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A tractate (Hebrew: מסכת‎, Sephardic:/mɑː.ˈsɛ.xɛt/, Ashkenazic:/mɑː.ˈsɛ.xɛs/) is an organizational element of Mishnaic literature (eg. Mishna, Tosefta, Beraita). "Major" tractates, which are those of the Mishna itself, are organized into six groups, called sedarim, while Minor tractates stand alone, or as their own seventh group (this seventh group is not considered a seventh seder). Non-Mishnaic literature, such as Midrash, even when from the Mishnaic-era, are not so organized.

Rabbinic literature which expound upon such Mishnaic literature may or may not organize itself similarly as a matter of convenience or cross-reference. A principal example of literature which does would be the Talmud. Major examples of literature which does not would be the Rambam's Mishnah Torah, and rabbi Jacob ben Asher's Arba'ah Turim (Tur Shulkhan Arukh).