Trans Mountain Pipeline
|Trans Mountain Pipeline|
|Province||Alberta and British Columbia|
|To||Burnaby, British Columbia|
|Owner||Trans Mountain Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Canada Development Investment Corporation|
|Length||1,150 km (710 mi)|
|Diameter||610 mm (24 in)|
The Trans Mountain Pipeline System, or simply the Trans Mountain Pipeline, is a pipeline that carries crude and refined oil from Alberta to the coast of British Columbia, Canada. "Trans Mountain pipeline system" and "Trans Mountain Expansion Project", TMX, are since August 31, 2018, part of "Trans Mountain Corporation", a wholly owned subsidiary of the Canada Development Investment Corporation (CDIC), that is accountable to the Parliament of Canada. Until the purchase by the CDIC, it was owned by the Canadian division of Kinder Morgan Energy Partners. The pipeline has been in use since 1953. It is the only pipeline to run between these two areas.
In 2013, the National Energy Board approved a proposal by Kinder Morgan to expand the pipeline with a second span, built roughly parallel to the existing pipeline. The project would expand its capacity from 300,000 barrels per day (48,000 m3/d) a day to 890,000 barrels per day (141,000 m3/d). The proposal attracted controversy due to its potential environmental impact, having faced legal challenges, as well as protests from environmentalists and First Nations groups. The disputes intensified in early 2018, when Alberta and B.C. engaged in a trade war over the expansion project. In May 2018, the federal government announced its intent to buy the pipeline from Kinder Morgan for $4.5 billion, and seek outside investors to complete the expansion (who would also be indemnified for any delays induced by provincial or municipal governments).
In August 2018, on the same day that Kinder Morgan shareholders approved the sale, the Federal Court of Appeal overturned the NEB's approval of the pipeline expansion, citing that the government did not sufficiently consult First Nations groups and assess its environmental impact.[Notes 1][Notes 2] The Canadian government reinitiated Phase III consultations with Indigenous groups impacted by the pipeline, beginning on November 19.
On February 14, 1947, large oil deposits around Leduc, Alberta, were discovered. The idea for a pipeline from Alberta to British Columbia (BC), quickly emerged, driven by the growing demand for oil both in Asia and on the west coast of Canada and the United States. The US military was also interested in developing this infrastructure so that oil could be accessed more easily for military use, specifically because of the ongoing Korean War.
On March 21, 1951, the Trans Mountain Pipeline Company was created by a special Act of Parliament. On the same day, the company made a pipeline proposal to the Board of Transport Commissioners. Ownership of the company was split between Canadian Bechtel Ltd. and Standard Oil.[clarification needed]
In February 1952 after the board's approval, construction began. Canadian Bechtel Ltd. was responsible for engineering, design, and construction of the project. On October 17, 1953, oil began to be pumped through the pipeline, which had cost a total of $93 million.
In 2004, Kinder Morgan began the process to add a second pipeline, running parallel to the first, for the portion running between Hinton, Alberta, and Hargreaves, British Columbia. This required two more pumping stations – the Wolf Pump Station, near Niton Junction, Alberta, and the Chappel Pump Station, near Pyramid Creek Falls Provincial Park, British Columbia.
In 2008, the project was completed, increasing capacity by 40,000 barrels per day (6,400 m3/d), (from 260,000 to 300,000 barrels per day (41,000 to 48,000 m3/d)).
Trans Mountain has reported approximately 82 spills to Canada's National Energy Board since 1961. Although a majority have occurred at contained zones such as pumping stations, and a majority were below the mandatory reporting threshold of 1.5 cubic metres, there have been some significant spill events. Notably:
- Abbotsford 2005: A ruptured pipeline dumped 210 m3 (1,300 bbl) of crude oil. The company attributed the accident to activity on a neighbouring property.
- Burnaby 2007: A contractor working on a sewage project for the City of Burnaby ruptured a pipeline, causing spillage of 224–234 m3 (1,410–1,470 bbl) of crude oil. Some of it flowed into Burrard Inlet via the Burnaby storm sewer system. Most of it was recovered. Eleven houses were sprayed with oil, and about 225–250 residents were evacuated or left voluntarily. Cleanup took more than a year.
- Burnaby 2009: 305 m3 (1,920 bbl) of crude oil were released from a tank at the Trans Mountain Burnaby Terminal. Most of it flowed into a containment area.
- Sumas 2012: 90 m3 (570 bbl) of light crude oil leaked from a Sumas Mountain holding tank. All of it flowed into a containment area.
Trans Mountain Expansion Project
On June 18, 2019, Kinder Morgan filed an application with the Canadian National Energy Board pursuant to Part III of the National Energy Board Act to build a second pipeline under the Trans Mountain Pipeline Expansion Project. The second pipeline was to run roughly parallel to the existing pipeline, between Edmonton and Burnaby, (east of Vancouver) and to be used to transport diluted bitumen. The additional pipeline requires 12 new pumping stations. The proposed expansion, with 980 kilometres (610 mi) of pipe, would increase the system's capacity from 300,000 barrels per day (48,000 m3/d) a day to 890,000 barrels per day (141,000 m3/d). An investment of $7.4 billion would complete the connection between Strathcona County, Alberta, and Burnaby, British Columbia.
Kinder Morgan had the support at that time of several large petroleum industry customers for this expansion, (BP Canada Energy Trading Co., Canadian Natural Resources, Canadian Oil Sands Ltd., Cenovus Energy Inc., Devon Canada Corp., Husky Energy Marketing Inc., Imperial Oil Ltd., Nexen Marketing Inc., Statoil Canada Ltd., Suncor Energy Marketing Inc., Suncor Energy Products Partnership, Tesoro Refining & Marketing Co, and Total E&P Canada Ltd).
In 2016, BC stated it did not support Trans Mountain, partly because Kinder Morgan has not provided enough information about its proposed spill prevention and spill clean up program. On November 29, 2016, Canada's federal cabinet approved the expansion project, announcing that the approval was "subject to 157 binding conditions that will address potential Indigenous, socio-economic and environmental impacts, including project engineering, safety and emergency preparedness."
On January 11, 2017, B.C. Premier Christy Clark announced British Columbia's support for the expansion of the Trans Mountain pipeline, saying the project meets her government's five conditions for approval and includes a revenue-sharing agreement worth up to $1 billion.
The expansion project has faced criticism, particularly from environmentalists and First Nations groups. The existing and proposed pipelines ship diluted bitumen through the Strait of Juan de Fuca, an extremely sensitive environmental region. To reach the terminus, tankers have to pass through a very narrow channel of shallow water from the open sea.
Those who support the pipeline say that it will create jobs and that it has a lower risk of spilling oil than transporting oil by rail, which pipeline proponents say would otherwise have to be used.
A 2014 study by Simon Fraser University claimed that Kinder Morgan overestimated the economic benefits of the pipeline expansion. From 2008 through 2018, Western Canadian Select (WCS), Canada's benchmark for heavy crude oil sold at an average discount of US$17 against the benchmark for light oil, West Texas Intermediate (WTI). This widened to a record US$50 in the fall of 2018 with the price of WCS hitting a record low of less than US$14 a barrel.
Despite federal government approval, seven Federal Court challenges were filed by the municipalities of Vancouver and Burnaby, and the Tsleil-Waututh, Squamish, Kwantlen, and Coldwater First Nations. In November 2017, minister of natural resources Jim Carr stated that the federal government had sent a letter in support of a dispute resolution process to the National Energy Board to expedite any future disputes over provincial or municipal permits impeding on the expansion. BC Environmental Minister George Heyman accused the federal government of interfering with an independent review of the project, arguing that "it's both a highly unusual and a highly troubling intrusion on a province's right to enforce its own permits, its own regulations and the interests of its own citizens".
On January 30, 2018, the B.C. government proposed a restriction on increases to the amount of diluted bitumen that can be imported into the province from Alberta, until the completion of studies on whether potential spillage could be mitigated. The province also announced an intent to consult with local communities and First Nations among others. Alberta premier Rachel Notley criticized the proposal as being a stalling tactic on Trans Mountain expansion, explaining that "the B.C. government has every right to consult on whatever it pleases with its citizens. It does not have the right to rewrite our constitution and assume powers for itself that it does not have." On February 6, 2018, Notley ordered the Alberta Gaming and Liquor Commission to cease future imports of British Columbia wine as a retaliatory sanction over these moves. The wine sanctions were lifted on February 22, 2018
On April 8, 2018, Kinder Morgan suspended "non-essential" activities relating to the pipeline, as the company did not want to "put [its] shareholders at risk on the remaining project spend". The company stated that it would attempt to reach agreements on a funding plan with stakeholders by May 31. On April 16, 2018, the Alberta government introduced the Preserving Canada's Economic Prosperity Act, which would give the Minister of Energy power to regulate the export of crude oil, natural gas, or refined fuel from Alberta. The bill could be used to effectively ban the export of Alberta gas to British Columbia. As such, B.C. Attorney General David Eby threatened to sue Alberta over the proposed bill, as he considered it unconstitutional, and stated that it could have a further impact on gasoline prices in the province.
On May 29, 2018, the Canadian federal government announced its intent to acquire the Trans Mountain Pipeline from Kinder Morgan for $4.5 billion. The government does not intend to remain the permanent owner of the pipeline, as it plans to seek outside investors to finance the twinning project. If the government cannot find a buyer before the consummation of the purchase, it will carry out the purchase via a crown corporation, and operate it in the meantime. The eventual owner will be indemnified by the government for any delays or hindrances to the project that result from legal actions by provincial or municipal governments. The government will also have the option to cover costs or purchase the pipeline back if the new owner is unable to complete the project due to legal pressure, or, despite reasonable efforts, cannot complete the project by an established deadline.
Critics of the expansion argued that this proposed purchase was a taxpayer-funded bailout of the project. B.C. Premier John Horgan stated that the sale would not affect the provincial government's ongoing efforts to block the pipeline expansion, stating that "rather than go to the court to determine jurisdictions, they're making financial decisions that affect taxpayers and they'll have to be accountable for that". Stewart Phillip, president of the Union of British Columbia Indian Chiefs, stated that the union was "absolutely shocked and appalled that Canada is willingly investing taxpayers' money in such a highly controversial fossil fuel expansion project".
On August 30, 2018, Kinder Morgan Canada's shareholders voted to approve the sale of the pipeline to the federal government. However, the same day, the Federal Court of Appeal overturned the government's approval of the expansion project, citing that it did not sufficiently fulfill its constitutional duties to consult local First Nations groups, and  and because it lacked an environmental assessment of increased tanker traffic on endangered killer whales, also known as orcas, in the Salish Sea off the BC coast. On August 31, Trudeau said they remained committed to the pipeline expansion project in spite of this set back. In response to the approval being overturned, Premier Notley announced that Alberta would pull out of the national carbon price and called for an appeal to the Supreme Court of Canada of the federal court's August 30 decision.
Burnaby Mayor Derek Corrigan addresses the crowd, at the Stop Kinder Morgan protest rally, on Burnaby Mountain Park.]]
The expansion project faced strong opposition from civic governments, First Nations, environmentally concerned citizens, and others. Organizations including LeadNow and the Dogwood Initiative have also opposed the project and organized protests. Protests in November 2014 focused on Kinder Morgan's surveying work. Members of the Squamish and Tsleil-Waututh First Nations of British Columbia paddled canoes s on the waters of Burrard Inlet to the Kinder Morgan Burnaby Terminal for a ceremony to protest the expansion of the Trans Mountain pipeline, in North Vancouver, B.C., on September 1, 2012. Tsleil-Waututh leaders hoped to shut down the project altogether.
Phase III consultations (November 2018-)
In response to the Federal Court's overturning the federal authorization of Trans Mountain, the Canadian Government "reinitiated Phase III consultations" with Natural Resources Canada as lead and Justice Frank Iacobucci appointed by the government to oversee consultations. An NEB panel heard three weeks of Indigenous traditional testimony with 117 Indigenous groups impacted by the pipeline, beginning on November 19, with sessions in Calgary, Victoria and Nanaimo. 
The Trudeau government restricted the Phase III hearings in terms of time and scope. The government gave the NEB a "tight timeline" with a final report due on February 22, 2019. The hearings are also restricted by the NEB panel to investigate "new information" as it relates to the impact of increased oil tanker traffic to and from the Westridge Marine Terminal in Burrard Inlet, Burnaby to Canada's 12-nautical-mile territorial waters. The environmental concern in this area includes the Salish Sea's southern resident killer whales' (SRKW) prime Chinook salmon feeding ground. By November 2018, there were only 74 SRKW left. Noise and pollution from marine vessels along with the diminishing stocks of salmon – their prime source of food – have contributed to the whales' declining numbers.
Hearings in the form of pipeline roundtable meetings with Trans Mountain representative and indigenous groups took place in Calgary in November, and in Kamloops and Nanaimo in December, with the summary expected in January.
Governor in Council (GIC) approval
On June 18, 2019, the "proposed construction and operation of the Trans Mountain Expansion Project" was approved by the Governor in Council (GIC). According to the Orders in Council, the National Energy Board was directed to issue to the certificate of public convenience and necessity to Trans Mountain. In their letter sent to both Trans Mountain and the lawyers representing the Tsleil-Waututh Nation, the NEB wrote that within the context of "substantial" and "significant" interest and participation on the part of Indigenous peoples and the general public, including the August 30, 2018 decision in Tsleil-Waututh Nation v. Canada, the NEB's regulatory oversight processes for the next phases of the Trans Mountain Expansion Project "lifecycle", which include "detailed route approvals", such as potential "routing and non-routing", will include a public comment period.
- The law suit included Tsleil-Waututh Nation, City Of Vancouver, City Of Burnaby, The Squamish Nation (Also Known As The Squamish Indian Band), Xàlek/Sekyú Siýam, Chief Ian Campbell On His Own Behalf And On Behalf Of All Members Of The Squamish Nation, Coldwater Indian Band, Chief Lee Spahan In His Capacity As Chief Of The Coldwater Band On Behalf Of All Members Of The Coldwater Band, Aitchelitz, Skowkale, Shxwhá:Y Village, Soowahlie, Squiala First Nation, Tzeachten, Yakweakwioose, Skwah, Chief David Jimmie On His Own Behalf And On Behalf Of All Members Of The Ts’Elxwéyeqw Tribe, Upper Nicola Band, Chief Ron Ignace And Chief Fred Seymour On Their Own Behalf And On Behalf Of All Other Members Of The Stk’Emlupsemc Te Secwepemc Of The Secwepemc Nation, Raincoast Conservation Foundation And Living Oceans Society.
- In Section 395 in the Introduction of the court's August 30 decision on Tsleil-Waututh Nation v. Canada it states that "Trans Mountain describes the primary purpose of the Project to be “to provide additional transportation capacity for crude oil from Alberta to markets in the Pacific Rim including BC, Washington State, California and Asia.” In Volume 2 of the application, at pages 2-27, Trans Mountain describes the marine shipping activities associated with the Project. Trans Mountain notes that of the 890,000 barrels per day capacity of the expanded system, up to 630,000 barrels per day, or 71%, could be delivered to the Westridge Marine Terminal for shipment by tanker. To place this in perspective, currently in a typical month five tankers are loaded with diluted bitumen at the Westridge Marine Terminal, some of which are the smaller, Panamax tankers. The expanded system would be capable of serving up to 34 of the larger, Aframax tankers per month (with actual demand influenced by market conditions)."
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