Transfer of sovereignty over Macau

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Transfer of sovereignty over Macau
Lisbonagreement.jpg
Sino-Portuguese Lisbon Agreement, which was signed in 1987
Date(s)20 December 1999
Location(s)Macau
ParticipantsChina China
Portugal Portugal

The transfer of sovereignty of Macau from Portugal to the People's Republic of China (PRC) occurred on 20 December 1999.

Macau was settled by Portuguese merchants in 1535, during the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644 CE) and was subsequently under various degrees of Portuguese rule until 1999. Portugal's involvement in the region was formally recognised by the Qing in 1749. The Portuguese governor João Maria Ferreira do Amaral, emboldened by the First Opium War and the Treaty of Nanking, attempted to annex the territory, expelling Qing authorities in 1846, but was assassinated.[1] After the Second Opium War, the Portuguese government, along with a British representative, signed the 1887 Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking that gave Portugal perpetual colonial rights to Macau on the condition that Portugal would cooperate in efforts to end the smuggling of opium.[1]

After the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, and the transfer of China's seat to the PRC at the United Nations in 1971, foreign minister Huang Hua appealed to the UN Special Committee on Decolonization to remove Macau (and Hong Kong) from its list of colonies, preferring bilateral negotiations ending in a return of the territory, rather than the independence of the territory as was implied by its inclusion on the list.

On 25 April 1974, a group of left-wing Portuguese officers organized a coup d'état, overthrowing the right-wing ruling government that had been in power for 48 years. The new government began to transition Portugal to a democratic system and was committed to decolonization. The new Portuguese government carried out de-colonization policies, and proposed Macau's handover to China in 1978.[2] The Chinese government rejected this proposal, believing that an early transfer of Macau would impact relations with Hong Kong.[2]

On 31 December 1975, the Portuguese government withdrew its remaining troops from Macau. On 8 February 1979, the Portuguese government decided to break off diplomatic relations with the Republic of China, and established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China the next day. Both Portugal and the People's Republic of China recognized Macau as Chinese territory. The colony remained under Portuguese rule until 20 December 1999, when it was transferred to China.

Negotiations[edit]

On 20 May 1986, the People's Republic of China, along with Portugal, officially announced that talks on Macanese affairs would take place in Beijing on 30 June 1986. The Portuguese delegation arrived in Beijing in June, and was welcomed by the Chinese delegation led by Zhou Nan.[3][4]

The talks consisted of four sessions, all held in Beijing:

  • The first conference: 30 June – 1 July 1986
  • The second conference: 9 – 10 September 1986
  • The third conference: 21 – 22 October 1986
  • The fourth conference: 18 – 23 March 1987

During the negotiations, Portuguese representatives offered to return Macau in 1985, but Chinese representatives rejected that year (as well rejecting previous requests for 1967, 1975, and 1977). China requested 1997, the same year as Hong Kong, but Portugal refused. 2004 was suggested by Portugal, as well as 2007 as that year would mark the 450th anniversary of Portugal renting Macau. However, China insisted for a year before 2000 as the Sino-British Joint Liaison Group in Hong Kong would be dissolved in 2000 as envisioned in 1986 (the Joint Liaison Group would be dissolved in 1999).[5] Eventually the year 1999 was agreed upon.[6]

On 13 April 1987, the Joint Declaration on the Question of Macau by the governments of the People's Republic of China and the Portuguese Republic was formally signed by the Prime Ministers of both governments in Beijing.[7]

Transition Period (1987-1999)[edit]

The twelve years between the signing of the "Sino-Portuguese Declaration" on 13 April 1987 and the transfer of sovereignty on 20 December 1999 were known as "the transition".

On 15 January 1988, the Chinese Foreign Affairs Department announced the Chinese members of the groups that would begin the talk on the issues of Macau during the transition. On 13 April, the "Draft of the Basic Law of the Macau Special Administrative Region Committee" was established during the seventh National People's Congress, and on 25 October, the committee convened the first conference, in which they passed the general outline of the draft and the steps, and decided to organise the "Draft of the Basic Law of Macau Special Administrative Region Information Committee".[8] On 31 March 1993, the National People's Congress passed the resolution on the Basic Law of Macau, which marked the beginning of the latter part of the transition.[9]

Transfer[edit]

The People's Liberation Army enters Macau for the first time

In the afternoon of 19 December 1999, the 127th Portuguese Governor of Macau Vasco Joaquim Rocha Vieira lowered the flags in Macau, which was the prelude of the ceremony for the establishment of the Macau Special Administrative Region.[10] The official transfer of sovereignty was held at midnight on that day at the Cultural Centre of Macau Garden. The ceremony began in the evening and ended at dawn of 20 December.

The evening of 19 December began with dragon and lion dances. These were followed by a slideshow of historical events and features of Macau, which included a mixture of the religions and races of the East and the West, and the unique society of native Portuguese born in Macau. In the final performance, 422 children who represented the 422 years of Portuguese history in Macau were presented along with several international stars to perform the song "Praise for Peace".

Aftermath[edit]

After the transfer of the sovereignty of Macau to China, the Macau Special Administrative Region, the Legislative Assembly and the Judiciary were all put into practice accordingly under the regulation of the Basic Law.

The introduction of the Individual Visit Scheme policy made it easier for Chinese mainland residents to travel back and forth. In 2005 alone, there were more than 10 million tourists from mainland China, which made up 60% of the total number of tourists in Macau. The income from the gambling houses in Macau reached almost US$5.6 billion.[11] On 15 July 2005, the Historic Centre of Macau was listed as a World Cultural Heritage site. The increasing development of tourism became a major factor in the rapid development of the economy of Macau.

For Portugal, the transfer of the sovereignty of Macau to China marked the end of the Portuguese Empire and its decolonisation process and also the end of European imperialism in China & Asia.[12]

Before and after handover[edit]

Unchanged after 20 December 1999 Changed after 20 December 1999
  1. Portuguese remains an official language.[13] per Decreto-Lei n.º 455/91, p. 67 of BO N.º: 2/1992</ref> Public signs are bilingual in Portuguese and Traditional Chinese, although signs may also include English.[14] However, many schools teach in Cantonese in parallel with Mandarin and Portuguese.
  2. The legal system remains separate from that of mainland China, broadly based on the Portuguese civil system, with some Portuguese judges continuing to serve.[15]
  3. Macau retained the pataca as its currency, which remained the responsibility of the Monetary Authority of Macau, and pegged to the Hong Kong dollar.[16] However, the Bank of China began issuing banknotes in 1995.[17]
  4. The border with the mainland, while now known as the boundary, continues to be patrolled as before, with separate immigration and customs controls.[18]
  5. Macau citizens are still required to apply for a Mainland Travel Permit, in order to visit mainland China.[19]
  6. Citizens of mainland China still do not have the right of abode in Macau, except if he/she was born in Macau (before or after the establishment of the SAR).[20] Instead, they had to apply for a permit to visit or settle in Macau from the PRC government.[21]
  7. Macau continues to operate as a separate customs territory from mainland China.[22]
  8. It remains an individual member of various international organizations, such as APEC and WTO.[23]
  9. Macau continued to negotiate and maintain its own aviation bilateral treaties with foreign countries and territories.[24] These include flights to Taiwan.[25]
  10. Macau remains an individual member of sporting organizations such as FIFA.[26] However, the Sports and Olympic Committee of Macau, China, while a member of the Olympic Council of Asia, is not a member of the International Olympic Committee.[27]
  11. It continues to drive on the left unlike Mainland China, all of which has driven on the right since 1946, or Portugal and most other Portuguese colonies, which switched to the right in 1928.[28] Vehicle registration plates continued to follow the old Portuguese format, with white characters on a black plate.[29] This had been discontinued in Portugal in 1992.[30]
  12. Macau-registered vehicles can travel to and from mainland China, but require special cross-border plates, similar to those of Guangdong.[31]
  13. Macau citizens continue to have easier access to many countries, including those in Europe and North America, with Macau SAR passport holders having visa-free access to 117 other countries and territories.[32]
  14. Foreign nationals, including Portuguese citizens, are allowed to hold high-level positions in the administration, except the office of Chief Executive; those who will apply for Chief Executive position will have to be naturalized as Chinese.[33] This was in contrast to Hong Kong, where such positions were restricted to citizens of the SAR.[34]
  15. Members of the existing Legislative Assembly, who had been elected in 1996, remained in office until 2001, although those who had been appointed by the Governor were replaced by those appointed by the incoming Chief Executive.[35]
  16. Foreign nationals, including Portuguese citizens, are still allowed to stand for directly elected seats in the Legislative Assembly.[36] This is in contrast to Hong Kong, where foreign nationals can only stand for indirectly elected seats in the Legislative Council.[37]
  17. Macau continues to have more political freedoms than mainland China, with the holding of demonstrations and annual memorials to commemorate the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 in Senado Square.[38] However, pro-democracy politicians and academics from Hong Kong were refused entry.[39]
  18. It continues to have more freedom of the press than mainland China despite the growing influence of Beijing and Hong Kong journalists being refused entry.[40]
  19. Macau continues to have its own civic groups participating in the political system.[41] These are separate from the Communist-led United Front on the mainland.[42]
  20. It also continues to have more religious freedoms, with the Roman Catholic Diocese of Macau remaining under the jurisdiction of the Holy See, instead of the Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association on the mainland.[43] However, the Falun Gong spiritual practice has faced restrictions.[44]
  21. Macau retains a separate international dialling code (853) and telephone numbering plan from that of the mainland.[45] Calls between Macau and the mainland still require international dialling.[46]
  22. It retains different technical standards from mainland China, such as British-style electrical plugs.[47] However, Macau would later adopt the digital TV standard devised in mainland China, instead of DVB-T, replacing PAL-I for TV transmissions.[48]
  23. Macau retains a separate ISO 3166 code, MO.[49] It also retains a top-level domain, .mo.[50] However, the Chinese code CN-92 was also used.[51]
  24. It retains its own separate postal services, with Correios de Macau operating separately from China Post.[52] Macau was not made part of the Chinese postcode system, nor did it introduce a postcode system of its own.[53]
  25. Portuguese-influenced place names remain unchanged, although their unrelated Chinese equivalents are already in use; for example, Avenida Almeida Ribeiro is known as San Ma Lou or "new street of horses".[54]
  26. Portuguese monuments remain, although the statue of former Governor João Maria Ferreira do Amaral was taken down in 1992.[55] The statue is now located at the Bairro da Encarnação, Lisbon, Portugal, where it was placed in December 1999.[56]
  27. The floor on the ground level continues to be officially referred to by the Portuguese abbreviation R/C (rés-do-chão).[57]
  1. The Chief Executive of Macau became the head of government, elected by a selection committee with 300 members, who mainly are elected from among professional sectors and business leaders in Macau.[58] The Governor was appointed by Portugal.[59]
  2. The former Governor's Palace is now known as the Government Headquarters.[60]
  3. The Court of Final Appeal became the highest court of appeal in Macau.[61] This replaced the Superior Court of Justice, established in April 1993.[62] Appeals to the Court of Appeal of the Judiciary District of Lisbon ceased in 1999.[63]
  4. All public offices now fly the flags of the PRC and the Macau SAR.[64] The Flag of Portugal now flies only outside the Portuguese Consulate-General and other Portuguese premises.[65]
  5. The People's Liberation Army established a garrison in Macau, the first military presence there since the Portuguese military garrison had been withdrawn following the Carnation Revolution in 1974.[66]
  6. The Central People's Government is now formally represented in Macau by a Liaison Office.[67] This has been established in 1987 as a branch of Xinhua News Agency, when Macau was under Portuguese administration.[68] Before 1987, it was informally represented by the Nanguang trading company.[69]
  7. The Macau SAR Government is now formally represented in Beijing by the Office of the Government of the Macau Special Administrative Region.[70]
  8. Elsewhere, the Macau SAR Government is now represented by Macau Economic and Trade Offices in Lisbon (Portugal), Brussels (European Union), Geneva (World Trade Organization) and Taipei (Taiwan).[71]
  9. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China is represented in Macau by a Commissioner.[72]
  10. The Municipalities of Macau and the Ilhas, which had been retained provisionally following the transfer of sovereignty, were abolished and replaced by the Civic and Municipal Affairs Bureau with effect from 1 January 2002.[73]
  11. Portugal was now represented in Macau by the Portuguese Consulate-General, also accredited to Hong Kong.[74] This had responsibility for matters relating to Portuguese nationals. However, residents of Macau born after 3 October 1981 were no longer entitled to Portuguese nationality.[75][76]
  12. The Taipei Trade and Tourism Office, the de facto mission of Taiwan, was renamed the Taipei Trade and Cultural Office, and was allowed to issue visas in 2002.[77] It was later renamed the Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Macau in 2011.[78]
  13. The words "República Portuguesa" no longer appear on postage stamps, which now display the words "Macau, China".[79] The Portuguese coat of arms had already been removed from Macanese pataca banknotes and coins issued since 1988.[80]
  14. The Macau Police badge now displays the Macau SAR emblem.[81]
  15. The Portuguese honours system was replaced by a local system, with the Grand Medal of Lotus Flower as the highest award.[82]
  16. Public holidays changed, with Macau SAR Establishment Day being introduced and Portuguese-inspired occasions, such as Republic Day and Freedom Day, being abolished.[83] PRC National Day had been made a public holiday in 1981.[84]
  17. Macau's aircraft registration prefix changed from Portugal's CS to B, as used by mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong.[85][86]
  18. The Portuguese national anthem A Portuguesa, is no longer played after closedown on television stations. The Chinese national anthem, March of the Volunteers, is now played instead.
  19. A giant golden statue of a lotus, erected in a public space outside the Macau Forum named Lotus Square, was presented by the State Council of the People's Republic of China to commemorate the return of Macau to Chinese sovereignty.[87]
  20. The University of Macau was relocated to a new campus on Hengqin Island in 2009.[88] This was under the jurisdiction of the Macau SAR government, which had leased a plot of land for M$1.2 billion until 2049.[89]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Mayers, William Frederick (1902). Treaties Between the Empire of China and Foreign Powers (4th ed.). Shanghai: North-China Herald. pp. 156–157.
  2. ^ a b Naked Tropics: Essays on Empire and Other Rogues, Kenneth Maxwell, Psychology Press, 2003
  3. ^ 朱杏桂. "澳門回歸". 中葡文化交流. 4月13日,中國國務院總理趙紫陽葡萄牙總理席爾瓦分別代表兩國政府在北京正式簽署《中華人民共和國政府和葡萄牙共和國政府關於澳門問題的聯合聲明》,確認中華人民共和國政府將於1999年12月20日對澳門恢復行使主權。
  4. ^ 《澳門歷史的見證:中葡關於澳門問題聯合聲明簽署儀式圖輯》. 澳門日報出社. January 2000.
  5. ^ http://www.scmp.com/topics/sino-british-joint-liaison-group
  6. ^ Cheng, Kris (27 November 2017). "Declassified: Portugal may have hoped for a 2004 Handover of Macau to China, instead of 1999". Hong Kong Free Press HKFP.
  7. ^ Portugal, China Sign Accord to Return Tiny Macao to Chinese Control in 1999, United Press International, Los Angeles Times, 14 April 1987
  8. ^ 关于澳门特别行政区基本法起草委员会名单(草案)的说明[permanent dead link],中国人大网,1988年08月29日
  9. ^ 澳門中華總商會:澳門主權交接祖國大事記 Archived 2005-01-13 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ 澳督府降旗:澳門移交開始,BBC中文網1999年12月19日
  11. ^ "Voice of America (Chinese): The gambling income in Macau is catching up with Las Vegas".
  12. ^ "港澳比較調查顯示:澳門市民比香港市民支持政府". www.hkupop.hku.hk.
  13. ^ Portuguese makes comeback in Macau "portuguese-makes-comeback-macau Portuguese makes comeback in Macau" Check |url= value (help). SCMP. SCMP. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  14. ^ Limited, Alamy. "Stock Photo - China, Macau, sign board of city street". Alamy.
  15. ^ The Legal and Judiciary System of Macao,People's Daily, 15 December 2009
  16. ^ Currency in Circulation in Macao, Monetary Authority of Macau
  17. ^ Bank of China Authorized to Issue HKD and MOP (1987–1992), Bank of China
  18. ^ Police expects visitor increase with round-the-clock borders, Macau Daily Times, 17 December 2014
  19. ^ LCQ1: Immigration clearance and entry visas to the Mainland for non-Chinese Hong Kong permanent residents with foreign passports, Government Information Centre, 15 February 2012
  20. ^ Certificate of Entitlement to the Right of Abode in the Macao SAR, Identification Services Bureau
  21. ^ Exit and Entry Administration Law of the People's Republic of China, Office of the Commissioner of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
  22. ^ EU Relations with Macao Special Administrative Region (SAR), European External Action Service
  23. ^ Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Direcção dos Serviços de Economia
  24. ^ Macao and Lao initialed new Air Services Agreement to liberalize the air transport market between the two places, Civil Aviation Authority of Macao SAR, 24 November 2010
  25. ^ Restrictions on Taiwan- Macau flights to be lifted, Taipei Times, 18 February 2014
  26. ^ "Member Association - Macau - FIFA.com". www.fifa.com.
  27. ^ "Sports Olympic Committee of Macau,China". www.macauolympic.org.
  28. ^ Strolling in Macau: A Visitor's Guide to Macau, Taipa, and Coloane, Steven K. Bailey, ThingsAsian Press, 2007, page 177
  29. ^ "Macau Cars Number Plates stock image. Image of number - 21973313". Dreamstime.
  30. ^ Circular com matrículas antigas, E-Konomista
  31. ^ Blurring Boundary – Macao, Hengqin draw closer with 24-hour border crossing, Macauhub, 6 June 2015
  32. ^ "The following countries/territories have agreed to grant visa-free access or visa-on-srrival to the holders of Macao (SAR) passport" (PDF).
  33. ^ Hong Kong & Macau, Andrew Stone, Chung Wah Chow, Reggie Ho, Lonely Planet, 2008, page 309
  34. ^ Keesing's Record of World Events, Volume 37, Longman, 1991
  35. ^ Europa World Year Book 2004, Taylor & Francis, 2004, pages 1179–80
  36. ^ Portuguese elected to Macao Parliament, The Portugal News, 1 October 2005
  37. ^ Lau in passport battle, The Independent, 16 December 1997
  38. ^ A quarter of a century: Remembering Tiananmen, Macau Business Daily, 5 June 2015
  39. ^ HK concern over Macau entry ban, BBC News Online, 4 March 2009
  40. ^ Macau threatens press freedom, South China Morning Post, 3 May 2012
  41. ^ Think tank says co-op between govt, civic groups 'important'. Macau News, 21 July 2014
  42. ^ Ms. Huang Ling, Member of Standing Committee of Xiamen Municipal Committee and Director of the United Front Work Department, and entourages visited CityU, City University of Macau, 24 November 2015
  43. ^ Pope appoints Hong Kong bishop to Macau, Vatican Radio, 16 January 2016
  44. ^ Religious Freedom in Asia, Edward P. Lipton Nova Publishers, 2002, page 101
  45. ^ Macao, China, International Telecommunication Union, 19 February 2013
  46. ^ China Law, Issues 1–6, 2008, page 50
  47. ^ Fast Facts in China, Frommer's
  48. ^ World Radio TV Handbook, WRTH Publications Ltd, 2008, page 642
  49. ^ ISO Online Browsing Platform: MO
  50. ^ "MONIC.Mo".
  51. ^ ISO Online Browsing Platform: CN
  52. ^ About Us, Correios de Macau
  53. ^ Macao, China, Universal Postal Union
  54. ^ First Globalization: The Eurasian Exchange, 1500–1800, Geoffrey C. Gunn, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2003, page 270
  55. ^ Controversial Macao statue pulled down, United Press International, 28 October 1992
  56. ^ "João Ferreira do Amaral". Sítio da Câmara Municipal de Lisboa. Lisbon City Hall. Retrieved 1 October 2017. A mudança da administração do território macaense implicou a transferência da estátua para Lisboa, que foi inaugurada no Bairro da Encarnação, em Dezembro de 1999.
  57. ^ Household LPG – Macao Consumer Council,
  58. ^ Role of the Chief Executive Basic Law of the Macao Special Administrative Region
  59. ^ Political Handbook of the World 1997, Arthur S. Banks, Alan J. Day, Thomas C. Muller, Springer, 1997, page 687
  60. ^ Government Headquarters to open to the public during the weekend, Government Information Bureau, 15 October 2015
  61. ^ Commercial and Economic Law in Macau, Jianhong Fan, Alexandre Dias Pereira, Kluwer Law International, page 23
  62. ^ Trade Policy Review: Macau, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 1994, page 15
  63. ^ Macao's judicial system being improved: court chief, China Daily, 10 December 2014
  64. ^ Limited, Alamy. "Stock Photo - China Macau Government Headquarters". Alamy.
  65. ^ Limited, Alamy. "Stock Photo - The Portuguese consulate building in Macau, China". Alamy.
  66. ^ Portugal's Last Days in Macao Marred by Chinese Troop Issue, The New York Times, 23 March 1999
  67. ^ Renamed Xinhua becomes a new force in Hong Kong's politics, Taipei Times, 21 January 2000
  68. ^ Asia Yearbook, Far Eastern Economic Review, 1988
  69. ^ Portuguese behavior towards the political transition and the regional integration of Macau in the Pearl River Region, Moisés Silva Fernandes, in Macau and Its Neighbours in Transition, Rufino Ramos, José Rocha Dinis, D.Y.Yuan, Rex Wilson, University of Macau, Macau Foundation, 1997, page 48
  70. ^ Macao SAR Government to Set up Office in Beijing, 26 July 2000
  71. ^ External Economic & Trade Relations > Trade Representative Offices, Macao Economic Services
  72. ^ "Office of the Commissioner of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China in Macao Special Administrative Region". www.fmcoprc.gov.mo.
  73. ^ "Typical Architectures". m.cityguide.gov.mo.
  74. ^ "Consulado Geral de Portugal em Macau e Hong Kong". www.cgportugal.org.
  75. ^ Official Journal of the European Communities: Information and notices, Volume 33, Issues 134–148, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1990, page 140
  76. ^ Wallace, Charles P. (21 July 1989). "Portugal Offers Citizenship to Many in Last Colonial Outpost : Macao, a 'Poor Relation,' Draws Envy of Hong Kong". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  77. ^ Macao allows Taipei office to issue visas to Chinese, Taipei Times, 7 January 2002
  78. ^ MAC minister launches renamed Taiwan office in Macau,Taiwan Today, 20 July 2011
  79. ^ Filatelia | Macau, selo a selo, Revista Macau, 13 April 2015
  80. ^ Macao Magazine, November 2012, page 31
  81. ^ Sobre o CPSP > História, Corpo de Polícia de Segurança Pública (CPSP) da Região Administrativa Especial de Macau
  82. ^ Decorations, Medals and Certificates of Merit List for 2014, Government Information Bureau, 11 November 2014
  83. ^ The Europa Year Book, Volume 2, Taylor & Francis, 1991, page 2219
  84. ^ China Perspectives, Issues 33–38, C.E.F.C., 2001, page 58
  85. ^ Jane's All the World's Aircraft, pages 48–49
  86. ^ Airlines of Asia: Since 1920, Putnam, 1997, page 277
  87. ^ Lotus Square, Macao Government Tourism Office
  88. ^ Achieving the unthinkable: University of Macau in Hengqin, China Daily, August 2013
  89. ^ University of Macau Moves Over the China Border, The New York Times, 14 July 2013

External links[edit]