Transcription factor II D
Transcription factor II D (TFIID) is one of several general transcription factors that make up the RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex. RNA polymerase II holoenzyme is a form of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II that is recruited to the promoters of protein-coding genes in living cells. It consists of RNA polymerase II, a subset of general transcription factors, and regulatory proteins known as SRB proteins. Before the start of transcription, the transcription Factor II D (TFIID) complex binds to the TATA box in the core promoter of the gene.
- Coordinates the activities of more than 70 polypeptides required for initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II
- Binds to the core promoter to position the polymerase properly
- Serves as the scaffold for assembly of the remainder of the transcription complex
- Acts as a channel for regulatory signals
TFIID is itself composed of TBP and several subunits called TATA-binding protein Associated Factors (TBP-associated factors, or TAFs). In a test tube, only TBP is necessary for transcription at promoters that contain a TATA box. TAFs, however, add promoter selectivity, especially if there is no TATA box sequence for TBP to bind to. TAFs are included in two distinct complexes, TFIID and B-TFIID. The TFIID complex is composed of TBP and more than eight TAFs. But, the majority of TBP is present in the B-TFIID complex, which is composed of TBP and TAFII170 (BTAF1) in a 1:1 ratio. TFIID and B-TFIID are not equivalent, since transcription reactions utilizing TFIID are responsive to gene specific transcription factors such as SP1, while reactions reconstituted with B-TFIID are not.
Subunits in the TFIID complex include:
- TBP (TATA binding protein)
- TAF1 (TAFII250)
- TAF2 (CIF150)
- TAF3 (TAFII140)
- TAF4 (TAFII130/135)
- TAF4B (TAFII105)
- TAF5 (TAFII100)
- TAF6 (TAFII70/80)
- TAF7 (TAFII55)
- TAF8 (TAFII43)
- TAF9 (TAFII31/32)
- TAF9B (TAFII31L)
- TAF10 (TAFII30)
- TAF11 (TAFII28)
- TAF12 (TAFII20/15)
- TAF13 (TAFII18)
- TAF15 (TAFII68)
- Eukaryotic transcription
- General transcription factor
- Preinitiation complex
- Regulation of gene expression
- RNA polymerase II holoenzyme
- TATA binding protein
- Transcription (genetics)
- Lee, Tong Ihn; Young, Richard A. (2000). "Transcription of eukaryotic protein-coding genes". Annu. Rev. Genet. 34: 77–137. PMID 11092823. doi:10.1146/annurev.genet.34.1.77.
- Louder, RK; He, Y; López-Blanco, JR; Fang, J; Chacón, P; Nogales, E (2016). "Structure of promoter-bound TFIID and model of human pre-initiation complex assembly". Nature. 531: 604–609. doi:10.1038/nature17394.
- Dynlacht, Brian David; Hoey, Timothy; Tjian, Robert (Aug 1991). "Isolation of co-activators associated with the TATA-binding protein that mediate transcriptional activation". Cell. 66 (3): 563–576. PMID 1907890. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(81)90019-2.
- "NCBI Entrez GeneID: 9044 BTAF1 BTAF1 RNA polymerase II, B-TFIID transcription factor-associated, 170kDa (Mot1 homolog, S. cerevisiae)".
- Timmers, H.; Meyers, RE; Sharp, PA (Sep 1992). "Composition of transcription factor B-TFIID" (PDF). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 89 (17): 8140–4. PMC . PMID 1387711. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.17.8140.
- Transcription Factor TFIID at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- 3D electron microscopy structures of TFIID from the EM Data Bank(EMDB)
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