Transcendental Meditation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Transcendental meditation)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Maharishi Mahesh Yogi

Transcendental Meditation (TM) is a form of silent mantra meditation advocated by the Transcendental Meditation movement.[1][2] Maharishi Mahesh Yogi created the technique in India in the mid-1950s. Advocates of TM claim that the technique promotes a state of relaxed awareness, stress relief, and access to higher states of consciousness,[3] as well as physiological benefits such as reducing the risk of heart disease and high blood pressure.[4]

Building on the teachings of his master Brahmananda Saraswati (known honorifically as Guru Dev), the Maharishi taught thousands of people during a series of world tours from 1958 to 1965, expressing his teachings in spiritual and religious terms.[5][6] TM became more popular in the 1960s and 1970s, as the Maharishi shifted to a more technical presentation, and his meditation technique was practiced by celebrities, most prominently members of the Beatles and the Beach Boys. At this time, he began training TM teachers and created specialized organizations to present TM to specific segments of the population such as business people and students. By the early 2000s, TM had been taught to millions of people; the worldwide TM organization had grown to include educational programs, health products, and related services. Following the Maharishi's death in 2008, leadership of the TM organization passed to neuroscientist Tony Nader.

The TM technique involves the use of a silently-used sound called a mantra, and is practiced for 15–20 minutes twice per day. It is taught by certified teachers through a standard course of instruction, which costs a fee that varies by country. According to the Transcendental Meditation movement, it is a non-religious method for relaxation, stress reduction, and self-development. The technique has been seen as both religious[7] and non-religious; sociologists, scholars, and a New Jersey judge and court are among those who have expressed views on it being religious or non-religious.[6][8][9] The United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit upheld the federal ruling that TM was essentially "religious in nature" and therefore could not be taught in public schools.[10][11]

A 2015 review found that TM may reduce blood pressure compared to control groups while a trend over time indicates practicing TM may lower blood pressure. Such effects are comparable to other lifestyle interventions. Conflicting findings across reviews and a potential risk of bias indicated the necessity of further evidence, conducted by researchers without bias. [12][13]

History[edit]

The Transcendental Meditation program and the Transcendental Meditation movement originated with their founder Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and continued beyond his death in 2008. In 1955,[14][15][16] "the Maharishi began publicly teaching a traditional meditation technique"[17] learned from his master Brahmananda Saraswati that he called Transcendental Deep Meditation[18] and later renamed Transcendental Meditation.[19] The Maharishi initiated thousands of people, then developed a TM teacher training program as a way to accelerate the rate of bringing the technique to more people.[19][20] He also inaugurated a series of tours that started in India in 1955 and went international in 1958 which promoted Transcendental Meditation.[21][22] These factors, coupled with endorsements by celebrities who practiced TM and claims that scientific research had validated the technique, helped to popularize TM in the 1960s and 1970s. By the late 2000s, TM had been taught to millions of individuals and the Maharishi was overseeing a large multinational movement.[23] Despite organizational changes and the addition of advanced meditative techniques in the 1970s,[24] the Transcendental Meditation technique has remained relatively unchanged.

Among the first organizations to promote TM were the Spiritual Regeneration Movement and the International Meditation Society. In modern times, the movement has grown to encompass schools and universities that teach the practice,[25] and includes many associated programs based on the Maharishi's interpretation of the Vedic traditions. In the U.S., non-profit organizations included the Students International Meditation Society,[26] AFSCI,[27] World Plan Executive Council, Maharishi Vedic Education Development Corporation, Global Country of World Peace and Maharishi Foundation.[28] The successor to Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, and leader of the Global Country of World Peace, is Tony Nader.[29][30]

Technique[edit]

The meditation practice involves the use of a silently-used mantra for 15–20 minutes twice per day while sitting with the eyes closed.[31][32] It is reported to be one of the most widely practiced,[33][34] and among the most widely researched, meditation techniques,[35][36][37][38] with hundreds of published research studies.[39][40][41] The technique is made available worldwide by certified TM teachers in a seven-step course,[42] and fees vary from country to country.[43][44] Beginning in 1965, the Transcendental Meditation technique has been incorporated into selected schools, universities, corporations, and prison programs in the US, Latin America, Europe, and India. In 1977 a US district court ruled that a curriculum in TM and the Science of Creative Intelligence (SCI) being taught in some New Jersey schools was religious in nature and in violation of the First Amendment of the United States Constitution.[8][45] The technique has since been included in a number of educational and social programs around the world.[46]

The Transcendental Meditation technique has been described as both religious and non-religious, as an aspect of a new religious movement, as rooted in Hinduism,[47][48] and as a non-religious practice for self-development.[49][50][51] The public presentation of the TM technique over its 50-year history has been praised for its high visibility in the mass media and effective global propagation, and criticized for using celebrity and scientific endorsements as a marketing tool. Also, advanced courses supplement the TM technique and include an advanced meditation program called the TM-Sidhi program.[52]

Movement[edit]

The Transcendental Meditation movement consists of the programs and organizations connected with the Transcendental Meditation technique and founded by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. Transcendental Meditation was first taught in the 1950s in India and has continued since the Maharishi's death in 2008. The organization was estimated to have 900,000 participants worldwide in 1977,[53] a million by the 1980s,[54][55][56] and 5 million in more recent years.[when?][57][58][59][60][61][62][63][excessive citations]

Programs include the Transcendental Meditation technique, an advanced meditation practice called the TM-Sidhi program ("Yogic Flying"), an alternative health care program called Maharishi Ayurveda,[64] and a system of building and architecture called Maharishi Sthapatya Ved.[65][66] The TM movement's past and present media endeavors include a publishing company (MUM Press), a television station (KSCI), a radio station (KHOE), and a satellite television channel (Maharishi Channel). During its 50-year history, its products and services have been offered through a variety of organizations, which are primarily nonprofit and educational. These include the Spiritual Regeneration Movement, the International Meditation Society, World Plan Executive Council, Maharishi Vedic Education Development Corporation, the Global Country of World Peace, and the David Lynch Foundation.

The TM movement also operates a worldwide network of Transcendental Meditation teaching centers, schools, universities, health centers, herbal supplements, solar panel, and home financing companies, plus several TM-centered communities. The global organization is reported to have an estimated net worth of USD 3.5 billion.[67][68] The TM movement has been characterized in a variety of ways and has been called a spiritual movement, a new religious movement,[69][70] a millenarian movement, a world affirming movement,[71] a new social movement,[72] a guru-centered movement,[73] a personal growth movement,[74] a religion, and a cult.[70][75][76][77] Additional sources contend that TM and its movement are not a cult.[78][79][80][81] Participants in TM programs are not required to adopt a belief system; it is practiced by atheists, agnostics and people from a variety of religious affiliations.[82][83][84][85] The organization has also been criticized as well as praised for its public presentation and marketing techniques throughout its 50-year history.[citation needed]

The organization has been the subject of controversies that includes being labelled a cult by several parliamentary inquiries or anti-cult movements in the world.[86][87][88][70][75][76]

Some notable figures in pop-culture practicing TM include The Beatles, The Beach Boys, Kendall Jenner, Hugh Jackman, Tom Hanks, Jennifer Lopez, Mick Jagger, Eva Mendez, Moby, David Lynch, Jennifer Aniston, Nicole Kidman, Eric André, Jerry Seinfeld, Howard Stern, Julia Fox, Clint Eastwood, Martin Scorsese, Russell Brand, Nick Cave and Oprah Winfrey.[89][90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][excessive citations]

Health effects[edit]

A trend over time indicates practicing TM may lower blood pressure although such effects are comparable to other lifestyle interventions. Conflicting findings across reviews, and a potential risk of bias, indicate further evidence, conducted by researchers, without bias, is necessary.[13]

A 2012 meta-analysis published in Psychological Bulletin, which reviewed 163 individual studies, tentatively found that Transcendental Meditation produced superior results in "reducing negative emotions, trait anxiety, and neuroticism" as well as improving markers of learning, memory, and self-actualization by comparison with other meditation approaches; the researchers nonetheless recommended improved methodologies for future research.[98] A 2014 systematic review and meta-analysis funded by the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality found moderate evidence for improvement in anxiety, depression and pain with low evidence for improvement in stress and mental health-related quality of life.[99][100]

A 2013 statement from the American Heart Association said that TM could be considered as a treatment for hypertension, although other interventions such as exercise and device-guided breathing were more effective and better supported by clinical evidence.[101] A 2015 systematic review and meta-analysis of 12 studies found that TM may reduce blood pressure compared to control groups, although the underlying studies may have been biased and further studies with better designs are needed.[12]

The first studies of the health effects of Transcendental Meditation appeared in the early 1970s.[102] By 2004 the US government had given more than $20 million to Maharishi International University to study the effect of meditation on health.[103]

Theoretical concepts[edit]

Views on consciousness (1963)[edit]

In his 1963 book, The Science of Being and Art of Living, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi says that, over time, through the practice of the TM technique, the conscious mind gains familiarity with deeper levels of the mind, bringing the subconscious mind within the capacity of the conscious mind, resulting in expanded awareness in daily activity. He also teaches that the Transcendental Meditation practitioner transcends all mental activity and experiences the 'source of thought', which is said to be pure silence, 'pure awareness' or 'transcendental Being', 'the ultimate reality of life'.[104]: pp 44–53 [105][106] TM is sometimes self described as a technology of consciousness.[107] According to author Michael Phelan "The fundamental premise of the psychology of fulfillment is that within every person exists a seemingly inexhaustible center of energy, intelligence, and satisfaction... To the extent that our behavior depends on the degree of energy and intelligence available to us, this center of pure creative intelligence may be described as that resource which gives direction to all that we experience, think and do."[108]

According to the Maharishi, there are seven levels of consciousness: (i) deep sleep; (ii) dreaming; (iii) waking; (iv) transcendental consciousness; (v) cosmic consciousness; (vi) God consciousness; and, (vii) unity consciousness.[109] The Maharishi says that transcendental consciousness can be experienced through Transcendental Meditation, and that those who meditate regularly over time could become aware of cosmic consciousness.[110] An indication of cosmic consciousness is "ever present wakefulness" present even during sleep.[111] Research on long-term TM practitioners experiencing what they describe as cosmic consciousness, has identified unique EEG profiles, muscle tone measurements, and REM indicators that suggest physiological parameters for this self described state of consciousness.[111][112] However, the Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness notes that it is premature to say that the EEG coherence found in TM is an indication of a higher state of consciousness.[113]

Science of Creative Intelligence (1971)[edit]

In 1961, the Maharishi created the "International Meditation Society for the Science of Creative Intelligence".[114] In 1971 the Maharishi inaugurated "Maharishi's Year of Science of Creative Intelligence" and described SCI as the connection of "modern science with ancient Vedic science".[115] Author Philip Goldberg describes it as Vedanta philosophy that has been translated into scientific language.[116] A series of international symposiums on the Science of Creative Intelligence were held between 1970 and 1973 and were attended by scientists and "leading thinkers", including Buckminster Fuller, Melvin Calvin, a Nobel Prize winner in chemistry, Hans Selye, Marshal McLuhan and Jonas Salk.[116] These symposiums were held at universities such as Humboldt State University and University of Massachusetts.[117][118][119][120] The following year, the Maharishi developed a World Plan to spread his teaching of SCI around the world.[120][121]

The theoretical part of SCI is taught in a 33-lesson video course.[122] In the early 1970s the SCI course was offered at more than 25 American universities including Stanford University, Yale, the University of Colorado, the University of Wisconsin, and Oregon State University.[120][123]: p 125 [124] Until 2009, Maharishi University of Management (MUM) required its undergraduate students to take SCI classes,[125][126][127][128] and both MUM and Maharishi European Research University (MERU) in Switzerland have awarded degrees in the field.[129] The Independent reports that children at Maharishi School learn SCI principles such as "the nature of life is to grow" and "order is present everywhere".[130] SCI is reported to be part of the curriculum of TM related lower schools in Iowa, Wheaton, Maryland[131] and Skelmersdale, UK.[132] In 1975 SCI was used as the call letters for a TM owned television station in San Bernardino, California.[133]

The Science of Creative Intelligence is not science.[134] Theologian Robert M. Price, writing in the Creation/Evolution Journal (the journal of the National Center for Science Education), compares the Science of Creative Intelligence to Creationism.[135] Price says instruction in the Transcendental Meditation technique is "never offered without indoctrination into the metaphysics of 'creative intelligence'".[135] Skeptic James Randi says SCI has "no scientific characteristics."[136] Astrophysicist and sceptic Carl Sagan writes that the "Hindu doctrine" of TM is a pseudoscience.[137] Irving Hexham, a professor of religious studies, describes the TM teachings as "pseudoscientific language that masks its religious nature by mythologizing science".[114] Sociologists Rodney Stark and William Sims Bainbridge describe the SCI videotapes as largely based on the Bhagavad Gita, and say that they are "laced with parables and metaphysical postulates, rather than anything that can be recognized as conventional science".[138] In 1979, the court case Malnak v Yogi determined that although SCI/TM is not a theistic religion, it deals with issues of ultimate concern, truth, and other ideas analogous to those in well-recognized religions.[139] Maharishi biographer Paul Mason suggests that the scientific terminology used in SCI was developed by the Maharishi as part of a restructuring of his philosophies in terms that would gain greater acceptance and increase the number of people starting the TM technique. He says that this change toward a more academic language was welcomed by many of the Maharishi's American students.[140]

Maharishi effect (1974)[edit]

Maharishi Mahesh Yogi claimed that the quality of life would noticeably improve if at least one per cent of the population practised the Transcendental Meditation technique. This is known as the "Maharishi effect" and according to the Maharishi, it was perceived in 1974 after an analysis of crime statistics in 16 cities.[104]: 329 [141][142] With the introduction of the TM-Sidhi program including Yogic Flying, the Maharishi proposed that the square root of 1 per cent of the population practising this advanced program together at the same time and in the same place would create benefits in society. This was referred to as the "Extended Maharishi Effect".[141][143]

Author Ted Karam claims that there have been numerous studies on the Maharishi effect including a gathering of over 4,000 people in Washington, D.C. in the summer of 1993.[141] The effect has been examined in 42 scientific studies.[144] The TM organisation has linked the fall of the Berlin Wall and a reduction in global terrorism, US inflation and crime rates to the Maharishi effect.[145] The Maharishi effect has been endorsed by the former President of Mozambique Joaquim Chissano.[146]

As the theories proposed by TM practitioners[147] go beyond modern science, the Maharishi effect still lacks a causal basis.[148] Moreover, the evidence has been said to result from cherry-picked data[149] and the credulity of believers.[148][150] Critics, such as James Randi have called this research pseudoscience.[151] Randi says that he investigated comments made by former Maharishi International University faculty member Robert Rabinoff in 1978. He spoke to the Fairfield Chief of Police who said local crime levels were the same and the regional Agriculture Department who reportedly deemed that farm yields for Jefferson County matched the state average.[152]

Maharishi Vedic Science (1981)[edit]

The Maharishi proclaimed 1981 as the Year of Vedic Science.[104]: 336  It is based on the Maharishi's interpretation of ancient Vedic texts and includes subjective technologies like the Transcendental Meditation technique and the TM-Sidhi program plus programs like Maharishi Sthapatya Veda (MSV) and Maharishi Vedic Astrology (MVA) services which apply Vedic science to day-to-day living.[153][154] Vedic science studies the various aspects of life and their relationship to the Veda.

Maharishi Ayurveda[edit]

Maharishi Ayurveda[155][156] or Maharishi Vedic Medicine[157] is a form of alternative medicine founded in the mid-1980s by Maharishi.[64] Distinct from traditional ayurveda, it emphasizes the role of consciousness, and gives importance to positive emotions.[158] Maharishi Ayurveda has been variously characterized as emerging from, and consistently reflecting, the Advaita Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy, representing the entirety of the ayurvedic tradition.[159][160]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Transcendental Meditation". Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
  2. ^ Dalton, Rex (8 July 1993). "Sharp HealthCare announces an unorthodox, holistic institute". The San Diego Union – Tribune. p. B.4.5.1. TM is a movement led by Maharishi Mehesh Yogi, ...
  3. ^ Mason, L (February 1997). "Electrophysiological correlates of higher states of consciousness during sleep in long-term practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation program". Sleep. 20 (2): 102–110. doi:10.1093/sleep/20.2.102. PMID 9143069.
  4. ^ Heritage, Stuart (March 2014). "Transcendental meditation: does it work?". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
  5. ^ Dawson, Lorne (2003). Cults and New Religious Movements. Hoboken, New Jersey: Blackwell Publishing. p. 54. ISBN 9781405143493.
  6. ^ a b Cowan, Douglas E.; Bromley, David G. (2007). Cults and New Religions: A Brief History (Blackwell Brief Histories of Religion). Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 48–71. ISBN 978-1-4051-6128-2.
  7. ^ Siegel, Aryeh (2018). Transcendental Deception: Behind the TM Curtain. Los Angeles, CA: Janreg Press. ISBN 978-0-9996615-0-5.
  8. ^ a b Calo, Zachary (2008). "Chapter 4: The Internationalization of Church-State Issues". In Duncan, Ann; Jones, Steven (eds.). Church-State Issues in America Today. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-275-99368-9.
  9. ^ Ashman, Allan (January 1978). "What's New in the Law". American Bar Association Journal. 64: 144.
  10. ^ "Malnak v. Yogi". Leagle. 1979. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
  11. ^ Bette Novit Evans (9 November 2000). Interpreting the Free Exercise of Religion: The Constitution and American Pluralism. Univ of North Carolina Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-8078-6134-9. Proponents of the program denied that Transcendental Meditation was a religion; the Third Circuit concluded that it was.
  12. ^ a b Bai, Z; Chang, J; Chen, C; Li, P; Yang, K; Chi, I (12 February 2015). "Investigating the effect of transcendental meditation on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Journal of Human Hypertension. 29 (11): 653–62. doi:10.1038/jhh.2015.6. PMID 25673114. S2CID 22261.
  13. ^ a b Ooi, Soo Liang; Giovino, Melisa; Pak, Sok Chean (2017). "Transcendental meditation for lowering blood pressure: An overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses". Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 34: 26–34. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2017.07.008. PMID 28917372.
  14. ^ AP (5 February 2008). "Beatles guru dies in Netherlands". USA Today.
  15. ^ Epstein, Edward (29 December 1995). "Politics and Transcendental Meditation". San Francisco Chronicle.
  16. ^ Morris, Bevan (1992). "Maharishi's Vedic Science and Technology: The Only Means to Create World Peace" (PDF). Journal of Modern Science and Vedic Science. 5 (1–2): 200. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 May 2010.
  17. ^ Rooney, Ben (6 February 2008). "Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, guru to Beatles, dies". The Telegraph. London.
  18. ^ Williamson, Lola (2010). Transcendent in America: Hindu-Inspired Meditation Movements as New Religion. New York: NYU Press. pp. 97–99. ISBN 9780814794500.
  19. ^ a b Russell, Peter (1977). The TM Technique: An Introduction to Transcendental Meditation and the Teachings of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. London: Routledge. pp. 25–26. ISBN 978-0-7100-8539-9.
  20. ^ Needleman, Jacob (1970). "Transcendental Meditation". The New Religions (1st ed.). Garden City N.Y.: Doubleday. p. 144.
  21. ^ Richard Feloni (2016). History of transcendental meditation. Insider.
  22. ^ Christian D. Von Dehsen; Scott L. Harris (1999). Philosophers and religious leaders. The Orynx Press. p. 120. ISBN 9781573561525.
  23. ^ "Maharishi Mahesh Yogi". The Times (London). 7 February 2008. p. 62.
  24. ^ Oates, Robert M. (1976). Celebrating the Dawn: Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and the TM technique. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. p. 226. ISBN 978-0-399-11815-9.
  25. ^ Irwin, T. K. (8 October 1972). "What's New in Science: Transcendental Meditation: Medical Miracle or 'Another Kooky Fad'". Sarasota Herald Tribune Family Weekly. pp. 8–9.
  26. ^ Chryssides, George D. (1999). Exploring New Religions. London: Cassell. pp. 293–296. ISBN 978-0-8264-5959-6.
  27. ^ "Behavior: The TM Craze: 40 Minutes to Bliss". Time. 13 October 1975. ISSN 0040-781X. Archived from the original on 5 January 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  28. ^ Press Release by Maharishi Foundation (15 July 2013). "Australian Food Store Offers Transcendental Meditation to Employees". The Herald (South Carolina, USA). Archived from the original on 3 August 2013. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
  29. ^ Mizroch, Amir (23 July 2006). "Forget the F-16s, Israel needs more Yogic Flyers to beat Hizbullah: 30-strong TM group, sole guests at Nof Ginnosar Hotel, say they need another 235 colleagues to make the country safe". Jerusalem Post. p. 4.
  30. ^ "Maharishi's ashes immersed in Sangam". The Hindustan Times. New Delhi. Indo-Asian News Service. 12 February 2008.
  31. ^ "The Transcendental Meditation Program". Tm.org. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
  32. ^ Lansky, Ephraim; St Louis, Erik (November 2006). "Transcendental meditation: a double-edged sword in epilepsy?". Epilepsy & Behavior. 9 (3): 394–400. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2006.04.019. PMID 16931164. S2CID 31764098.
  33. ^ Cotton, Dorothy H. G. (1990). Stress management: An integrated approach to therapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel. p. 138. ISBN 0-87630-557-5.
  34. ^ Schneider, Robert; Fields, Jeremy (2006). Total Heart Health: How to Prevent and Reverse Heart Disease with the Maharishi Vedic Approach to Health. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications. pp. 148–149. ISBN 1458799247.
  35. ^ Murphy, M; Donovan, S; Taylor, E (1997). The Physical and Psychological Effects of Meditation: A review of Contemporary Research with a Comprehensive Bibliography 1931–1996. Sausalito, California: Institute of Noetic Sciences.
  36. ^ Benson, Herbert; Klipper, Miriam Z. (2001). The Relaxation Response. New York, NY: Quill. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-380-81595-1.
  37. ^ Sinatra, Stephen T.; Roberts, James C.; Zucker, Martin (20 December 2007). Reverse Heart Disease Now: Stop Deadly Cardiovascular Plaque Before It's Too Late. Wiley. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-470-22878-4.
  38. ^ Bushell, William (2009). "Longevity Potential Life Span and Health Span Enhancement through Practice of the Basic Yoga Meditation Regimen". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1172: 20–7. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04538.x. ISBN 9781573316774. PMID 19735236. S2CID 222086314. Transcendental Meditation (TM), a concentrative technique ... has been the most extensively studied meditation technique.
  39. ^ Ospina MB, Bond K, Karkhaneh M, et al. (June 2007). "Meditation practices for health: state of the research". Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep) (155): 62. PMC 4780968. PMID 17764203.
  40. ^ Rosenthal, Norman (2011). Transcendence: Healing and Transformation through Transcendental Meditation. New York: Tarcher/Penguin. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-58542-873-1. By my latest count, there have been 340 per-reviewed articles published on TM, many of which have appeared in highly respected journals.
  41. ^ Freeman, Lyn (2009). Mosby's Complementary & Alternative Medicine: A Research-Based Approach. Mosby Elsevier. p. 176. ISBN 9780323053464.
  42. ^ "How To Learn". Tm.org. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
  43. ^ "TM Course Fee". TM.org. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
  44. ^ "Transcendental Meditation Fees and Course Details". Transcendental Meditation: Official website for the UK. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  45. ^ American Bar Association (January 1978). "Constitutional Law ... Separating Church and State". ABA Journal. 64: 144.
  46. ^ Humes, C.A. (2005). "Maharishi Mahesh Yogi: Beyond the T.M. Technique". In Forsthoefel, Thomas A.; Humes, Cynthia Ann (eds.). Gurus in America. SUNY Press. p. 69. ISBN 0-7914-6573-X. This lawsuit was the most significant setback for TM in the United States ... Since then TM has made a comeback of sorts with some governmental sponsorship
  47. ^ Bainbridge, William Sims (1997). The Sociology of Religious Movements. New York: Routledge. p. 188. ISBN 0-415-91202-4.
  48. ^ Aghiorgoussis, Maximos (Spring 1999). "The challenge of metaphysical experiences outside Orthodoxy and the Orthodox response". Greek Orthodox Theological Review. Brookline. 44 (1–4): 21, 34.
  49. ^ Chryssides, George D. (2001). Exploring New Religions. Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 301–303. ISBN 9780826459596."Although one can identify the Maharishi's philosophical tradition, its teachings are in no way binding on TM practitioners. There is no public worship, no code of ethics, no scriptures to be studied, and no rites of passage that are observed, such as dietary laws, giving to the poor, or pilgrimages. In particular, there is no real TM community: practitioners do not characteristically meet together for public worship, but simply recite the mantra, as they have been taught it, not as religious obligation, but simply as a technique to benefit themselves, their surroundings and the wider world."
  50. ^ Partridge, Christopher (200). New Religions: A Guide To New Religious Movements, Sects and Alternative Spiritualities. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 184. It is understood in terms of the reduction of stress and the charging of one's mental and physical batteries.
  51. ^ Rosenthal, Norman E. (2011). Transcendence: Healing and Transformation Through Transcendental Meditation. Tarcher Penguin. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-58542-873-1.
  52. ^ Shear, Jonathan, ed. (2006). Experience of Meditation: Experts Introduce the Major Traditions. St Paul, MN: Paragon House. ISBN 978-1-55778-857-3.
  53. ^ Stark, Rodney; Bainbridge, William, Sims (1986). The Future Of Religion. University of California Press. p. 287. ISBN 978-0520057319. "Time magazine in 1975 estimated that the U.S. total had risen to 600,000 augmented by half that number elsewhere" =[900,000 worldwide] "Annual Growth in TM Initiations in the U.S. [chart] Cumulative total at the End of Each Year: 1977, 919,300"
  54. ^ Peterson, William (1982). Those Curious New Cults in the 80s. New Canaan, Connecticut: Keats Publishing. pp. 123. ISBN 9780879833176. claims "more than a million" in the USA and Europe.
  55. ^ Occhiogrosso, Peter. The Joy of Sects: A Spirited Guide to the World's Religious Traditions. New York: Doubleday (1996); p 66, citing "close to a million" in the USA.
  56. ^ Bainbridge, William Sims (1997) Routledge, The Sociology of Religious Movements, page 189 "the million people [Americans] who had been initiated"
  57. ^ Analysis: Practice of requiring probationers to take lessons in transcendental meditation sparks religious controversy, NPR All Things Considered, 1 February 2002 | ROBERT SIEGEL "TM's five million adherents claim that it eliminates chronic health problems and reduces stress."
  58. ^ Martin Hodgson, The Guardian (5 February 2008) "He [Maharishi] transformed his interpretations of ancient scripture into a multimillion-dollar global empire with more than 5m followers worldwide"
  59. ^ Stephanie van den Berg, Sydney Morning Herald, Beatles guru Maharishi Mahesh Yogi dies, (7 February 2008) "the TM movement, which has some five million followers worldwide"
  60. ^ Meditation a magic bullet for high blood pressure – study, Sunday Tribune (South Africa), (27 January 2008) "More than five million people have learned the technique worldwide, including 60,000 in South Africa."
  61. ^ Maharishi Mahesh Yogi - Transcendental Meditation founder's grand plan for peace, The Columbian (Vancouver, WA), 19 February 2006 | ARTHUR MAX Associated Press writer "transcendental meditation, a movement that claims 6 million practitioners since it was introduced."
  62. ^ Bickerton, Ian (8 February 2003). "Bank makes an issue of mystic's mint". Financial Times. London (UK). p. 09. the movement claims to have five million followers,
  63. ^ Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, Spiritual Leader Dies, New York Times, By LILY KOPPEL, Published: 6 February 2008 "Since the technique's inception in 1955, the organization says, it has been used to train more than 40,000 teachers, taught more than five million people"
  64. ^ a b Sharma & Clark 1998, Preface
  65. ^ "Welvaert, Brandy, "Vedic homes seek better living through architecture", Rock Island Argus, (5 August 2005)" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 March 2010.
  66. ^ Spivack, Miranda (12 September 2008). "Bricks Mortar and Serenity". The Washington Post.
  67. ^ "Maharishi Mahesh Yogi". The Times. London (UK). 7 February 2008.
  68. ^ "Maharishi Mahesh Yogi". Britannica Concise Encyclopedia.
  69. ^ For new religious movement see:
    Beckford, James A. (1985). Cult controversies: the societal response to new religious movements. Tavistock Publications. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-422-79630-9.
    Parsons, Gerald (1994). The Growth of Religious Diversity: Traditions. The Open University/Methuen. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-415-08326-3.
    For neo-Hindu, see:
    Alper, Harvey P. (December 1991). Understanding mantras. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 442. ISBN 978-81-208-0746-4.
    Raj, Selva J.; William P. Harman (2007). Dealing With Deities: The Ritual Vow in South Asia. SUNY Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-7914-6708-4.
  70. ^ a b c Persinger, Michael A.; Carrey, Normand J.; Suess, Lynn A. (1980). TM and cult mania. North Quincy, Mass.: Christopher Pub. House. ISBN 0-8158-0392-3.
  71. ^ Dawson, Lorne L. (2003) Blackwell Publishing, Cults and New Religious Movements, Chapter 3: Three Types of New Religious Movement by Roy Wallis (1984), page 44-48
  72. ^ Christian Blatter, Donald McCown, Diane Reibel, Marc S. Micozzi, (2010) Springer Science+Business Media, Teaching Mindfulness, Page 47
  73. ^ Olson, Carl (2007) Rutgers University Press, The Many Colors of Hinduism, page 345
  74. ^ Shakespeare, Tom (24 May 2014). "A Point of View". BBC News. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  75. ^ a b Stark, Rodney; Bainbridge, William Sims (1985). The future of religion: secularization, revival, and cult formation. Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-05731-7.
  76. ^ a b Sagan, Carl (1997). The demon-haunted world: science as a candle in the dark. New York: Ballantine Books. p. 16. ISBN 0-345-40946-9.
  77. ^ Szimhart, Joseph (2019). "A look into the Transcendental Deception". Skeptical Inquirer. 43 (2): 61–63.
  78. ^ Harrison, Shirley (1990). Cults: The Battle for God. Kent: Christopher Helm. pp. 93–103 "none of the other 'cultic qualities' defined by cult watchers can be fairly attributed to TM."
  79. ^ Rowson, Jonathan (23 April 2007) Meditation: for old hippies or a better way of life? Sunday Herald (Scotland) " the TM movement is not a cult", accessed 2 Feb 2013
  80. ^ Hannaford, Alex (27 December 2010). "Mantra with a mission; Feature Om or ominous? The maverick film director David Lynch wants to bring Transcendental Meditation to our classrooms, and believes in 'yogic flying'. Can he get it off the ground?". The Sunday Times (London).
  81. ^ Lyster, Samantha (21 October 2000) Samantha Lyster finds herself in holistic heaven with new-found happiness and tranquillity after learning the art of transcendental meditation, The Birmingham Post (England), "TM is not a religion, a cult or a philosophy"
  82. ^ Liebler, Nancy and Moss, Nancy (2009) Healing Depression the Mind-Body Way: Creating Happiness with Meditation ["the TM technique does not require adherence to any belief system—there is no dogma or philosophy attached to it, and it does not demand any lifestyle changes other than the practice of it."] [1] accessed 25 May 2013
  83. ^ "Its proponents say it is not a religion or a philosophy."The Guardian 28 March 2009 [2]
  84. ^ "It's used in prisons, large corporations and schools, and it is not considered a religion." [3] Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Concord Monitor
  85. ^ Chryssides George D. Defining the New Spirituality http://www.cesnur.org/conferences/riga2000/chryssides.htm One possible suggestion is that religion demands exclusive allegiance: this would ipso facto exclude Scientology, TM and the Soka Gakkai simply on the grounds that they claim compatibility with whatever other religion the practitioner has been following. For example, TM is simply – as they state – a technique. Although it enables one to cope with life, it offers no goal beyond human existence (such as moksha), nor does it offer rites or passage or an ethic. Unlike certain other Hindu-derived movements, TM does not prescribe a dharma to its followers – that is to say a set of spiritual obligations deriving from one's essential nature.
  86. ^ "Commission d'enquête sur les sectes – Assemblée nationale". www.assemblee-nationale.fr. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  87. ^ "Die Deutsche Amalgam-Page, SEKTEN – Risiken und Nebenwirkungen". www.ariplex.com. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  88. ^ "GROUP CLAIMS TM MOVEMENT IS A CULT". The Washington Post.
  89. ^ "Celebrity Meditators - Celebrities". uk.tm.org. Retrieved 10 May 2021.
  90. ^ Eric Andre Goes Undercover on Reddit, YouTube and Twitter | GQ, archived from the original on 30 October 2021, retrieved 10 May 2021
  91. ^ Bob Roth Interviews Jerry Seinfeld on "Success Without Stress", archived from the original on 30 October 2021, retrieved 10 May 2021
  92. ^ Clint Eastwood on the benefits the Transcendental Meditation technique has had on his life, archived from the original on 30 October 2021, retrieved 10 May 2021
  93. ^ Martin Scorsese & Ray Dalio on Creativity, TM & Success | Highlights | David Lynch Foundation, archived from the original on 30 October 2021, retrieved 10 May 2021
  94. ^ Russell Brand talks about Transcendental Meditation at Operation Warrior Wellness launch, archived from the original on 30 October 2021, retrieved 10 May 2021
  95. ^ Stieg, Cory (7 January 2020). "Oprah, Ray Dalio and Lady Gaga swear by this simple meditation technique". CNBC. Retrieved 10 May 2021.
  96. ^ "25 Celebrities Who Know Transcendental Meditation". Maharishi School. 1 April 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2021.
  97. ^ Cairns, Molly (5 November 2019). "Nick Cave - The Red Hand Files - Issue #69 - How do I stop fearing the end of the world?". The Red Hand Files. Retrieved 19 August 2022.
  98. ^ Sedlmeier, Peter; Eberth, Juliane; et al. (May 2012). "The Psychological Effects of Meditation: A Meta-Analysis". Psychological Bulletin. 138 (6): 1139–1171. doi:10.1037/a0028168. PMID 22582738. . . . notwithstanding the not so positive conclusion of Ospina et al., the claim of therapeutic benefits of meditation is backed up by growing empirical evidence.
  99. ^ Goyal M, Singh S, Sibinga EM, Gould NF, Rowland-Seymour A, Sharma R, Berger Z, Sleicher D, Maron DD, Shihab HM, Ranasinghe PD, Linn S, Saha S, Bass EB, Haythornthwaite JA (2014). "Meditation programs for psychological stress and well-being: a systematic review and meta-analysis". JAMA Intern Med. 174 (3): 357–68. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.13018. PMC 4142584. PMID 24395196. ... we found low evidence of no effect or insufficient evidence that mantra meditation programs had an effect on any of the psychological stress and well-being outcomes we examined.
  100. ^ Goyal M, Singh S, Sibinga EM, Gould NF, Rowland-Seymour A, Sharma R, Berger Z, Sleicher D, Maron DD, Shihab HM, Ranasinghe PD, Linn S, Saha S, Bass EB, Haythornthwaite JA (2014). Meditation Programs for Psychological Stress and Well-Being. AHRQ Comparative Effectiveness Reviews. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. PMID 24501780. Our review finds that the mantra meditation programs do not appear to improve any of the psychological stress and well-being outcomes we examined, but the strength of this evidence varies from low to insufficient.
  101. ^ Brook RD, Appel LJ, Rubenfire M, Ogedegbe G, Bisognano JD, Elliott WJ, Fuchs FD, Hughes JW, Lackland DT, Staffileno BA, Townsend RR, Rajagopalan S (2013). "Beyond medications and diet: alternative approaches to lowering blood pressure: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association". Hypertension. 61 (6): 1360–83. doi:10.1161/HYP.0b013e318293645f. PMID 23608661.
  102. ^ Lyn Freeman, Mosby's Complementary & Alternative Medicine: A Research-Based Approach, Mosby Elsevier, 2009, p. 163
  103. ^ QUICK, SUSANNE (17 October 2004). "Delving into alternative care: Non-traditional treatments draw increased interest, research funding". Journal Sentinel. Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Maharishi University ... has received more than $20 million in government support to date to explore the health benefits of meditation.
  104. ^ a b c Mahesh Yogi, Maharishi (1963). The Science of Being and Art of Living. Meridian Publishing.
  105. ^ Phelan, Michael (1979). "Transcendental Meditation. A Revitalization of the American Civil Religion". Archives des sciences sociales des religions. 48 (48–1): 5–20. doi:10.3406/assr.1979.2186.
  106. ^ King, Larry (12 May 2002). "Interview with Larry King". CNN.
  107. ^ Hunt, Stephen (2003). Alternative religions: a sociological introduction. Aldershot, Hampshire, England ; Burlington, VT: Ashgate. pp. 197–198. ISBN 978-0-7546-3410-2.
  108. ^ Phelan, Michael (July–September 1979). "Transcendental Meditation. A Revitalization of the American Civil Religion". Archives de sciences sociales des religions. 1 (48).
  109. ^ Williams, Patrick Gresham (2000) The Spiritual Recovery Manual: Vedic Knowledge and Yogic Techniques to Accelerate Recovery, page 202
  110. ^ Tillery, Gary, The Cynical Idealist; A Spiritual Biography of John Lennon Archived 2014-03-04 at the Wayback Machine Quest Books, 2009 ISBN 0-8356-0875-1, ISBN 978-0-8356-0875-6 pp 66-67
  111. ^ a b Walsh R, Shapiro SL (April 2006). "The meeting of meditative disciplines and Western psychology: a mutually enriching dialogue". The American Psychologist. 61 (3): 227–39. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.61.3.227. PMID 16594839.
  112. ^ Shapiro, Shauna L.; Walsh, Roger (2003). "An Analysis of Recent Meditation Research and Suggestions for Future Directions" (PDF). Journal for Meditation and Meditation Research. 3: 69–90. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 November 2009.
  113. ^ Zelazo, Philip David; Moscovitch, Morris; Thompson, Evan, eds. (2007). The Cambridge handbook of consciousness. Cambridge University Press. pp. 534–535. ISBN 978-0-521-85743-7.
  114. ^ a b Kennedy, John W; Hexham., Irving (8 January 2001). "Field of TM dreams". Christianity Today. Vol. 45, no. 1. pp. 74–79.
  115. ^ Humes, Cynthia A (2005). "Maharishi Mahesh Yogi: Beyond the T.M. Technique". In Forsthoefel, Thomas A; Humes, Cynthia Ann (eds.). Gurus in America. SUNY Press. pp. 55–79. ISBN 0-7914-6573-X.
  116. ^ a b Goldberg, Philip (2011) Harmony Books, American Veda, page 165
  117. ^ Johnson, Benton (1992). "On Founders and Followers: Some Factors in the Development of New Religious Movements". Sociological Analysis. Presidential Address — 1987. Vol. 53, no. –S S1–S13.
  118. ^ Jefferson, William (1976). ' 'The Story of The Maharishi' ', pp118-123. Pocket Books, New York, NY.
  119. ^ Yogi, Maharishi Mahesh and Fuller, Buckminster (1971) Maharishi Channel Maharishi and Buckminster Fuller Press Conference YouTube, retrieved September 24, 2012
  120. ^ a b c Kroll, Una (1974) John Knox Press, The Healing Potential of Transcendental Meditation, chapter 1: The Guru, pp 17-25
  121. ^ Melton (2003). "Eastern Family, Part I". Encyclopedia of American Religions. p. 1045. ISBN 0-8153-0500-1.
  122. ^ "The Science of Creative Intelligence Course". maharishi.org. Archived from the original on 25 November 2010.
  123. ^ Goldhaber, Nat (1976). TM:An alphabetical guide to the Transcendental Meditation program. Ballantine Books.
  124. ^ Irwin, T. K. (8 October 1972). "What's New in Science: Transcendental Meditation: Medical Miracle or 'Another Kooky Fad'". Sarasota Herald Tribune Family Weekly. pp. 8–9.
  125. ^ Barron's Educational Series, Inc. (2000). Profiles of American colleges (24th ed.). Hauppauge N.Y.; London: Barron's. ISBN 978-0-7641-7294-6.
  126. ^ Schmidt-Wilk, Jane; Heston, Dennis; Steigard, David (2000). "Higher education for higher consciousness Maharishi University of Management as a model for spirituality in management education". Journal of Management Education. 24 (5): 580–611. doi:10.1177/105256290002400505. S2CID 145812629.
  127. ^ Princeton Review (15 August 2006). Complete Book of Colleges, 2007 Edition. Random House Information Group. ISBN 978-0-375-76557-5.
  128. ^ "MUM catalog for the Department of Maharishi Vedic Science" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 May 2010.
  129. ^ DePalma, Anthony (29 April 1992). "University's Degree Comes With a Heavy Dose of Meditation (and Skepticism)". The New York Times. p. B.8.
  130. ^ Teasdale, Michelle (3 June 2010). "Mummy, can we meditate now?". The Independent. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016.
  131. ^ Buckley, Stephen (19 March 1993). "This School Offers Readin', 'Ritin' and Mantras". The Washington Post. p. D.01.
  132. ^ Tolley, Claire (12 January 2002). "Children meditate on top class GCSEs". Daily Post. Liverpool. p. 13.
  133. ^ Holley, David (5 June 1986). "Eclectic TV KSCI's Programming in 14 Languages Offers News, Entertainment, Comfort to Ethnic Communities". Los Angeles Times. p. 1.
  134. ^ Dhaliwal, Pavan; Ernst, Edzard; Colquhoun, David; Singh, Simon; et al. (12 May 2012). "Schools of pseudoscience pose a serious threat to education". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017.
  135. ^ a b Price, Robert M. (Winter 1982). "Scientific Creationism and the Science of Creative Intelligence". Creation Evolution Journal. 3 (1): 18–23. Archived from the original on 31 March 2010.
  136. ^ "James Randi Educational Foundation — An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural".
  137. ^ Sagan, Carl (1997). The Demon-haunted World: Science as a Candle In the Dark. New York: Ballantine Books. p. 16. ISBN 0-345-40946-9.
  138. ^ Stark, Rodney; William Sims Bainbridge (1986). The Future of Religion: Secularization, Revival, and Cult Formation. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 289. ISBN 0520057317.
  139. ^ Merriman, Scott A. (2007). Religion and the Law in America. ABC-CLIO. p. 522. ISBN 978-1-85109-863-7. Archived from the original on 1 January 2014.
  140. ^ Mason, Paul (1994). The Maharishi. Great Britain: Element Books Limited. p. 210. ISBN 1-85230-571-1.
  141. ^ a b c Karam, Ted (2005) Jumping on Water: Awaken Your Joy, Empower Your Life, page 137
  142. ^ Wager, Gregg (11 December 1987). "Musicians Spread the Maharishi's Message of Peace". Los Angeles Times. p. 12.
  143. ^ "Maharishi Effect – Research on the Maharishi Effect". Maharishi University of Management. Archived from the original on 23 August 2000. Retrieved 29 December 2009.
  144. ^ deFiebre, Conrad (7 October 1994). "Meditation touted as crime-fighter // Study presented builds the case for 'Maharishi effect'". Star Tribune. Minneapolis, Minn. p. 03.B.
  145. ^ Fay, Liam (13 June 2004). "Maharishi mob meditates on Limerick's ills". Sunday Times. London (UK). p. 32.
  146. ^ Roach, Mary (1 December 2000). "The last tourist in Mozambique". Salon. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011.
  147. ^ Park, Robert L. (2002). Voodoo science: The road from foolishness to fraud. Oxford University Press. p. 30. ISBN 9780198604433.
  148. ^ a b Fales, Evan; Markovsky, Barry (1997). "Evaluating Heterodox Theories". Social Forces. 76 (2): 511–525. doi:10.2307/2580722. JSTOR 2580722.
  149. ^ Schrodt, Phillip A. (1990). "A methodological critique of a test of the Maharishi technology of the unified field". Journal of Conflict Resolution. 34 (4): 745–755. doi:10.1177/0022002790034004008. JSTOR 174187. S2CID 145426830.
  150. ^ Epstein, Edward (29 December 1995). "Politics and Transcendental Meditation". San Francisco Chronicle.
  151. ^ CALAMAI, PETER (9 October 2004). "Stop the bleeping pseudoscience; Quantum physics film drowns in its own bunk science High point in What The Bleep is stunning animation sequence". Toronto Star. p. J.13.
  152. ^ Randi, James (1982). Flim-flam!: psychics, ESP, unicorns, and other delusions. Buffalo, N.Y: Prometheus Books. p. 106. ISBN 0-87975-198-3.
  153. ^ Bonshek, Anna; Bonshek, Corrina; Fergusson, Lee (2007). The Big Fish: Consciousness as Structure, Body and Space. (Consciousness, Literature the Arts). Rodopi. ISBN 978-90-420-2172-3.
  154. ^ Chandler, Kenneth. "Modern Science and Vedic Science: An Introduction". Modern Science and Vedic Science, Volume 1. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  155. ^ Wallace 1993, pp. 64–66
  156. ^ Sharma & Clark 1998
  157. ^ Reddy & Egenes 2002
  158. ^ For a brief history of traditional ayurveda, and selected translations from the original Sanskrit sources, see Wujastyk 2003
  159. ^ Cynthia Ann Humes, "Maharishi Ayur-Veda", chapter 17 in Wujastyk & Smith 2008, pp. 309 and 326
  160. ^ Sharma 1995

Sources[edit]

  • Reddy, Kumuda; Egenes, Linda (2002), Conquering Chronic Disease Through Maharishi Vedic Medicine, New York: Lantern Books, p. 10, ISBN 978-1-930051-55-3
  • Sharma, Hari (1995), "Maharishi Ayur-VedaAn Ancient Health Paradigm in a Modern World", Alternative and Complementary Therapies, 1 (6): 364, doi:10.1089/act.1995.1.364
  • Wallace, Robert Keith (1993), The physiology of consciousness, Fairfield, Iowa: Maharishi International University Press, pp. 64–66, ISBN 978-0-923569-02-0
  • Wujastyk, Dominik (2003). The Roots of Ayurveda: Selections from Sanskrit Medical Writings. London, New York, etc.: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-044824-5.
  • Wujastyk, Dagmar; Smith, Frederick M. (2008). Modern and global Ayurveda: Pluralism and Paradigms. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-7489-1.

Further reading[edit]

  • Alexander, Charles and O'Connel, David F. (1995) Routledge Self Recovery: Treating Addictions Using Transcendental Meditation and Maharishi Ayur-Veda ISBN 1-56024-454-2
  • Bloomfield, Harold H., Cain, Michael Peter, Jaffe, Dennis T. (1975) TM: Discovering Inner Energy and Overcoming Stress ISBN 0-440-06048-6
  • Sharma, Hari; Clark, Christopher (1998). Contemporary Ayurveda. Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 0-443-05594-7.
  • Deans, Ashley (2005) MUM Press, A Record of Excellence, ISBN 0-923569-37-5
  • Denniston, Denise, The TM Book, Fairfield Press 1986 ISBN 0-931783-02-X
  • Forem, Jack (2012) Hay House UK Ltd, Transcendental Meditation: The Essential Teachings of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi ISBN 1-84850-379-2
  • Geoff Gilpin, The Maharishi Effect: A Personal Journey Through the Movement That Transformed American Spirituality, Tarcher-Penguin 2006, ISBN 1-58542-507-9* Pollack, A. A., Weber, M. A., Case, D.
  • Jefferson, William (1976) Pocket Books, The Story Of The Maharishi, ISBN 0671805266
  • Kropinski v. World Plan Executive Council, 853 F, 2d 948, 956 (D.C. Cir, 1988)
  • Marcus, Jay (1991) MIU press, Success From Within: Discovering the Inner State That Creates Personal Fulfillment and Business Success ISBN 0-923569-04-9
  • Oates, Robert and Swanson, Gerald (1989) MIU Press, Enlightened Management: Building High-performance People ASIN: B001L8DBY2
  • Rothstein, Mikael (1996). Belief Transformations: Some Aspects of the Relation Between Science and Religion in Transcendental Meditation and the International Society for Krishna Consciousness. Language: English. Aarhus universitetsforlag. p. 227. ISBN 87-7288-421-5.
  • Roth, Robert (1994) Primus, Transcendental Meditation ISBN 1-55611-403-6
  • Skolnick, Andrew "Maharishi Ayur-Veda: Guru's Marketing Scheme Promises the World Eternal 'Perfect Health'!", JAMA 1991;266:1741–1750,2 October 1991.
  • Yogi, Maharishi Mahesh (1968) (Bantam Books) Transcendental Meditation: Serenity Without Drugs ISBN 0-451-05198-X
  • Yogi, Maharishi Mahesh (1967) Penguin, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi on the Bhagavad-Gita : A New Translation and Commentary ISBN 0-14-019247-6.

External links[edit]