Traditional Chinese star names

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Traditional Chinese star names (Chinese: , xīng míng) are the names of stars used in ancient Chinese astronomy and astrology.

Most of these names are enumerations within the respective Chinese constellations, but a few stars have traditional proper names.

Single Star of Asterism[edit]

Name Romanization Translation Western name Proper name Western constellation Comments
軍南門 Jūn Nán Mén Southern Military Gate Phi Andromedae[1] Andromeda A single-star asterism within the Legs mansion.
玄戈 Xuán Gē Sombre Lance Lambda Boötis[2] Xuange Boötes A single-star asterism within the Purple Forbidden enclosure. Xuán Gē became the official name. Xuange for this star by approval of IAU in 30 June 2017[3]
大角 Dà Jiǎo Great Horn Alpha Boötis[4] Arcturus A single-star asterism within the Neck mansion.
招搖 Zhāo Yáo Twinkling Indicator Gamma Boötis[5] Seginus A single-star asterism within the Root mansion.
積尸 Jī Shī Cumulative Corpses Messier 44[6] Beehive Cluster Cancer A single-star asterism within the Ghost mansion.
Xiāng Prime Minister 5 Canum Venoticarum[7] Canes Venatici A single-star asterism within the Purple Forbidden enclosure.
野雞 Yě Jī Wild Cockerel Nu2 Canis Majoris[8] Canis Major A single-star asterism within the Well mansion.
天狼 Tiān Láng Celestial Wolf Alpha Canis Majoris[8] Sirius
老人 Lǎo Rén Old Man Alpha Carinae[8] Canopus Carina
附路 Fù Lù Auxiliary Road Zeta Cassiopeiae[1] Fulu Cassiopeia A single-star asterism in the Legs mansion. Fù Lù became the official name Fulu for this star by approval of IAU in 30 June 2017[3]
Whip Gamma Cassiopeiae[1] A single-star asterism in the Legs mansion.
土司空 Tǔ Sī Kōng Master of Constructions Beta Ceti [1] Diphda Cetus
Shǐ Excrement Mu Columbae[9] Columba A single-star asterism in the Three Stars mansion.
郎將 Láng Jiāng Captain of the Bodyguards 31 Comae Berenices[10] Coma Berenices A single-star asterism in the Supreme Palace enclosure.
長沙 Cháng Shā Changsha Zeta Corvi[11] Corvus A single-star asterism in the Chariot mansion.
左轄 Zuǒ Xiá Left Linchpin Eta Corvi[11]
右轄 Yòu Xiá Right Linchpin Alpha Corvi[11] Alchiba
女史 Nǚ Shǐ Female Protocol Psi Draconis[12] Dziban Draco A single-star asterism in the Purple Forbidden enclosure.
柱史 Zhù Shǐ Official of Royal Archives Phi Draconis[12]
Yuè Battle Axe Eta Geminorum[13] Propus Gemini A single-star asterism in the Well mansion.
積薪 Jī Xīn Pile of Firewood Kappa Geminorum[8]
帝座 Dì Zuò Emperor's Seat Alpha Herculis[14] Rasalgethi Hercules A single-star asterism in the Heavenly Market enclosure.
太子 Tài Zǐ Crown Prince 93 Leonis[15] Leo A single-star asterism in the Supreme Palace enclosure.
從官 Cóng Guān Retinue 92 Leonis[15]
虎賁 Hǔ Bēn Emperor’s Bodyguard 72 Leonis[15]
Sun Kappa Librae[16] Libra A single-star asterism in the Room mansion
騎陣將軍 Qí Zhèn Jiāng Jūn Chariots and Cavalry General Kappa1 Lupi[5] Lupus A single-star asterism in the Root mansion.
Hòu Astrologer Alpha Ophiuchi[14] Rasalhague Ophiuchus A single-star asterism in the Heavenly Market enclosure.
積屍 Jī Shī Heap of Corpses Pi Persei[17][18] Perseus A single-star asterism in the Stomach mansion.
積水 Jī Shuǐ Stored Water Lambda Persei[17]
天讒 Tiān Chán Celestial Slander 42 Persei[19]
北落師門 Běi Là Shī Mén North Gate of the Military Camp Alpha Piscis Austrini[20] Fomalhaut Piscis Austrinus A single-star asterism in the Encampment mansion
天綱 Tiān Gāng Materials for Making Tents Delta Piscis Austrini[20]
農丈人 Nóng Zhàng Rén Peasant HD 172910[21] Sagittarius A single-star asterism in the Dipper mansion
鍵閉 Jiàn Bì Door Bolt Nu Scorpii[22] Jabbah Scorpius A single-star asterism in the Room mansion
神宮 Shén Gōng Changing Room Mu2 Scorpii[23] Pipirima A single-star asterism in the Tail mansion
Fish Messier 7[23] Ptolemy Cluster
傅說 Fù Yuè Fuyue G Scorpii[24] Fuyue A single-star asterism in the Tail mansion. Fù Yuè became the official name Fuyue for this star by approval of IAU in 30 June 2017[3]
天乳 Tiān Rǔ Celestial Milk Mu Serpentis[5] Serpens A single-star asterism in the Root mansion
Yuè Moon 37 Tauri[25] Taurus A single-star asterism in the Hairy Head mansion
附耳 Fù Ěr Whisper Sigma2 Tauri[26] A single-star asterism in the Net mansion
天關 Tiān Guān Celestial Gate Zeta Tauri[27] Tianguan A single-star asterism in the Net mansion. Tiān Guān became the official name Tianguan for this star by approval of IAU in 30 June 2017[3]
太尊 Tài Zūn Royal Psi Ursae Majoris[28] Ursa Major A single-star asterism in the Purple Forbidden enclosure
太陽守 Tài Yáng Shǒu Guard of the Sun Chi Ursae Majoris[28] Taiyangshou A single-star asterism in the Purple Forbidden enclosure. Tài Yáng Shǒu became the official name Taiyangshou for this star by approval of IAU in 30 June 2017[3]
Assistant 80 Ursae Majoris[29] Alcor A single-star asterism in the Purple Forbidden enclosure.
天記 Tiān Jì Judge for Estimating the Age of Animals Lambda Velorum[30] Suhail Vela A single-star asterism in the Ghost mansion
謁者 Yè Zhě Usher to the Court 16 Virginis[31] Virgo A single-star asterism in the Supreme Palace enclosure.

Star that Represent[edit]

Name Romanization Translation Western name Proper name Western constellation Represent Romanization Translation Description
天市左垣六 Tiān Shì Zuǒ Yuán liù the Sixth Star of Left Wall Zeta Aquilae[32] Okab Aquila 吳越 Wú Yuè The state of Wu and Yue Left Wall (天市左垣, Tiānshìzuǒyuán) is the asterism in the Heavenly Market enclosure.
河鼓二 Hé Gŭ èr the Second Star of Drum at the River Alpha Aquilae[33] Altair 牛郎 or 牵牛 Niúláng or Qiānniú Niulang, Cowherd Niulang, the cowherd who fell in love with the daughter of the Jade Emperor in the Qixi Festival Weaver Girl and the Cowherd folk story. Drum at the River (河鼓, Hégŭ) is the asterism in the Ox mansion.
紫微右垣六 Zǐ Wēi Yòu Yuán liù the Sixth Star of Right Wall Alpha Camelopardalis[34] Camelopardalis 少衛 Shǎo Wèi The Second Imperial Guard Right Wall (紫微右垣六, Zǐwēiyòuyuán) is the asterism in the Purple Forbidden enclosure.
Phi Capricorni[35] Capricornus Chǔ The state of Chu These stars is once of members of Twelve States (十二國, Shíèrguó), which is the asterism in the Girl mansion. The Twelve States refer to these ancient states in the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period: Chu (楚), Dai (代), Han (韓), Jin (晉), Qi (齊), Qin (秦), Wei (魏), Yan (燕), Yue (越), Zhao (趙), Zheng (鄭), Zhou (周).
Iota Capricorni[35] 代一 Dài yī (First star of) The state of Dai
35 Capricorni[36] Hán The state of Han
36 Capricorni[36] Jìn The state of Jin
Chi Capricorni[35] The state of Qi
Theta Capricorni[35] 秦一 Qín yī (First star of) The state of Qin
30 Capricorni[36] 秦二 Qín èr (Second star of) The state of Qin
33 Capricorni[36] Wèi The state of Wei
Zeta Capricorni[35] Yān The state of Yan
19 Capricorni[36] Yuè The state of Yue
20 Capricorni[36] Zhèng The state of Zheng
Eta Capricorni[35] 周一 Zhōu yī (First star of) The state of Zhou
老人 Lǎo Rén Old Man Alpha Carinae[8] Canopus Carina Shòu Longevity One of the "Three Stars", the Shou star is personified as the Old Man of the South Pole, believed to control the life spans of mortals. He is sometimes conflated with Laozi and corresponding gods of Taoist theology. Old Man is the asterism in the Well mansion.
紫微左垣七 Zǐ Wēi Zuǒ Yuán qī the Seventh Star of Right Wall Gamma Cephei[12] Errai Cepheus 少衛 Shǎo Wèi The Second Imperial Guard Right Wall (紫微右垣六, Zǐwēiyòuyuán) is the asterism in the Purple Forbidden enclosure.
太微左垣五 Tài Wēi Zuǒ Yuán wǔ the Fifth Star of Left Wall Alpha Comae Berenices[37] Diadem Coma Berenices 東上將 Dōng Shǎng Jiāng The First Eastern General Left Wall (太微左垣, Tàiwēizuǒyuán) is the asterism in the Supreme Palace enclosure.
紫微左垣一 Zǐ Wēi Zuǒ Yuán yī the First Star of Left Wall Iota Draconis[12] Edasich Draco 左樞 Zuǒ Shū The Left Pivot Left Wall (紫微左垣, Zǐwēizuǒyuán) is the asterism in the Purple Forbidden enclosure.
紫微左垣二 Zǐ Wēi Zuǒ Yuán èr the Second Star of Left Wall Theta Draconis[12] 上宰 Shǎng Zǎi The First Premier
紫微左垣三 Zǐ Wēi Zuǒ Yuán sān the Third Star of Left Wall Eta Draconis[12] Athebyne 少宰 Shǎo Zǎi The Second Premier
紫微左垣四 Zǐ Wēi Zuǒ Yuán sì the Fourth Star of Left Wall Zeta Draconis[12] Aldhibah 上弼 Shǎng Bì The First Minister
紫微左垣五 Zǐ Wēi Zuǒ Yuán wǔ the Fifth Star of Left Wall Upsilon Draconis[12] 少弼 Shǎo Bì The Second Minister
紫微右垣一 Zǐ Wēi Yòu Yuán yī the First Star of Right Wall Alpha Draconis[34] Thuban 右樞 Yòu Shū The Right Pivot Right Wall (紫微右垣, Zǐwēiyòuyuán) is the asterism in the Purple Forbidden enclosure.
紫微右垣二 Zǐ Wēi Yòu Yuán èr the Second Star of Right Wall Kappa Draconis[34] 少尉 Shǎo Wèi The Second Chief Judge
紫微右垣三 Zǐ Wēi Yòu Yuán sān the Third Star of Right Wall Lambda Draconis[34] Giausar 上輔 Shǎng Fǔ The First Minister
天市左垣一 Tiān Shì Zuǒ Yuán yī the First Star of Left Wall Delta Herculis[32] Sarin Hercules Wèi The state of Wei Left Wall (天市左垣, Tiānshìzuǒyuán) is the asterism in the Heavenly Market enclosure.
天市左垣二 Tiān Shì Zuǒ Yuán èr the Second Star of Left Wall Lambda Herculis[32] Maasym Zhào The state of Zhao
天市左垣三 Tiān Shì Zuǒ Yuán sān the Third Star of Left Wall Mu Herculis[32] 九河 Jiǔ Hé Jiuhe
天市左垣四 Tiān Shì Zuǒ Yuán sì the Fourth Star of Left Wall Omicron Herculis[32] 中山 Zhōng Shān Zhongshan
天市右垣一 Tiān Shì Yòu Yuán yī the First Star of Right Wall Beta Herculis[38] Kornephoros 河中 Hé Zhōng Hezhong Right Wall (天市左垣, Tiānshìyòuyuán) is the asterism in the Heavenly Market enclosure.
天市右垣二 Tiān Shì Yòu Yuán èr the Second Star of Right Wall Gamma Herculis[38] 河間 Hé Jiān Hejian
天市右垣三 Tiān Shì Yòu Yuán sān the Third Star of Right Wall Kappa Herculis[38] Marsic Jìn The state of Jin
太微右垣二 Tài Wēi Yòu Yuán èr the Second Star of Right Wall Sigma Leonis[39] Leo 西上將 Xī Shǎng Jiāng The First Western General Right Wall (太微右垣, Tàiwēiyòuyuán) is the asterism in the Supreme Palace enclosure.
太微右垣三 Tài Wēi Yòu Yuán sān the Third Star of Right Wall Iota Leonis[39] 西次將 Xī Cì Jiāng The Second Western General
太微右垣四 Tài Wēi Yòu Yuán sì the Fourth Star of Right Wall Theta Leonis[39] Chertan 西次相 Xī Cì Xiāng The Second Western Minister
太微右垣五 Tài Wēi Yòu Yuán wǔ the Fifth Star of Right Wall Delta Leonis[39] Zosma 西上相 Xī Shǎng Xiāng The First Western Minister
織女一 Zhī Nǚ yī the First Star of Weaving Girl Alpha Lyrae[33] Vega Lyra 織女 Zhī Nǚ Weaving Girl After the Qixi Festival Weaver Girl and the Cowherd folk story. Weaving Girl (織女, Zhīnǚ) is the asterism in the Ox mansion.
天市左垣九 Tiān Shì Zuǒ Yuán jiǔ the Ninth Star of Left Wall Nu Ophiuchi[32] Ophiuchus Yān The state of Yan Left Wall (天市左垣, Tiānshìzuǒyuán) is the asterism in the Heavenly Market enclosure.
天市左垣十一 Tiān Shì Zuǒ Yuán shíyī the Eleventh Star of Left Wall Eta Ophiuchi[32] Sabik Sòng The state of Song
天市右垣九 Tiān Shì Yòu Yuán jiǔ the Ninth Star of Right Wall Delta Ophiuchi[38] Yed Prior Liáng The state of Liang Right Wall (天市左垣, Tiānshìyòuyuán) is the asterism in the Heavenly Market enclosure.
天市右垣十 Tiān Shì Yòu Yuán shí the Tenth Star of Right Wall Epsilon Ophiuchi[38] Yed Posterior Chǔ The state of Chu
天市右垣十一 Tiān Shì Yòu Yuán shíyī the Eleventh Star of Right Wall Zeta Ophiuchi[38] Hán The state of Han
天市左垣七 Tiān Shì Zuǒ Yuán qī the Seventh Star of Left Wall Theta Serpentis[32] Alya Serpens The state of Xu Left Wall (天市左垣, Tiānshìzuǒyuán) is the asterism in the Heavenly Market enclosure.
天市左垣八 Tiān Shì Zuǒ Yuán bā the Eighth Star of Left Wall Eta Serpentis[32] 東海 Dōng Hǎi Dong Hai
天市左垣十 Tiān Shì Zuǒ Yuán shí the Tenth Star of Left Wall Xi Serpentis[32] 南海 Nán Hǎi Nan Hai
天市右垣四 Tiān Shì Yòu Yuán sì the Fourth Star of Right Wall Gamma Serpentis[38] Zhèng The state of Zheng Right Wall (天市右垣, Tiānshìyòuyuán) is the asterism in the Heavenly Market enclosure.
天市右垣五 Tiān Shì Yòu Yuán wǔ the Fifth Star of Right Wall Beta Serpentis[38] Zhōu The state of Zhou
天市右垣六 Tiān Shì Yòu Yuán liù the Sixth Star of Right Wall Delta Serpentis[38] Qín The state of Qin
天市右垣七 Tiān Shì Yòu Yuán qī the Seventh Star of Right Wall Alpha Serpentis[38] Unukalhai Shǔ The state of Shu
天市右垣八 Tiān Shì Yòu Yuán bā the Eighth Star of Right Wall Epsilon Serpentis[38] The state of Ba
紫微右垣四 Zǐ Wēi Yòu Yuán sì the Fourth Star of Right Wall 24 Ursae Majoris[29] Ursa Major 少辅 Shǎo Fǔ The Second Minister Right Wall (紫微右垣, Zǐwēiyòuyuán) is the asterism in the Purple Forbidden enclosure.
北斗一 Běi Dǒu yī the First Star of Northern Dipper Alpha Ursae Majoris[40] Dubhe 天樞 Tiān Shū The Celestial Pivot Northern Dipper (北斗, Běidǒu) is the asterism in the Purple Forbidden enclosure.
北斗二 Běi Dǒu èr the Second Star of Northern Dipper Beta Ursae Majoris[40] Merak 天璇 Tiān Xuán The Celestial Rotating Jade
北斗三 Běi Dǒu sān the Third Star of Northern Dipper Gamma Ursae Majoris[40] Phecda 天璣 Tiān Jī The Celestial Shining Pearl
北斗四 Běi Dǒu sì the Fourth Star of Northern Dipper Delta Ursae Majoris[40] Megrez 天權 Tiān Quán The Celestial Balance
北斗五 Běi Dǒu wǔ the Fifth Star of Northern Dipper Epsilon Ursae Majoris[40] Alioth 玉衡 Yù Héng The Jade Sighting-Tube
北斗六 Běi Dǒu liù the Sixth Star of Northern Dipper Zeta Ursae Majoris[40] Mizar
Status One of the "Three Stars", the Lu star is believed to be Zhang Xian, who lived during the Later Shu dynasty. The word lu specifically refers to the salary of a government official. As such, the Lu star is the star of prosperity, rank, and influence.
開陽 Kāi Yáng The Opener of Heat Northern Dipper (北斗, Běidǒu) is the asterism in the Purple Forbidden enclosure.
北斗七 Běi Dǒu qī the Seventh Star of Northern Dipper Eta Ursae Majoris[40] Alkaid 搖光 Yáo Guāng The Twinkling Brilliance
Iota Ursae Majoris[28] Talitha 上台一 Shàng Tái yī The First Upper Step These stars is once of members of Three Steps (三台, Sāntái), which is the asterism in the Supreme Palace enclosure mansion. The Three Steps represent three rank official, or triple deck room in the heaven. They are The Upper Step (上台, Shàngtái), The Middle Step (中台, Zhōngtái) and The Lower Step (下台, Xiàtái).
Kappa Ursae Majoris[28] Alkaphrah 上台二 Shàng Tái èr The Second Upper Step
Lambda Ursae Majoris[28] Tania Borealis 中台一 Zhōng Tái yī The First Middle Step
Mu Ursae Majoris[28] Tania Australis 中台一 Zhōng Tái èr The Second Middle Step
Nu Ursae Majoris[28] Alula Borealis 下台一 Xià Tái yī The First Lower Step
Xi Ursae Majoris[28] Alula Australis 下台二 Xià Tái èr The Second Lower Step
太微左垣一 Tài Wēi Zuǒ Yuán yī the First Star of Left Wall Eta Virginis[37] Zaniah Virgo 左執法 Zuǒ Zhí Fǎ The Left Law Administrator Left Wall (太微左垣, Tàiwēizuǒyuán) is the asterism in the Supreme Palace enclosure.
太微左垣二 Tài Wēi Zuǒ Yuán èr the Second Star of Left Wall Gamma Virginis[37] Porrima 東上相 Dōng Shàng Xiàng The First Eastern Minister
太微左垣三 Tài Wēi Zuǒ Yuán sān the Third Star of Left Wall Delta Virginis[37] Minelauva 東次相 Dōng Cì Xiàng The Second Eastern Minister
太微左垣四 Tài Wēi Zuǒ Yuán sì the Fourth Star of Left Wall Epsilon Virginis[37] Vindemiatrix 東次將 Dōng Cì Jiàng The Second Eastern General
太微右垣一 Tài Wēi Yòu Yuán yī the First Star of Right Wall Beta Virginis[39] Zavijava 右執法 Yòu Zhí Fǎ The Right Law Administrator Right Wall (太微右垣, Tàiwēiyòuyuán) is the asterism in the Supreme Palace enclosure.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d (in Chinese) AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 7 月 9 日
  2. ^ (in Chinese) AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 6 月 14 日
  3. ^ a b c d e "Naming Stars". IAU.org. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  4. ^ (in Chinese) AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 6 月 28 日
  5. ^ a b c (in Chinese) AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 6 月 29 日
  6. ^ Ian Ridpath's Startales - Cancer the Crab
  7. ^ Ian Ridpath's Startales - Canis Venatici the Hunting Dogs
  8. ^ a b c d e (in Chinese) AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 7 月 16 日
  9. ^ (in Chinese) AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 7 月 15 日
  10. ^ Ian Ridpath's Startales - Coma Berenices the Berenice's Hair
  11. ^ a b c (in Chinese)AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 7 月 22 日
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h (in Chinese) AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 6 月 10 日
  13. ^ (in Chinese) AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 5 月 26 日
  14. ^ a b (in Chinese) AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 6 月 25 日
  15. ^ a b c Ian Ridpath's Startales - Leo the Lion
  16. ^ Ian Ridpath's Startales - Libra the Scales
  17. ^ a b (in Chinese) AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 7 月 11 日
  18. ^ Allen (1899) associated the name with Algol. See : Perseus, the Champion
  19. ^ Ian Ridpath's Startales - Perseus
  20. ^ a b (in Chinese) AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 7 月 7 日
  21. ^ Ian Ridpath's Startales - Sagittarius the Archer
  22. ^ (in Chinese) AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 6 月 30 日
  23. ^ a b (in Chinese) AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 5 月 10 日
  24. ^ Ian Ridpath's Startales -Scorpius the Scorpion
  25. ^ Ian Ridpath's Startales - Taurus the Bull
  26. ^ (in Chinese) AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 5 月 23 日
  27. ^ (in Chinese) AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 5 月 24 日
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h (in Chinese) AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 6 月 21 日
  29. ^ a b Ian Ridpath's Startales - Ursa Major the Great Bear
  30. ^ (in Chinese) AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 7 月 17 日
  31. ^ Ian Ridpath's Startales - Virgo teh Virgin
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j (in Chinese) AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 6 月 23 日
  33. ^ a b (in Chinese) AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 7 月 3 日
  34. ^ a b c d (in Chinese) AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 6 月 11 日
  35. ^ a b c d e f (in Chinese)AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 7 月 4 日
  36. ^ a b c d e f Ian Ridpath's Startales - Capricornus the Sea Goat
  37. ^ a b c d e (in Chinese) AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 6 月 18 日
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k (in Chinese)AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 6 月 24 日
  39. ^ a b c d e (in Chinese) AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 6 月 19 日
  40. ^ a b c d e f g (in Chinese) AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 6 月 15 日