Retrieved 2019-11-18.
  11. ^ "Olympic Sports : Cycling|The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games". The Tokyo Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games. Retrieved 2019-11-18.
  12. ^ "A new structure to strengthen the appeal of track cycling". UCI. Retrieved 2019-10-24.
  13. ^ "Cycling lovers - UCI Track Cycling World Cups and Championships". UCI Track Cycling World Cup. Retrieved 2019-11-18.
  14. ^ "The Outer Line: The UCI's new track cycling model is a step backwards". VeloNews.com. 2019-07-01. Retrieved 2019-11-18.
  15. ^ "Rankings". UCI. Retrieved 2019-11-22.
  16. ^ "CYCLING: History of Cycling Track at the Olympic Games" (PDF). Olympic Studies Centre. March 2015. Retrieved 2019-10-05.
  17. ^ "Track Cycling". UCI. Retrieved 2019-11-06.
  18. ^ "World Track Cycling Championships 2017: The events explained". 2017-04-10. Retrieved 2019-11-06.
  19. ^ Clemitson, Suze (2014-03-06). "The long, hard road to equal pay for women's cycling and sport as a whole". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-11-26.
  20. ^ Diaz, Lucy (2019-07-17). "Female Pro Cyclists Deserve Equal Pay, Opportunities, and Support. It's About Time They Got It". Bicycling. Retrieved 2019-11-26.
  21. ^ Frattini 2018-10-01T10:30:00Z, Kirsten. "Exclusive: Women's minimum salary will equal men's Pro Continental level by 2023". cyclingnews.com. Retrieved 2019-11-28.
  22. ^ Bertine, Kathryn (2019-11-22). "Hey UCI: Your Sexism Is Showing". Bicycling. Retrieved 2019-11-28.
  23. ^ "Q&A: Dr. Rachel McKinnon, masters track champion and transgender athlete". VeloNews.com. 2018-10-15. Retrieved 2019-11-06.
  24. ^ Reza, Rebecca (2019-10-24). "Transgender Cyclist Rachel McKinnon Wins Second-Straight World Masters Title". Bicycling. Retrieved 2019-11-06.
  25. ^ "Ride Faster with Cycling Aerodynamics". www.trackcyclingacademy.com. Retrieved 2019-11-17.
  26. ^ "Buyers Guide: Handlebars for the Track | velouk.net". Retrieved 2019-11-22.
  27. ^ "Buyers Guide: Handlebars for the Track | velouk.net". Retrieved 2019-11-22.
  28. ^ Jeffrey, Broker. "The Science of Drafting ~ Easy Riding in the Slip Stream" (PDF). Performance Conditioning. Retrieved 2019-11-22.
  29. ^ "Hour Record - keep up to date with the most prestigious record in cycling". Cycling Weekly. Retrieved 2019-11-22.
  30. ^ "Kelsey Mitchell breaks 200 m world record at Pan Am track cycling championships in Cochabamba". Canadian Cycling Magazine. 2019-09-05. Retrieved 2019-11-25.
  31. ^ "Paul breaks Flying 200m world record". Trinidad and Tobago Newsday. 2019-09-06. Retrieved 2019-11-25.

External links[edit]