Transcription into Japanese

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In contemporary Japanese writing, foreign-language loanwords and foreign names are normally written in the katakana script, which is one component of the Japanese writing system. As far as possible, sounds in the source language are matched to the nearest sounds in the Japanese language, and the result is transcribed using standard katakana characters, each of which represents one syllable (strictly mora). For example, America is written アメリカ (A-me-ri-ka). To accommodate various foreign-language sounds not present in Japanese, a system of extended katakana has also developed to augment standard katakana.

Katakana, like the other Japanese kana, hiragana, has a one-to-one correspondence between sounds and characters. Therefore, once the "Japanese sound" of a word is established, there is no ambiguity in its katakana spelling (unlike spelling in English, for example).

A much less common form of transcription, not covered in this article, uses kanji characters for their phonetic values. For information on this method see Ateji.

Practicalities of transcription[edit]

Word length[edit]

Because Japanese is written with kanji, the relative complexity of its characters means Japanese generally needs to be written larger than in English for legibility. Since Japanese characters encode one syllable at a time rather than one phoneme the amount of space taken tends to be the same, but challenges arise when Japanese encounters syllables and consonant clusters that the kana system isn't designed to handle. For example, the word smartphone is rendered in Japanese as スマートフォン (su-mā-to-fo-n). The syllable sma requires three characters to write down (スマー), which although the same amount as English, does not take up the same amount of horizontal space. Thus, the word is often shortened to スマホ.

Syllable structure[edit]

Since Japanese has few closed syllables, syllable-final consonants in the source language are often represented using the -u (or sometimes -o or -i) kanas with implicitly silent vowels – though this vowel often is pronounced in Japanese – or the syllable coda is not represented at all. For example, the name Jim is written ジム (Ji-mu). A similar principle applies to consonant clusters; for example spring would be transcribed as スプリング (su-pu-ri-n-gu).

Diphthongs[edit]

Japanese has only five native vowel sounds, each a pure vowel (monophthong) with a long and short form, and some degree of approximation is necessary when representing vowels from, for example, English. Diphthongs are represented by sequences of vowels, and pronounced with hiatus, as a sequence of discrete monophthongs, not a diphthong, as in ブラウン Bu-ra-u-n "Brown", ナイス na-i-su "nice", ディア di-a "dear/deer", レア re-a "rare". etc. The English spelling <ore> (phonologically /ɔː/ (RP) or /ɔːr/ (GA)) is usually "diphthongized" as o-a in Japanese (e.g. コア ko-a "core"), possibly because it is also pronounced as a diphthong (/oə/) in some accents of English. The English /eɪ/ is transcribed to either e-e (エース e-e-su "ace") or e-i (スペイン Su-pe-i-n "Spain"); similarly, /əʊ/ is transcribed to either o-o (ショー sho-o "show") or o-u (シャドウ sha-do-u "shadow").

Phonemes[edit]

Japanese does not have separate l and r sounds, and l- is normally transcribed using the kana that are perceived as representing r-. For example, London becomes ロンドン (Ro-n-do-n). Other sounds not present in Japanese may be converted to the nearest Japanese equivalent; for example, the name Smith is written スミス (Su-mi-su). Foreign sounds can be difficult to express in Japanese, resulting in spellings such as フルシチョフ Furushichofu (Khrushchev), アリー・ハーメネイー Arī Hāmeneī (Ali Khamenei) and イツハク・パールマン Itsuhaku Pāruman or イツァーク・パールマン Itsāku Pāruman (Itzhak Perlman).

The English voiceless labialized velar approximant /hw/ (orthographically wh), which is a distinct phoneme from /w/ in some varieties of English, can be transcribed as ho(w)-. For example, White is ホワイト Howaito, whale is ホエール hoēru.

French /w/ is typically transcribed as u, but the sequence /wa/ is as o-(w)a (e.g. ポアロ Po-a-ro "Poirot").

The English /ti(ː)/ and /tɪ/ is typically transcribed to チ chi (e.g. チーム chīmu "team"), but ティ ti is also used (ティア tia "tear"). The suffix -tic can be transcribed to either チック -chikku or ティック -tikku. However, -ty is almost always transcribed to ティ(ー) -ti(i), not *チ(ー) *-chi(i) (e.g. パーティー pātī "party", インフィニティ infiniti "infinity").

The English schwa /ə/ is variously "transcribed" to a, e, o, depending on the English spelling (this is more of transliteration than it is transcription). For example, デュアル dyu-a-ru "dual", デュエル dyu-e-ru "duel", テスタメント Te-su-ta-me-n-to "Testament", ロンドン Ro-n-do-n "London". There are no definite rules when it comes to the schwa, however; e.g. ランダム ra-n-da-mu "random", オープン o-o-pu-n "open", ザ za "the". The British /ə/ which is equivalent to the North American /ɚ/ is transcribed to a(-a); e.g. コンピュータ(ー) ko-n-pyu-u-ta(-a) "computer", モーター mo-o-ta-a "motor". On the other hand, the French schwa is transcribed to u or o (e.g. ソムリエ so-mu-ri-e "sommelier", ド do "de") similarly to instances where there's a lack of vowels, and the German schwa is almost always transcribed to e (e.g. アルベルト A-ru-be-ru-to "Albert", ウンディーネ un-di-i-ne "undine").

Although the diphthong /au/ across languages is usually transcribed as アウ a-u, local reading transcriptions of the same sequence from Mandarin, represented in both Wade–Giles and Pinyin as ao are represented as アオ a-o instead, again in more of a manner of transliteration based on these systems - e.g. マオ・ツォートン ma-o tso-o-to-n (Mao Zedong).

The English /æ/ is typically transcribed to a; e.g. マン ma-n "man", チャネル cha-ne-ru "channel". The sequences /kæ/ and /ɡæ/ are sometimes transcribed to kya and gya respectively; e.g. キャンディ kyandi "candy", ギャラクシー gya-ra-ku-shi-i "galaxy".

The older English suffix -age /-ɪdʒ/ is always transcribed to -e-e-ji as if it were pronounced as /eɪdʒ/ as in "age" or "rage"; e.g. メッセージ me-s-se-e-ji "message", パッケージ pa-k-ke-e-ji "package". The more recent -age /-ɑːʒ/ is more "properly" transcribed to -a-a-ju; e.g. ミラージュ mi-ra-a-ju "mirage". However, "garage" /gəˈrɑːʒ/ is more commonly transcribed to ガレージ ga-re-e-ji as it also has /ˈgærɪdʒ/ as an alternative pronunciation in British English.

The phoneme /v/ in various languages is transcribed either to b or v, although it is unknown whether there is such an equivalent phoneme /v/ in Japanese. For example, ベネチア Benechia / ヴェネツィア Ve-ne-tsi-a "Venezia" (Italian for "Venice"), オーバー o-o-ba-a "over", ラブ ra-bu / ラヴ ravu "love".

The German /v/ (orthographically w) can be transcribed in several ways. In long-established words, it is generally w. E.g.: Walküre "valkyrie" > ワルキューレ wa-ru-kyu-u-re. In newer transcriptions, it can also be v. E.g.: Schwestern "sisters" > シュヴェスタン shu-ve-su-tan.

Although several English dictionaries (Oxford's, Cambridge's, Longman's, etc.) do not endorse the notion of syllabic /m/, transcriptions into Japanese usually do; in other words, words with sequences /Cm/ (with C for "consonant") is transcribed as if /m/ is syllabic just like /n/ in "seven" (セブン sebun), /l/ in "battle" (バトル batoru). For example, リズム ri-zu-mu "rhythm", ファシズム fa-shi-zu-mu "fascism".

Wa is usually written as ワ, although ウァ is sometimes used in transcriptions from Ancient Greek or Latin (e.g. ミネルウァ Mi-ne-ru-wa "Minerva").

French vowels are usually phonemically transcribed, but non-phonemic stressed vowels (utterance-final) are sometimes also transcribed as long vowels. Compare the examples of メゾン me-zo-n "maison" and カレー ka-re-e "Calais", in which the same vowel /ɛ/ is transcribed as e and e-e depending on whether it is stressed or not. The French schwa is ignored altogether: words are usually transcribed as if there were no schwa at all. For example, the word "le" is transcribed as ル ru, as is the single sound /l/ in "cheval" > シュヴァル shuvaru.

Although a syllable-final /n/ is typically transcribed using the moraic ン n, ン is used in French to transcribe nasalized vowels, so French words with a final /n/ often use ヌ nu instead for distinction, e.g. マドレーヌ Ma-do-re-e-nu "Madeleine".

Plain short consonants may be transcribed as geminated consonants to reflect the laxness of the preceding vowel, although this is not universal and there are plenty of exceptions. For example: English kick is キック ki-k-ku and castle is キャッスル kya-s-su-ru, but extra is エクストラ e-ku-su-to-ra and battle is バトル ba-to-ru. This practice expands to almost all English obstruents regardless of their voicing (/k/, /ɡ/, /s/, /z/, /f/, etc.), also to German/Scots /x/, occasionally to /n/ and /m/ (as pseudo-geminated consonant sequences /nn/ or /nm/). For example: English bag is バ(ッ)グ ba-(g)-gu; English Anna is アンナ A-n-na; English gamma is ガンマ ga-n-ma; English shuffle is シャッフル sha-f-fu-ru; German Mach is マッハ ma-h-ha, Masoch is マゾッホ Ma-zo-h-ho.

German [x] is transcribed roughly as h-h, accordingly to its preceding vowel, if it's not followed by a vowel (e.g. マッハ ma-h-ha "Mach", バッハ Ba-h-ha "Bach", マゾッホ Ma-zo-h-ho "Masoch"); [ç], its allophone occurring only after high vowels and consonants, are as h if not followed by a vowel (e.g. メルヘン me-ru-hen "Märchen"), or as hi if not (e.g. リヒター Ri-hi-ta-a "Richter"). Russian /x/ is transcribed as fu if not followed by a vowel (e.g. カザフスタン Ka-za-fu-su-ta-n "Kazakhstan"). Mandarin [ç] (in pinyin x(i)) is transcribed as sh (e.g. シャオ shao from 小 xiǎo "little").

Geminated consonants are typically transcribed consistently and faithfully, as gemination is also featured in Japanese. The only notable exceptions are /rr/ and /ɲɲ/, although /ll/ and /ʎʎ/ are still transcribed. Examples: Arabic: الله‎, translit. Allāh is アッラーフ A-r-ra-a-fu; Italian Donatello is ドナテッロ Do-na-te-r-ro; Italian degli is デッリ de-r-ri; but Italian Verrocchio is simply ヴェロッキオ Ve-ro-k-ki-o, not *Ve-r-ro-k-ki-o. Italian /ɲɲ/ may be transcribed as the lengthened portion of the preceding vowel and a sequence of /nj/. For example, Sardegna is サルデーニャ Sa-ru-de-e-nya.

Similar to the way speakers of English say Italian words, Japanese does not usually transcribe the Italian glide /j/ to reflect its true nature, but as /i/, perhaps for consistency and convenience. For example, Venezia is ヴェネツィア Ve-ne-tsi-a, Sicilia is シチリア Shi-chi-ri-a. Contemporary transcriptions of palatalized consonants from Slavic languages, however, are made using yōon, e.g.: Russian ピャチゴルスク Pya-chi-go-ru-su-ku (Pyatigorsk), Polish ビェルスコ=ビャワ Bye-ru-su-ko=bya-wa (Bielsko-Biała).

Modern English compounds are usually transcribed in a way that reflects the independent pronunciations of the individual components. That is to say, there is no phonetic linking between components. For example, "overall" is transcribed as オーバーオール o-o-ba-a-o-o-ru, not *o-o-ba-a-ro-o-ru as it is pronounced in English. However, there are a few exceptions, such as "pineapple", which is transcribed as パイナップル pa-i-na-p-pu-ru, or "double-u", as ダブリュー da-bu-ryu-u.

Long vowels[edit]

Long vowels are generally written with ー to indicate lengthening, as in コーラ kōra (cola), rather than writing a distinct vowel ×コウラ *koura. There are two irregularities of note here. Firstly, lengthening of the final vowel may be ambiguous, and vary over time or between users. For example, in present Japan, "computer" is generally represented as コンピューター konpyūtā (long final), but in some cases, such as the computer industry, following Japanese Industrial Standards, it is represented as コンピュータ konpyūta (short final).[1] Secondly, in modern Chinese loanwords, notably food names, in careful transcription diphthongs are represented by separate vowels, even if in Japanese they would appear to be a long vowel; this is particularly common with òu, especially in 豆 dòu "(soy) bean", usually rendered as トウ. Further, long vowels in the Japanese transcription need not reflect Chinese pronunciation. For example, the dish 東坡肉 "Dongpo pork", in pinyin dōngpōròu (dōng·pō·ròu), is represented in Japanese as ドンポーロウ donpōrou, or more commonly トンポーロウ tonpōrou. Note that in Chinese pinyin ō represents a high tone, while in Japanese ō represents a long vowel, and /d/ is pronounced differently (Chinese /d/ is similar to Japanese or English /t/). This distinction is not always followed, and varies by term: the spelling トンポーロー tonpōrō is also common; and in terms such as 回鍋肉 twice cooked pork, the spelling ホイコーロー is more common, despite representing diphthongs.

Extended katakana[edit]

In modern times, an extended katakana system has developed to cater for foreign sounds not present in Japanese. Most of these novel katakana forms are digraphs, composed of standard katakana characters, but in digraph combinations not found in native words. For example, the word photo is transcribed as フォト (fo-to), where the novel digraph フォ (fo) is made up from フ (normally fu) plus a novel small combining form of オ (normally o). In other cases novel diacritics may be applied to create new sounds, such as ヴ for vu, which consists of ウ (u) combined with a dakuten to indicate a voiced pronunciation.

Interpunct[edit]

Japanese is written without spaces between words, and, to aid understanding, foreign phrases and names are sometimes transliterated with an interpunct separating the words, called a nakaguro (中黒, middle dot); for example, ビル・ゲイツ (Bill Gates). When it is assumed that the reader knows the separate gairaigo words in the phrase, the middle dot is omitted, especially for wasei eigo. For example, the phrase コンピューターゲーム konpyūtā gēmu ("computer game") contains two well-known gairaigo, and therefore is not written with a middle dot; the same principle is applied for パンティストッキング panti sutokkingu ("pantyhose", lit. "panty stocking"), Japanese coinage.

Katakana tables[edit]

The following tables give the Hepburn romanization and an approximate IPA transcription for katakana as used in contemporary Japanese. Their use in transcription is, of course, in the inverse direction.

Standard katakana[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Theoretical combinations yi, ye and wu are  unused .
  2. ^ a b c The characters in positions wi and we are  obsolete  in modern Japanese, and have been replaced by イ (i) and エ (e). The character wo, in practice normally pronounced o, is preserved in only one use: as a particle. This is normally written in hiragana (を), so katakana ヲ sees only limited use. See Gojūon and the articles on each character for details.
  3. ^ a b c d e The ヂ (di) and ヅ (du) kana (often romanised as ji and zu) are primarily used for  etymologic spelling , when the unvoiced equivalents チ (ti) and ツ (tu) (often romanised as chi and tsu) undergo a sound change (rendaku) and become voiced when they occur in the middle of a compound word. In other cases, the identically-pronounced ジ (ji) and ズ (zu) are used instead. ヂ (di) and ヅ (du) can never begin a word, and they are not common in katakana, since the concept of rendaku does not apply to transcribed foreign words, one of the major uses of katakana.

Extended katakana[edit]

The following katakana (tokushuon[2]) have been developed or proposed specifically for the purposes of transcribing foreign words. Examples such as トゥ(tu) in カートゥーン(cartoon), ティ(ti) in パーティ(party), ツァ (tsa) in モーツァルト(Mozart) are found mostly in foreign words.

Color key
 Orange  General kana combinations used for loanwords or foreign place names or personal names, set forth by the Japanese government's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT, Monbushō).[3]
 Blue  Combinations used for more accurate transliteration of foreign sounds, again set forth by MEXT.[clarification needed]
 Beige  Suggestions by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI Z39.11)[4] and the British Standards Institution (BS 4812).[5][clarification needed]
 Purple  Combinations that appear in the 1974 version of the Hyōjun-shiki formatting.[6]


Table of transcription from English[edit]

English phonemes Common English graphemes Japanese transcription in modified Hepburn romanization Examples
Received Pronunciation General American If the English consonant is prevocalic and not postvocalic If the English consonant is intervocalic If the English consonant is not prevocalic
/æ/ ⟨a⟩; ⟨ae⟩; ⟨al⟩; ⟨au⟩ a; ā ハンド hando "hand"; ラム ramu "ram", "RAM"; サモン samon, サーモン sāmon "salmon"
Exception: ンド endo "and"
/ɒ/; /ɔː/ /ɑː/; /ɔː/ ⟨a⟩; ⟨ach⟩; ⟨au⟩; ⟨o⟩; ⟨ou⟩ o; a; ō ノック nokku "knock"; ショップ shoppu "shop"; ラクル orakuru "oracle"; ウリアー woriā, ウォーリアー wōriā "warrior"; ウッチ wotchi "watch"; ヨット yotto "yacht"; ツモロー tsumo, トゥモロー tumo "tomorrow"; コロンビア Koronbia "Colombia"; サッカー sakkā "soccer"; カレッジ karejji "college"; カクテル kakuteru "cocktail"; カリフラワー karifurawā "cauliflower"; バレーボール barēbōru "volleyball"; ライノセラス rainoserasu "rhinoceros"; ドール dōru "doll"; ウォーター wō "water"; ゴーグル gōguru "goggle"; トーマス Tōmasu "Thomas"
/ɑː/ /æ/; /ɑː/ ⟨a⟩; ⟨al⟩; ⟨au⟩ ā, a アーント ānto "aunt"; ハーフ hāfu "half"; バス basu "bath"; フスト fasuto, ファースト fāsuto "fast"; シカゴ Shikago "Chicago"; ダンス dansu "dance"
/ɑː(ɹ)/ /ɑːɹ/ ⟨ar⟩; ⟨ear⟩; ⟨er⟩ ār; a ā; aru カー kā "car"; マーカー mā "marker"; ハート hāto "heart"; サージェント sājento "sergeant"; ジブラルタル Jiburarutaru "Gibraltar"; マーマレード māmarēdo, ママレード mamarēdo "marmalade"
/aɪ/ ⟨ai⟩; ⟨ei⟩; ⟨eigh⟩; ⟨i⟩; ⟨ic⟩; ⟨ie⟩; ⟨igh⟩; ⟨is⟩; ⟨oy⟩; ⟨uy⟩; ⟨y⟩; ⟨ye⟩ ai ハイ hai "high", "hi"; ライト raito "right", "light"; ガイ gai "guy"; ガイド gaido "guide"; スタイル sutairu "style"; ハイト haito "height"
/aɪə(ɹ)/ /aɪɚ/; /aɪ/ ⟨ia(r)⟩; ⟨igher⟩; ⟨ire⟩; ⟨iro⟩ aiar; aiyar aia; aiā; aiya; aiyā ァイアー faiā, ファイヤー faiyā "fire"; アイアaian "iron"; ダイアリー daiarī, ダイヤリー daiyarī "diary"; ダイヤモンド daiyamondo "diamond"
Exceptions: アイルランド Airurando "Ireland"; アイロairon "iron"
/aɪl/ /l/ ⟨ile⟩ airu, uru, oru ミサイル misairu "missile"; レプタイル reputairu, レプトル reputoru "reptile"
/aʊ/ ⟨au⟩; ⟨ou⟩; ⟨ough⟩; ⟨ow⟩ au; a タウン taun "town"; ダウン daun "down"; プラウ purau "plough", "plow"; ファウンデーション faundēshon, フンデーション fandēshon "foundation"
/aʊə(ɹ)/ /aʊɚ/ ⟨our⟩; ⟨ower⟩ awār awā パワー pawā "power"; アワー awā "our", "hour"
/b/ ⟨b⟩; ⟨bb⟩; ⟨be⟩; ⟨pb⟩ b b; bb bu; bbu ベンチ benchi "bench"; バッブbabburu "bubble"; ラ rabu "lab"; ラザー burazā "brother"; レイク Bureiku "Blake"; カップボード kappubōdo "cupboard"
/d/ ⟨d⟩; ⟨dd⟩; ⟨de⟩ d d; dd; j do; ddo; zu; zzu; tto デス desu "death"; ベッド beddo "bed"; サンデー Sandē "Sunday"; ゥーム dūmu "doom"; ラゴン doragon "dragon"; キッド kiddo, キッズ kizzu "kid"; リラー Rido "Riddler"; ゼット zetto "zed"; アンデッド andeddo, アンデット andetto "undead"; エジソン Ejison, エディソン Edison, エディスン Edisun "Edison"; クレジット kurejitto "credit"
/djuː/ /duː/ ⟨dew⟩; ⟨du⟩; ⟨due⟩ dyū; dyu デューdyūku "duke"; デュアル dyuaru "dual"; デュエル dyueru "duel"; デュー dyū "dew", "due"
/dz/ ⟨ds⟩; ⟨dds⟩ zu; zzu エイ eizu "AIDS"; キッズ kizzu "kids"; グッズ guzzu "goods"
/dʒ/ ⟨di⟩; ⟨dg⟩; ⟨dge⟩; ⟨g⟩; ⟨ge⟩; ⟨j⟩ j j; jj; z ji; jji; tsu ジャンプ janpu "jump"; エッジ ejji "edge"; ェリー Jerī "Gerry", "Jerry"; バェット bajetto "budget"; ガレー garēji "garage"; ソルジャー sorujā "soldier"; エンェル enjeru, エンゼル enzeru "angel"; ェミナイ, ェミナイ Jeminai "Gemini"; キャベ kyabetsu "cabbage"
/ð/ ⟨th⟩; ⟨the⟩ z; j zu za, ジー jī "the"; マザー mazā "mother"; アルゴリarugorizumu "algorithm"
/ɛ/ ⟨ae⟩; ⟨e⟩; ⟨ea⟩; ⟨ie⟩; ⟨oe⟩ e ンド endo "end"; ヘッド heddo "head"; フレンド furendo "friend"
Exception: セーター sētā "sweater"
/ɛə(ɹ)/ /ɛɹ/ ⟨ar⟩; ⟨air⟩; ⟨are⟩; ⟨ear⟩; ⟨eir⟩; ⟨ere⟩; ⟨ey're⟩ ear; er ea; eā エア ea, エアー "air"; シェア shea "share"; ベア bea "bear"; エリア eria "area"
Exception: プレーリー purērī "prairie"
/ə/ ⟨a⟩ a アーカンソー Ākansō "Arkansas"; イングランド Ingurando "England"; マリガン marigan "mulligan"; バウト abauto "about"; コンマ konma "comma"
Exception: プレデター purede "predator"
⟨o⟩ o; u; a コモン komon "common"; obu "of"; ツデー tsu, トデー tu "today"; ダイナソー daina, ダイノソー daino "dinosaur"; セカンド sekando "second"
⟨gh⟩; ⟨ou⟩; ⟨ough⟩; ⟨u⟩ a サラ sara "thorough"; バラ bara "borough"; エディンバラ Edinbara "Edinburgh"; アルバカーキ Arubakāki "Albuquerque"; ニューフンドランド Nyūfandorando "Newfoundland"
/ə(ɹ)/ /ɚ/ ⟨ar⟩; ⟨er⟩; ⟨ure⟩ ar a; ā ハンガー hangā "hanger", "hangar"; コンピュータ konpyūta, コンピューター konpyūtā "computer"; ロバート Robāto "Robert"; フューチャー fyūchā "future"; ノーザン nōzan "northern"; プロパティ puropati "property"; ハンカチーフ hankachīfu "hankerchief"
⟨or⟩; ⟨our⟩ ar ā; oru モーター mōtā "motor"; カラー karā "colour"; カーソル kāsoru "cursor"; メルボルン Meruborun "Melbourne"
/əd/ /ɚd/ ⟨oard⟩; ⟨ord⟩ ōdo オックスフォード Okkusufōdo "Oxford"
/əl/; /l/ ⟨al⟩ aru プロポーザル puropōzaru "proposal"; ライバル raibaru "rival"; タイダル taidaru "tidal"; オフィシャル ofisharu "official"
⟨ael⟩; ⟨el⟩; ⟨le⟩ uru; oru; eru ベーグル bēguru "bagel"; マッスル massuru "muscle"; テーブル tēburu "table"; サイクル saikuru "cycle"; ミドル midoru "middle"; ステープル sutēpuru "staple"; ケトル ketoru "kettle"; パズル pazuru "puzzle"; パネル paneru "panel"; レベル reberu, レヴェル reveru "level", "revel", "rebel"; マイケル Maikeru "Michael"
/əm/ ⟨am⟩; ⟨em⟩; ⟨om⟩; ⟨ome⟩ amu キングダム kingudamu "kingdom"; ランダム randamu "random"; セイラム Seiramu "Salem"; ゴッサム Gossamu "Gotham"; オーサム ōsamu "awesome"
⟨um⟩ amu; umu アルバム arubamu "album"; オポッサム opossamu "opossum"; デューテリウム dyūteriumu "deuterium"; バキューム bakyūmu "vacuum"
/ən/; /n/ ⟨ain⟩; ⟨en⟩; ⟨on⟩ un; on; en ハイフン haifun "hyphen"; セブン sebun "seven"; フォールン fōrun "fallen"; オープン ōpun "open"; トークン tōkun "token"; リーズン rīzun "reason"; シーズン shīzun "season"; プリズン purizun "prison"; レッスン ressun "lesson"; セコンド sekondo "second"; サドン sadon "sudden"; スウェーデン Suwēden "Sweden"; マウンテン maunten "mountain"; ブリテン Buriten "Britain"; テスタメント tesutamento "testament"; ヘレン Heren "Hellen"
Exception: クライアンkuraianto "client"; セカンド sekando "second"
/əs/ ⟨us⟩ asu バイラス bairasu, ヴァイラス vairasu "virus"; コーカス Kōkasasu "Caucasus"
/əʊ/ /oʊ/ ⟨au⟩; ⟨eau⟩; ⟨eaux⟩; ⟨o⟩; ⟨oa⟩; ⟨oe⟩; ⟨oh⟩; ⟨ough⟩; ⟨ow⟩; ⟨owe⟩ ō; ou; o ゴー gō "go"; ショー shō "show"; シャドー shadō, シャドウ shadou "shadow"; ホーム hōmu "home"; ソウル souru "soul"; ハイ Ohaio "Ohio"; ポニー po "pony"
/ɜː(ɹ)/ /ɜːɹ/ ⟨ear⟩; ⟨er⟩; ⟨ir⟩; ⟨olo⟩; ⟨ur⟩ ār ā; a アーāsu "earth"; スターリング Sutāringu "Sterling", "Stirling"; バーチャル bācharu "virtual"; カーブ kābu "curve", "curb"; カーネル kāneru "colonel", "kernel"; シャツ shatsu "shirt"; オルナティブ orutanatibu "alternative"; ファーリー fārī "furry"
/eɪ/ ⟨a⟩; ⟨ae⟩; ⟨ai⟩; ⟨ais⟩; ⟨ait⟩; ⟨al⟩; ⟨au⟩; ⟨ay⟩; ⟨e⟩; ⟨ei⟩; ⟨eigh⟩; ⟨et⟩; ⟨ey⟩ ē; ei; e ネーム nēmu "name"; ゲージ gēji "gauge"; ドレイク doreiku "drake"; エイeito "eight"; レイフ Reifu "Ralph"; ポテト poteto "potato"; ンジェル enjeru "angel"; ンシェント enshento "ancient"; ブレザー bure "blazer"; プロン epuron "apron"; レディ redi, レディー re "lady"; ベビー be "baby"
Exceptions: オーストラリア Ōsutoraria "Australia"; カナディアン Kanadian "Canadian"; ラジオ rajio "radio"; スタジアム sutajiamu "stadium"
/f/ ⟨f⟩; ⟨fe⟩; ⟨ff⟩; ⟨gh⟩; ⟨ph⟩; ⟨u⟩ f; h f; ff fu; ffu ァウル fauru "foul"; ライ furai "fry", "fly"; ラワー furawā "flower"; シャッフshaffuru "shuffle"; ラ rafu "rough"; ヘッドホン heddohon "headphone"; レテナント refutenanto "lieutenant"
/ɡ/ ⟨g⟩; ⟨gg⟩; ⟨gh⟩; ⟨gu⟩; ⟨gue⟩ g g; gg gu; ggu ガン gan "gun"; バッグ baggu "bag"; ラインダー guraindā "grinder"; ルー gu "glue"; マMaguru "Muggle"; グール gūru "ghoul"; ギター gitā "guitar"
/ɡæ/ ⟨ga⟩ ga; gya ジェット gajetto "gadget"; ギャラクシー gyarakushī "galaxy"; ギャgyaru "gal"
/ɡz/ ⟨gs⟩; ⟨ggs⟩; ⟨x⟩; ⟨xh⟩ guz; guj; kiz; kuz guzu; gguzu エグジット egujitto "exit"; エグゾーダス eguzōdasu "exodus; エグザミネーション eguzaminēshon "examination"; エキゾチック ekizochikku "exotic"; エキゾースト ekizōsuto "exhaust"; バッグズ bagguzu "bags"
/ɡzjuː/ /ɡzuː/ ⟨xu⟩; ⟨xhu⟩ gujū エグジューム egujūmu "exhume"
/h/ ⟨gh⟩; ⟨h⟩; ⟨wh⟩ h; f ハンター hantā "hunter"; ハッブル Habburu "Hubble"; フック fukku, ホック hokku "hook"
/ɪ/ ⟨a⟩; ⟨ae⟩; ⟨e⟩; ⟨ei⟩; ⟨i⟩; ⟨ie⟩; ⟨oe⟩ i; ī; e; ē ンプット inputto "input"; リミテッド rimiteddo "limited"; ネイキッド neikiddo "naked"; トイレット toiretto "toilet"; オレンジ orenji "orange"; ステッカー sutekkā "sticker"; デステニー desute "destiny"; デジタル dejitaru "digital"; アイデア aidea "idea"; メッセージ messēji "message"; ガレージ garēji "garage"; ダメージ damēji "damage"; カレッジ karejji "college"; チョコレート chokorēto "chocolate"; パレス paresu "palace"; アルティメット arutimetto "ultimate"; ネッカチーフ nekkachīfu "neckerchief"
/ɪə(ɹ)/ /ɪɹ/ ⟨aer⟩; ⟨e're⟩; ⟨ear⟩; ⟨eer⟩; ⟨er⟩; ⟨ere⟩; ⟨ier⟩; ⟨ir⟩ iar; iyar; īr; ir; ear ia; iya; īa; ea ギア gia "gear"; ミーアキャット mīakyatto "meerkat"; イヤホン iyahon "earphone"; ヒーロー hīrō "hero"; ヒロイン hiroin "heroine"; ステアリング sutearingu "steering"
/i/ ⟨e⟩; ⟨ea⟩; ⟨ee⟩; ⟨ei⟩; ⟨y⟩ i; ī; yi; ē コミッティー komittī "committee"; ヤンキー Yankī "Yankee"; シティー shiti "city"; コメデ komedi, コメディー komedī "comedy"; アポストロフ aposutorofi "apostrophe"; ハッピー happī, ハッピィ happyi "happy"; キャンデ kyandi, キャンディー kyandī, キャンデー kyandē "candy"
⟨ay⟩; ⟨ey⟩ ī; ē; ei; e マリー Marī, マーレイ Mārei "Murray"; リンジー Rinjī "Lindsay"; ハービー Hābī "Harvey"; ハーレー Hārē "Harley"; ラムゼイ Ramuzei "Ramsay"; ハネムーン hanemūn, ハニームーン hanīmūn "honeymoon"
/iː/ ⟨ae⟩; ⟨e⟩; ⟨ea⟩; ⟨ee⟩; ⟨i⟩; ⟨ie⟩; ⟨oe⟩ ī; ē; e チーム chīmu "team"; グリーン gurīn "green"; ピース pīsu "piece", "peace"; タキシード takishīdo "tuxedo"; デーモン dēmon "demon"; ノルウェージャン Noruwējan "Norwegian"; ハイhaiena "hyena"; フニックス fenikkusu "phoenix"
/j/ ⟨y⟩ y; i ヤング yangu "young"; ヨーク Yōku "York"; ェール Yēru "Yale"; エロー ierō, エロウ ierou "yellow"; エス iesu "yes"
/ju(ː)/; /jʊ/ /ju(ː)/; /jə/ ⟨eu⟩; ⟨u⟩; ⟨you⟩; ⟨yu⟩; ⟨ut⟩ yū; yu ユー "you", "U"; ニオン yunion "union"; ダブリュー dabur "W"; サミエル Samyueru "Samuel"; フォーミfōmyura "formula"
/jʊə(ɹ)/; /jəɹ/ /jʊɹ/; /jəɹ/ ⟨eu(r)⟩; ⟨u(r)⟩; ⟨you(r)⟩; ⟨you're⟩; ⟨yu(r)⟩; ⟨uh(r)⟩ yūr; yur; yuar yua ユーロ yūro "euro"; ユア yua "your", "you're"; マーキュリー Mākyurī "Mercury"
/k/ ⟨c⟩; ⟨cc⟩; ⟨ch⟩; ⟨che⟩; ⟨ck⟩; ⟨k⟩; ⟨ke⟩; ⟨kh⟩; ⟨qu⟩; ⟨que⟩ k k; kk ku; kku; ki; kki カップ kappu "cup"; キック kikku "kick"; テイ teiku "take"; ストライ sutoraiki "strike"; ケー kēki "cake"; ステー sutēki "steak"; デッキ dekki "deck"; ラウン kuraun "clown"; サッカー sakkā "soccer", "sucker"; ロニkuronikuru "chronicle"
/kæ/ ⟨ca⟩; ⟨cha⟩; ⟨ka⟩ ka; kya ンザス Kanzasu "Kansas"; メラ kamera "camera"; キャメロン Kyameron "Cameron"; キャンディー kyandī "candy"; キャプテン kyaputen "captain"
/ks/ ⟨cc⟩; ⟨cs⟩; ⟨chs⟩; ⟨cks⟩; ⟨ks⟩; ⟨khs⟩; ⟨x⟩; ⟨xe⟩ kus; kkus; kis; kish kkusu; kisu メキシコ Mekishiko "Mexico"; テキサス Tekisasu "Texas"; テキスtekisuto "text"; プロキシ purokishi "proxy"; タキシード takishīdo "tuxedo"; シックス shikkusu "six", "sicks"; コンプレックス konpurekkusu "complex"
/kʃ/ ⟨cti⟩; ⟨xi⟩ kush コネクション konekushon "connection", "connexion"
/kʃuəl/ ⟨xual⟩ kusharu; kushuaru バイセクシャル baisekusharu, バイセクシュアル baisekushuaru "bisexual"
/kw/ ⟨cho⟩; ⟨cqu⟩; ⟨qu⟩ ku; kuw; kw; k オーク kuōku, ォーク kwōku "quark"; イーン kuīn, ィーン kwīn "queen"; クワイア kuwaia "choir"; スコール sukōru "squall"; ターコイズ koizu "turquoise"
/l/ ⟨l⟩; ⟨le⟩; ⟨ll⟩ r r ru ループ rūpu "loop"; ボー ru "ball"; ブリー burī "bully"
/m/ ⟨m⟩; ⟨mb⟩; ⟨me⟩; ⟨mm⟩; ⟨mn⟩ m m; nm mu; n メイ Mei "May"; サモン samon "summon"; ゲー mu "game"; ラranpu "lamp", "lump", "ramp", "rump"; ナバー nan "number"; ガンマ ganma "gamma"; ボ bomu "bomb"; オータ ōtamu "autumn"
/n/ ⟨n⟩; ⟨nd⟩; ⟨ne⟩; ⟨nn⟩ n n; nn n; nu ナイ nain "nine"; ファ fan "fan"; バナナ banana "banana"; アンナ Anna "Anna"; エ enu "N"; カンニング kanningu "cunning"; ハサム hansam "handsome"; ハカチーフ hankachīfu "handkerchief"
/nju(ː)/ /nu(ː)/ ⟨new⟩; ⟨neu⟩; ⟨nu⟩ nyū ニュー nyū "new"; ニュートロン nyūtoron "neutron"
/njʊə(ɹ)/ /nʊɹ/ ⟨newr⟩; ⟨neur⟩; ⟨nur⟩; ⟨nure⟩ nyūr ニューロン nyūron "neuron"
/ŋ/; /ŋɡ/ ⟨n⟩; ⟨ng⟩ ng n; ngu シンガー singā "singer"; フィンガー fingā "finger"; リrinku "link"; リング ringu "ring"; バーミンガム Bāmingamu, バーミングハム Bāminguhamu "Birmingham"; チューイガム chūin gamu "chewing gum"; ワシトン Washinton "Washington"; ブーメラ būmeran "boomerang"
/ɔː/ ⟨al⟩; ⟨au⟩; ⟨aw⟩; ⟨oa⟩; ⟨ough⟩ ō; ou; o トーク tōku "talk"; オーストラリア Ōsutoria "Austria"; クロー kurō, クロウ kurou "claw", "craw"; ストロー sutorō "straw"; ストロベリー sutoroberī "strawberry"
/ɔːl/ ⟨al⟩; ⟨aul⟩; ⟨awl⟩ ōr ōru; oru; aru クローラー kuōrā "crawler"; オルタナティブ orutanatibu "alternative"; ワルツ warutsu "waltz"; アサルト asaruto "assault"
/ɔː(ɹ)/ /ɔːɹ/ ⟨ar⟩; ⟨aur⟩; ⟨oar⟩; ⟨or⟩; ⟨our⟩; ⟨wor⟩ ō(r); oru; oa; ā ボード bōdo "board"; コース kōsu "course"; フォー fō "four"; ストーム sutōmu "storm"; トルネード torunēdo "tornado"; ボーテックス bōtekkusu, ボルテックス borutekkusu "vortex"; ノルウェー Noru "Norway"; ウォー wō "war"; オア oa "or", "oar"; ダイナソー dainasō, ダイノソー dainosō "dinosaur"; コーラス kōrasu "chorus"; ソード sōdo "sword"; ワープ wāpu "warp"; ホグワーツ Hoguwātsu "Hogwarts"
⟨oor⟩; ⟨ore⟩ oa コア koa "core"; フォア foa "fore"; ドア doa "door"; フロア furoa "floor"
/ɔɪ/ ⟨eu⟩; ⟨oi⟩; ⟨oy⟩ oi コイン koin "coin"; トイ toi "toy"
Exception: ボーイ bōi "boy"
/p/ ⟨p⟩; ⟨pe⟩; ⟨ph⟩; ⟨pp⟩ p p; pp pu; ppu パック pakku "pack"; トップ toppu "top"; ランクトン purankuton "plankton"; ルーフ purūfu "proof"
/ɹ/; /(ɹ)/ /ɹ/ ⟨lo⟩; ⟨r⟩; ⟨re⟩; ⟨rh⟩; ⟨rps⟩; ⟨rr⟩; ⟨rt⟩ r r omitted; ru ラム ramu "ram", "RAM", "rum"; テリー Terī "Terry"; リズム rizumu "rhythm"; バー "bar"; カリフォニア Kariforunia "California"; アー āru "R", "are"
/ˌɹiːˌɪ/ ⟨rei⟩ rii; ryi; ri リインカーネーション riinkānēshon , リィンカーネーション ryinkānēshon, ンカーネーション rinkānēshon, ンカーネイション rinkāneishon, ンカネーション rinkanēshon "reincarnation"
/s/ ⟨'s⟩; ⟨c⟩; ⟨ce⟩; ⟨s⟩; ⟨s'⟩; ⟨sc⟩; ⟨se⟩; ⟨ss⟩; ⟨st⟩; ⟨sw⟩ s; sh s; ss; sh; ssh su; ssu サンド sando "sand"; シンク shinku "sink", "cinque"; メッセンジャー messenjā "messenger"; ケーシング shingu "casing"; キ kisu, キッス kissu "kiss"; キャッスkyassuru "castle"; トップ sutoppu "stop"; ラッシュ surasshu "slash"; セント sento "cent"; マッスmassuru "muscle"; クリ Kurisumasu "Christmas"
Exception: チュー shichū "stew"
/sjuː/ /suː/ ⟨su⟩ shū コンシューマー konshū "consumer"
/ʃ/ ⟨ch⟩; ⟨che⟩; ⟨ci⟩; ⟨s⟩; ⟨sc⟩; ⟨sch⟩; ⟨sh⟩; ⟨si⟩; ⟨sti⟩; ⟨ti⟩ sh sh; ssh shu; sshu シップ shippu "ship"; クラッシャー kurasshā "crusher"; フラッシュ furasshu "flash", "flush"; シュラウド shuraudo "shroud"; ディメンション dimenshon "dimension"; アクション akushon "action"; イグニッション igunisshon "ignition"; スペシャル supesharu "special"
/ʃuəl/ ⟨sual⟩ sharu; shuaru コンセンシャル konsensharu "consensual"
/t/ ⟨bt⟩; ⟨ct⟩; ⟨pt⟩; ⟨t⟩; ⟨te⟩; ⟨th⟩; ⟨tt⟩; ⟨tte⟩ t; ch; ts t; tt; ts to; tto; tsu; ttsu; do テープ tēpu "tape"; インフィニinfiniti "infinity"; チップ chippu "tip"; チーム chīmu "team"; スチーム suchīmu "steam"; チケット chiketto, ィケット tiketto, テケ teketsu "ticket"; ツアー ts "tour"; ツー tsū, トゥー tū "two", "to"; タイタン Taitan "Titan"; スケー sukēto "skate"; ヒッティング hittingu "hitting"; カーゥーン tūn "cartoon"; キャット kyatto, キャッツ kyattsu "cat"; シャ shatsu "shirt"; ピーナッツ pīnattsu, ピーナ pīnatsu, ピーナット pīnatto "peanut"; フルー furūtsu "fruit"; スー tsu, スート to "suit"; ランプ torampu "trump"; バbatoru "battle"; テムズ Temuzu, テームズ Tēmuzu "Thames"; コネチカット Konechikatto "Connecticut"; アドバンス adobansuto, アドバンス adobansudo "advanced"
/tjuː/ /tuː/ ⟨tew⟩; ⟨tu⟩ chū; chuw; tyū チューナー chū "tuner"; チューchūba, テューtyūba "tuba"; スチュワード suchuwādo "steward"
/ts/ ⟨t's⟩; ⟨ts⟩; ⟨tts⟩ tsu; ttsu キャッツ kyattsu "cats"; イッツ ittsu "it's", "its"
/tʃ/ ⟨ch⟩; ⟨tch⟩ ch ch; tch chi; tchi チケン chiken, チッケン chikken "chicken"; キッチェン kitchen "kitchen"; マッチ matchi "match"
/tʃʊə(ɹ)/ /tʃʊɹ/ ⟨ture⟩ chua マチュア machua "mature"
/tʃuəl/ ⟨tual⟩ charu; chuaru バーチャル charu, バーチュアル chuaru "virtual"
/θ/ ⟨th⟩; ⟨the⟩ s; sh s; ss; sh; ssh; j su; ssu ソー Sō "Thor"; シーフ shīfu "thief"; バルーム basurūmu "bathroom"; レッド sureddo "thread"; ゴッサム Gossamu "Gotham"; アメシスト ameshisuto, アメジスト amejisuto "amethyst"
/ʊ/ ⟨oo⟩; ⟨u⟩ u ブック bukku "book"; ブル buru "bull"
/ʊə(ɹ); /ɔː(ɹ)/ /ʊɹ/ ⟨oor⟩; ⟨our⟩; ⟨ure⟩ uar; ūr ua; ūa; uā ムーア mūa "moor"; シュア shua "sure"; ツアー ts "tour"; ツーリスト tsūrisuto "tourist"; ミズーリ Mizūri "Missouri"
/u(ː)/ ⟨ew⟩; ⟨o⟩; ⟨oe⟩; ⟨oo⟩; ⟨ou⟩; ⟨ough⟩; ⟨ue⟩; ⟨ui⟩ ū; u ゥー dū "do"; コクーン kokūn "cocoon"; クルー kurū "crew"; シュー shū "shoe"; スープ sūpu "soup"; スルー surū "through"; ブルーマー burū, ブルマー buru "bloomer"; ジュース jūsu "juice"; ブイ bui "buoy"
Exceptions: ドリトル Doritoru "Dolittle"; スタジオ sutajio "studio"; コークスクリュー kōkusukur "corkscrew"; アコースティック akōsutikku "acoustic"
/v/ ⟨ph⟩; ⟨v⟩; ⟨ve⟩; ⟨w⟩ b; v b; v bu; vu バイキング Baikingu, ァイキング Vaikingu "Viking"; ラ rabu, ラ ravu "love"; スティーSutīvun "Stephen"
/ʌ/ ⟨o⟩; ⟨oo⟩; ⟨ou⟩; ⟨u⟩ a; o マフィン mafin, マッフィン maffin "muffin"; ブラッド buraddo "blood"; プラス purasu "plus"; カミング kamingu "coming"; マンスリー mansurī "monthly"; パンチ panchi, ポンチ ponchi "punch"; モダン modan "modern"; コロンビア Koronbia "Columbia"; トンネル tonneru "tunnel"; フロント furonto "front"; モンク monku "monk"; モンキー monkī "monkey"; ロンドン Rondon "London"
/w/ ⟨w⟩; ⟨ou⟩ u; w; omitted u; w ェン Guwen "Gwen"; スェーデン Suwēden "Sweden"; ォーム wōmu "warm"; ワーム wāmu "worm"; ツイン tsuin "twin"; ジャガー jagā "jaguar"; ペンギン pengin "penguin"; ティンクル tinkuru "twinkle"; サンドイッチ sandoitchi, サンドィッチ sandowitchi "sandwich"; セーター sētā "sweater"; アェイクン aweikun, アエイクン aueikun "awaken"
⟨wh⟩ how; ho; u; w ホワイト howaito "white"; ホワッツ howattsu "what's"; エール hoēru "whale"; イール hoīru "wheel"; イップ hoippu, イップ uippu, ィップ wippu "whip"; ィート wīto "wheat"
/wʊ/ ⟨wo⟩; ⟨woo⟩ u; ū ッド uddo "wood"; ウーマン ūman "woman"
/z/ ⟨'s⟩; ⟨s⟩; ⟨sc⟩; ⟨se⟩; ⟨ss⟩; ⟨z⟩; ⟨ze⟩; ⟨zz⟩ z; j z; zz; j; jj zu; zzu; su ズーム zūmu "zoom"; ジッパー jippā "zipper"; ライジング raijingu "rising"; クレージ kurējī "crazy"; フェイ feizu "phase"; パpazuru "puzzle"; ディジー dijī, ディィー dizī "dizzy"; ポゼッション pozesshon "possession"; ミズーリ Mizūri "Missouri"; ニュー nyūsu "news"; ブルー burūsu "blues"; フェアリー fearīzu, フェアリー fearīsu "fairies"; ゼット zetto, zi "Z"
/ʒ/ ⟨g⟩; ⟨ge⟩; ⟨si⟩; ⟨ti⟩; ⟨zi⟩ j テレビジョン terebijon "television"; イクエージョン ikuējon "equation"; ブレージャーburējā "brazier"
/ʒuəl/ ⟨sual⟩ juaru ジュアル bijuaru "visual"

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ See ja:コンピューター
  2. ^ Saiga Archived 2017-09-30 at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ "外来語の表記:文部科学省".
  4. ^ "■米国規格(ANSI Z39.11-1972)―要約". Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2011-01-24.
  5. ^ "■英国規格(BS 4812:1972)―要約". Archived from the original on 2013-06-03. Retrieved 2011-01-24.
  6. ^ ローマ字文の手ほどき: 標準式ローマ字書き日本語の書き方 Archived 2015-09-24 at the Wayback Machine.