Trans-European Transport Networks
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The Trans-European Transport Networks (TEN-T) are a planned set of road, rail, air and water transport networks in the European Union. The TEN-T networks are part of a wider system of Trans-European Networks (TENs), including a telecommunications network (eTEN) and a proposed energy network (TEN-E or Ten-Energy). The European Commission adopted the first action plans on trans-European networks in 1990.
TEN-T envisages coordinated improvements to primary roads, railways, inland waterways, airports, seaports, inland ports and traffic management systems, providing integrated and intermodal long-distance, high-speed routes. A decision to adopt TEN-T was made by the European Parliament and Council in July 1996. The EU works to promote the networks by a combination of leadership, coordination, issuance of guidelines and funding aspects of development.
These projects are technically and financially managed by the Trans-European Transport Network Executive Agency (TEN-T EA), which was established for this purpose by the European Commission in October 2006.
TEN-T guidelines were initially adopted on 23 July 1996, with Decision No 1692/96/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on Community guidelines for the development of the trans-European transport network.
In May 2001, the European Parliament and the Council adopted a Decision No 1346/2001/EC, which amended the TEN-T Guidelines with respect to seaports, inland ports and intermodal terminals.
In April 2004, the European Parliament and the Council adopted Decision No 884/2004/EC (added to the list by Decision No 884/2004/EC), amending Decision No 1692/96/EC on Community guidelines for the development of the trans-European transport network. The April 2004 revision was a more fundamental change to TEN-T policies, intended to accommodate EU enlargement and consequent changes in traffic flows.
Financial support for the implementation of TEN-T guidelines stems from the following rules:
- Regulation (EC) No 2236/95 of 18 September 1995 contains general rules for the granting of Community financial aid in the field of trans-European networks.
- Regulation (EC) No 1655/1999 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 July 1999 amends Regulation (EC) No 2236/95.
- Regulation (EC) No 807/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 April 2004 amends Council Regulation (EC) No 2236/95.
- Regulation (EC) No 680/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2007 supplies general rules for granting Community financial aid for trans-European transport and energy networks.
In general, TEN-T projects are mostly funded by national or state governments. Other funding sources include: European Community funds (ERDF, Cohesion Funds, TEN-T budget), loans from international financial institutions (e.g. the European Investment Bank), and private funding.
List of transport networks
Each transportation mode has a network. The networks are:
- Trans-European road network
- Trans-European Rail network, which includes the Trans-European high-speed rail network as well as the Trans-European conventional rail network
- Trans-European Inland Waterway network and inland ports
- Trans-European Seaport network
- Motorways of the Sea (added by Decision No 884/2004/EC)
- Trans-European Airport network
- Trans-European Combined Transport network
- Trans-European Shipping Management and Information network
- Trans-European Air Traffic Management network, which includes the Single European Sky and SESAR concepts
- Trans-European Positioning and Navigation network, which includes the Galileo
Priority axes and projects
On 17 October 2013 nine projects were announced. These were:
- The Baltic-Adriatic Corridor
- The North Sea-Baltic Corridor
- The Mediterranean Corridor
- The Orient/East-Med Corridor
- The Scandinavian-Mediterranean Corridor
- The Rhine-Alpine Corridor
- The Atlantic Corridor
- The North Sea-Mediterranean Corridor
- The Rhine-Danube Corridor
At its meeting in Essen in 1994, the European Council endorsed a list of 14 TEN-T ‘specific’ projects, drawn up by a group chaired by then Commission Vice-President Henning Christophersen. Following the 2003 recommendations from the Van Miert TEN-T high-level group, the Commission compiled a list of 30 priority projects to be launched before 2010.
In addition to the various TENs, there are ten Pan-European corridors, which are paths between major urban centres and ports, mainly in Eastern Europe, that have been identified as requiring major investment.
The international E-road network is a naming system for major roads in Europe managed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. It numbers roads with a designation beginning with "E" (such as "E1").
- timeline of TEN-T priority axes and projects as of 2005, p. 7, PDF document, 14 MB
- Decision No 1692/96/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 July 1996 on Community guidelines for the development of the trans-European transport network
- Decision No 1346/2001/EC
- Decision No 884/2004/EC
- here (13 MB)
- Council Regulation (EC) No 2236/95 of 18 September 1995 laying down general rules for the granting of Community financial aid in the field of trans-European networks
- Regulation (EC) No 1655/1999 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 July 1999 amending Regulation (EC) No 2236/95 laying down general rules for the granting of Community financial aid in the field of trans-European networks
- Regulation (EC) No 807/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 April 2004 amending Council Regulation (EC) No 2236/95 laying down general rules for the granting of Community financial aid in the field of trans-European networks
- Regulation (EC) No 680/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2007 laying down general rules for the granting of Community financial aid in the field of the trans-European transport and energy networks
- "Corridors - European Commission". Europa. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
- EC web site with links to the complete Van Miert reports, plus annexes and maps The 30 axes and priority projects were:detailed listing of all 30 TEN-T priority axes and projects as of 2005, with maps, PDF document, 14 MB A map showing the 30 projects, in PDF format, may be found here:
- Railway axis Berlin–Verona/Milan–Bologna–Naples–Messina–Palermo - map
- High-speed railway axis Paris–Brussels–Cologne–Amsterdam–London - map
- High-speed railway axis of south-west Europe - map
- High-speed railway axis east - map
- Betuwe line - map
- Railway axis Lyons–Trieste–Divača/ Koper–Divača–Ljubljana–Budapest–Ukrainian border - map
- Motorway axis Igoumenitsa/Patras–Athens–Sofia–Budapest - map
- Multimodal axis Portugal/Spain–rest of Europe - map
- Railway axis Cork–Dublin–Belfast–Stranraer - map
- Malpensa Airport - map
- Øresund Bridge - map
- Nordic triangle railway/road axis - map
- United Kingdom/Ireland/Benelux road axis - map
- West Coast Main Line - map
- Galileo - map
- Freight railway axis Sines/Algeciras-Madrid-Paris - map
- Railway axis Paris–Strasbourg–Stuttgart–Vienna–Bratislava - map
- Rhine/Meuse–Main–Danube inland waterway axis - map
- High-speed rail interoperability on the Iberian peninsula - map
- Fehmarn belt railway axis - map
- Motorways of the sea - map
- Railway axis Athens–Sofia–Budapest–Vienna–Prague– Nuremberg/Dresden - map
- Railway axis Gdansk–Warsaw–Brno/Bratislava–Vienna - map
- Railway axis Lyons/Genoa–Basle–Duisburg–Rotterdam/Antwerp - map
- Motorway axis Gdansk–Brno/Bratislava–Vienna - map
- Railway/road axis Ireland/United Kingdom/continental Europe - map
- Rail Baltic axis Warsaw–Kaunas–Riga–Tallinn–Helsinki - map
- EuroCap-Rail on the Brussels–Luxembourg–Strasbourg railway axis - map
- Railway axis of the Ionian/Adriatic intermodal corridor - map
- Inland waterway Seine–Scheldt -map