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List of transcontinental countries

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This is a list of countries located on more than one continent, known as transcontinental states or intercontinental states. While there are many countries with non-contiguous overseas territories fitting this definition, only a limited number of countries have territory straddling an overland continental boundary, most commonly the line that separates Europe and Asia.

The boundary between Europe and Asia is purely conventional, and several conventions remained in use well into the 20th century. However, the now-prevalent convention, used for the purposes of this list, follows the Caucasus northern chain, the Ural River and the Ural Mountains. It has been in use by some cartographers since about 1850.[1] This convention results in several countries finding themselves almost entirely in "Asia", with a few small enclaves or districts technically in "Europe". Notwithstanding these anomalies, this list of transcontinental or intercontinental states respects the convention that Europe and Asia are full continents rather than subcontinents or component landmasses of the larger Eurasian continent.

Listed further below, separately, are countries with distant non-contiguous parts (overseas territories) on separate continents.

Criteria for inclusion

The lists within this article include entries that meet the following criteria:

  • Transcontinental states are sovereign states that are divided between one geographical continent and another.[2]
  • In this article, these are classed as contiguous or non-contiguous transcontinental states.[3]
    • Contiguous transcontinental states are states that contain a portion of their territory on one continent and a portion of their territory on another continent, while having these two portions connected via a natural geological land connection (e.g. Russia) or the two portions being immediately adjacent to one another (e.g. Turkey).[4][5]
    • Non-contiguous transcontinental states are states that contain a portion of their territory on one continent and a portion of their territory on another continent, while having these two portions separated by a significant enough distance, or body of water, to not be considered adjacent.[4][5]
  • For the purposes of the lists within this article, a seven-continent model is assumed.[6]
  • Debate exists on the degree to which many non-contiguous transcontinental states can be considered 'transcontinental' due to portions of their territory lying on islands that could be considered part of another nearby continent. The boundaries between the continents can be vague and subject to interpretation. For the purposes of the lists in this article, a state that has such a situation where this could be applicable is to nevertheless be included in the lists (e.g. Socotra, Yemen and Madeira, Portugal).
  • Debate exists on the degree to which states that only have uninhabited island territory as a part of another continent can be considered transcontinental. They are nevertheless included in these lists (e.g. Isla Aves, Venezuela).
  • Debate exists on the degree to which states that have claimed territory within the Antarctic treaty system can have actual control of that claimed territory. They are included in these lists (e.g. Chilean Antarctic Territory, Chile).
  • Debate exists on the degree to which states that have territory on another continent that is an autonomous region, and is not constitutionally an indistinguishable part of the parent state (a dependent territory), can be considered to be transcontinental. They are nevertheless included in these lists (e.g. British Overseas Territories, the United Kingdom).

Exceptions:

  • Micronations, dependent territories, autonomous regions, and sub-national entities of sovereign states, if they are in themselves transcontinental, are to be excluded from the lists in this article as a separate entry from a controlling state.
  • States that have territory across sub-continental boundaries, and plate boundaries internal to continents, are excluded from these lists as these do not constitute being transcontinental in the seven-continent model.
  • States with limited recognition are excluded from the lists in this article, and any entry must be a UN member state or a part of the UN system.

Contiguous boundary

The Americas

Map of the Darién Gap at the border between Colombia and Panama

The conventional boundary between North America and South America is at some point on the Isthmus of Panama, with the most common demarcation in atlases and other sources following the Darién Mountains watershed that divides along the Colombia–Panama border where the isthmus meets the South American continent (see Darién Gap). This area encompasses a large watershed, forest and mountains in the northern portion of Colombia's Chocó Department and Panama's Darién Province.

  • Some geographers use the Panama Canal as the boundary between North America and South America[7]. They argue that the boundary between Panama and Colombia is arbitrarily drawn and is not entirely determined by natural features, therefore it is not an ideal option for a continental boundary. Under this convention, Panama would be considered as a transcontinental country and its capital, Panama City, would be classified as a South American city.

Asia and Africa

  African land part of Egypt
  Asian land part of Egypt
  The rest of Africa
  The rest of Asia

The modern convention for the land boundary between Asia and Africa runs along the Isthmus of Suez and the Suez Canal in Egypt. The border continues through the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. In antiquity, Egypt had been considered part of Asia, with the Catabathmus Magnus escarpment taken as the boundary with Africa (Libya).

  • After the Yom Kippur War of October 1973, Israel briefly became a transcontinental country as it occupied territory on the African side of the Suez Canal, in addition to the entirety of Sinai. The land was returned in 1975 per the Sinai Interim Agreement.

Asia and Europe

Conventions used for the boundary between Europe and Asia during the 18th and 19th centuries. The red line shows the modern convention, in use since c. 1850.
  Europe
  Asia
  historically placed in either continent

The conventional Europe-Asia boundary was subject to considerable variation during the 18th and 19th centuries, indicated anywhere between the Don River and the Caucasus to the south or the Ural Mountains to the east. Since the later 19th century, the Caucasus–Urals boundary has become almost universally accepted. According to this now-standard convention, the boundary follows the Aegean Sea, the Turkish Straits, the Black Sea, along the watershed of the Greater Caucasus, the northwestern portion of the Caspian Sea and along the Ural River and Ural Mountains to the Arctic Ocean.[8][9]

According to this convention, the Russian Federation, the Republic of Turkey, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Georgia have territory both in Europe and in Asia.

Non-contiguous

The Americas

  • Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao and Trinidad and Tobago: The sea islands division of South America and North America is complicated. All Caribbean islands are often labeled as North American, but the Kingdom of the Netherlands countries of Aruba and Curaçao and the Dutch special municipality of Bonaire lie on the continental shelf of South America, and can be considered South American as well. What complicates it even further is that the islands of Trinidad and Tobago lie on two continental shelves. The southern half of Trinidad lies in South America and the northern half of Trinidad, and Tobago, lie on the Caribbean plate. All these islands have closer cultural ties with North America.
  • Colombia: Mainland Colombia is located within northern South America (see explanation in "The Americas", under "Contiguous boundary" above) and the Malpelo Island in the Pacific Ocean is also associated with South America, but the nation also controls the San Andrés and Providencia archipelago, 640 kilometres (400 mi) WNW of Colombia's Caribbean coast, in North America.

North American Caribbean islands belonging to South American countries:

South American Caribbean islands:

Asia and Europe

Europe and North America

  • Greenland: Greenland is a country within the Kingdom of Denmark, fully located on the North American tectonic plate and close to the mainland, and is considered to be geographically part of North America. Although it is politically associated with Europe and internationally represented by a European country (including in the Council of Europe), it is autonomous. Historically and ethnically, its native population is of North American tradition, although it also shares cultural links with other native peoples bordering the Arctic Sea in Northern Europe and Asia (today in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia), as well as in North America (Alaska in the U.S., Northwest Territories, Nunavut and northern parts of Quebec and Labrador in Canada). Greenland was part of Danish territory and within the territory of the European Union, but voted for more autonomy and is now excluded from the EU.

Europe, North America and South America

Europe, North America, South America, Oceania, Africa and Antarctic

Africa and Europe

Asia and Africa

Asia and Oceania

North America, Oceania, and Asia

South America and Oceania

Antarctica

Seven nations claim portions (some overlapping)[note 1] of the continent of Antarctica: Argentina, Chile, Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom, France and Norway. Some, including Argentina and Chile, consider the Antarctic land they claim to be integral parts of their national territory. However, none of these claims are recognized by other states.[note 2] Since 1961, the Antarctic Treaty System has held in abeyance land claims south of 60°S latitude, including Antarctica’s ice shelves and Antarctic islands.

Eight nations have Antarctic or sub-Antarctic island possessions that are north of 60°S latitude but south of the Antarctic Convergence, which are recognized by international law:[note 3] New Zealand, France, Chile, Australia, South Africa, Argentina, Norway and United Kingdom.

Notes

  1. ^ The Antarctic claims of Argentina, Chile and the United Kingdom overlap to some degree.
  2. ^ The United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Norway and France recognize each other’s Antarctic claims (which do not overlap).
  3. ^ South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, which straddles tectonic plates, form an overseas territory of the United Kingdom but are claimed by Argentina.

See also

References

  1. ^ The question was treated as a "controversy" in British geographical literature until at least the 1860s, with Douglas Freshfield advocating the Caucasus crest boundary as the "best possible", citing support from various "modern geographers" (Journey in the Caucasus, Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, Volumes 13–14, 1869). In 1958, the Soviet Geographical Society formally recommended that the boundary between Europe and Asia be drawn in textbooks from Baydaratskaya Bay, on the Kara Sea, along the eastern foot of the Ural Mountains, then the Ural River to the Mugodzhar Hills, the Emba River, and the Kuma–Manych Depression (i.e. passing well north of the Caucasus); "Do we live in Europe or in Asia?" (in Russian).; Orlenok V. (1998). "Physical Geography" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2011-10-16.. Nevertheless, most Soviet-era geographers continued to favour the boundary along the Caucasus crest. (E. M. Moores, R. W. Fairbridge, Encyclopedia of European and Asian regional geology, Springer, 1997, ISBN 978-0-412-74040-4, p. 34: "most Soviet geographers took the watershed of the Main Range of the Greater Caucasus as the boundary between Europe and Asia.")
  2. ^ "transcontinental". OxfordDictionaries.com. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  3. ^ "contiguous". Dictionary.Cambridge.org. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  4. ^ a b Misachi, John (25 April 2017). "Which Countries Span More Than One Continent?". WorldAtlas.com. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  5. ^ a b Ramos, Juan (19 March 2018). "What Continent Is Egypt Officially In?". ScienceTrends.com. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  6. ^ "Continent". NationalGeographic.org. National Geographic. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  7. ^ Panama Canal
  8. ^ National Geographic Atlas of the World (9th ed.). Washington, DC: National Geographic. 2011. ISBN 978-1-4262-0634-4. "Europe" (plate 59); "Asia" (plate 74): "A commonly accepted division between Asia and Europe ... is formed by the Ural Mountains, Ural River, Caspian Sea, Caucasus Mountains, and the Black Sea with its outlets, the Bosporus and Dardanelles."
  9. ^ World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency.
  10. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Kazakhstan, Retrieved: 8 May 2016
  11. ^ World Factbook. Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency. Kazakhstan: Geography
  12. ^ "Socotra". Britannica.com. 6 May 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  13. ^ Evans, Mike. "Islands east of the Horn of Africa and south of Yemen". WorldWildlife.org. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  14. ^ "Papua New Guinea asks RP support for Asean membership bid". GMA News. Retrieved 15 July 2014.

External links