Transfer of sovereignty over Macau

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Transfer of sovereignty over Macau
澳門回歸
Transferência da soberania de Macau
Lisbonagreement.jpg
Sino-Portuguese Lisbon Agreement, which was signed in 1887
Date(s)20 December 1999; 23 years ago (1999-12-20)
Location(s)Macau
ParticipantsChina China
Portugal Portugal
Transfer of sovereignty over Macau
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese澳門回歸
Simplified Chinese澳门回归
Portuguese name
PortugueseTransferência da soberania de Macau

The transfer of sovereignty of Macau (Chinese: 澳門回歸; Portuguese: Transferência da soberania de Macau) from Portugal to the People's Republic of China (PRC) occurred on 20 December 1999.

Macau was settled by Portuguese merchants in 1557, during the Ming dynasty and was subsequently under various degrees of Portuguese rule until 1999. Portugal's involvement in the region was formally recognised by the Qing dynasty in 1749. The Portuguese governor João Maria Ferreira do Amaral, emboldened by the First Opium War and the Treaty of Nanking, attempted to annex the territory, expelling Qing authorities in 1846, but was assassinated.[1] After the Second Opium War, the Portuguese government, along with a British representative, signed the 1887 Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking that gave Portugal perpetual colonial rights to Macau on the condition that Portugal would cooperate in efforts to end the smuggling of opium.[1]

After the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, and the transfer of China's seat to the PRC at the United Nations in 1971, then Foreign Minister Huang Hua appealed to the UN Special Committee on Decolonization to remove Macau (and Hong Kong) from its list of colonies, preferring bilateral negotiations ending in a return of the territory, rather than the independence of the territory as was implied by its inclusion on the list.

On 25 April 1974, a group of left-wing Portuguese officers organized a coup d'état in Lisbon, overthrowing the right-wing dictatorship that had controlled Portugal for 48 years. The new government began to transition Portugal to a democratic system and was committed to decolonization. The government carried out decolonization policies, and proposed Macau's handover to China in 1978.[2] The Chinese government rejected this proposal, believing that an early transfer of Macau would impact relations with Hong Kong.[2][page needed]

On 31 December 1975, the Portuguese government withdrew its remaining troops from Macau. On 8 February 1979, the Portuguese government decided to break off diplomatic relations with the Republic of China, and established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China the next day. Both Portugal and the People's Republic of China recognized Macau as Chinese territory. The colony remained under Portuguese rule until 20 December 1999, when it was transferred to China and became the Macau Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. This marked the end of nearly 600 years of the European colonial era.

Negotiations[edit]

On 20 May 1986, the People's Republic of China, along with Portugal, officially announced that talks on Macanese affairs would take place in Beijing on 30 June 1986. The Portuguese delegation arrived in Beijing in June, and was welcomed by the Chinese delegation led by Zhou Nan.[3][4]

The talks consisted of four sessions, all held in Beijing:

  • The first conference: 30 June – 1 July 1986
  • The second conference: 9–10 September 1986
  • The third conference: 21–22 October 1986
  • The fourth conference: 18–23 March 1987

During the negotiations, Portuguese representatives offered to return Macau in 1985[dubious ], but Chinese representatives rejected that year (as well rejecting previous requests for 1967, 1975, and 1977). China requested 1997, the same year as Hong Kong, but Portugal refused. 2004 was suggested by Portugal, as well as 2007 as that year would mark the 450th anniversary of Portugal renting Macau. However, China insisted for a year before 2000 as the Sino-British Joint Liaison Group in Hong Kong would be dissolved in 2000 as envisioned in 1986 (the Joint Liaison Group would be dissolved in 1999).[5] Eventually the year 1999 was agreed upon.[6]

On 13 April 1987, the Joint Declaration on the Question of Macau by the governments of the People's Republic of China and the Portuguese Republic was formally signed by the Prime Ministers of both governments in Beijing.[7]

Transition period (1987–1999)[edit]

The twelve years between the signing of the "Sino-Portuguese Declaration" on 13 April 1987 and the transfer of sovereignty on 20 December 1999 were known as "the transition".

On 15 January 1988, the Chinese Foreign Affairs Department announced the Chinese members of the groups that would begin the talk on the issues of Macau during the transition. On 13 April, the "Draft of the Basic Law of the Macau Special Administrative Region Committee" was established during the seventh National People's Congress, and on 25 October, the committee convened the first conference, in which they passed the general outline of the draft and the steps, and decided to organise the "Draft of the Basic Law of Macau Special Administrative Region Information Committee".[8] On 31 March 1993, the National People's Congress passed the resolution on the Basic Law of Macau, which marked the beginning of the latter part of the transition.[9]

Transfer[edit]

The People's Liberation Army enters Macau for the first time

In the afternoon of 19 December 1999, the 127th Portuguese Governor of Macau Vasco Joaquim Rocha Vieira lowered the flags in Macau, which was the prelude of the ceremony for the establishment of the Macau Special Administrative Region.[10] The official transfer of sovereignty was held at midnight on that day at the Cultural Centre of Macau Garden. The ceremony began in the evening and ended at dawn of 20 December.

The evening of 19 December began with dragon and lion dances. These were followed by a slideshow of historical events and features of Macau, which included a mixture of the religions and races of the East and the West, and the unique society of native Portuguese born in Macau. In the final performance, 442 children who represented the 442 years of Portuguese history in Macau were presented along with several international stars to perform the song "Praise for Peace".

Aftermath[edit]

After the transfer of the sovereignty of Macau to China, the Macau Special Administrative Region, the Legislative Assembly and the Judiciary were all put into practice accordingly under the regulation of the Basic Law.

The introduction of the Individual Visit Scheme policy made it easier for Chinese mainland residents to travel back and forth. In 2005 alone, there were more than 10 million tourists from mainland China, which made up 60% of the total number of tourists in Macau. The income from the gambling houses in Macau reached almost US$5.6 billion.[11] On 15 July 2005, the Historic Centre of Macau was listed as a World Cultural Heritage site. The increasing development of tourism became a major factor in the rapid development of the economy of Macau.

For Portugal, the transfer of the sovereignty of Macau to China marked the end of the Portuguese Empire and its decolonisation process and also the end of European imperialism in China and Asia.[12]

Before and after handover[edit]

Unchanged after 20 December 1999[edit]

Changed after 20 December 1999[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Mayers, William Frederick (1902). Treaties Between the Empire of China and Foreign Powers (4th ed.). Shanghai: North-China Herald. pp. 156–157.
  2. ^ a b Naked Tropics: Essays on Empire and Other Rogues Archived 17 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, Kenneth Maxwell, Psychology Press, 2003
  3. ^ 朱杏桂. "澳門回歸". 中葡文化交流. Archived from the original on 11 February 2021. Retrieved 18 July 2020. 4月13日,中國國務院總理 趙紫陽葡萄牙總理 席爾瓦分別代表兩國政府在北京正式簽署《中華人民共和國政府和葡萄牙共和國政府關於澳門問題的聯合聲明》,確認中華人民共和國政府將於1999年12月20日對澳門恢復行使主權。
  4. ^ 《澳門歷史的見證:中葡關於澳門問題聯合聲明簽署儀式圖輯》. 澳門日報出社. January 2000. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
  5. ^ "Sino-British Joint Liaison Group | South China Morning Post". Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  6. ^ Cheng, Kris (27 November 2017). "Declassified: Portugal may have hoped for a 2004 Handover of Macau to China, instead of 1999". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 9 October 2019. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  7. ^ Portugal, China Sign Accord to Return Tiny Macao to Chinese Control in 1999 Archived 14 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, United Press International, Los Angeles Times, 14 April 1987
  8. ^ 关于澳门特别行政区基本法起草委员会名单(草案)的说明[permanent dead link],中国人大网,1988年08月29日
  9. ^ 澳門中華總商會:澳門主權交接祖國大事記 Archived 2005-01-13 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ 澳督府降旗:澳門移交開始 Archived 13 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine,BBC中文網1999年12月19日
  11. ^ "Voice of America (Chinese): The gambling income in Macau is catching up with Las Vegas". Archived from the original on 17 January 2023. Retrieved 3 December 2006.
  12. ^ "港澳比較調查顯示:澳門市民比香港市民支持政府". hkupop.hku.hk. Archived from the original on 7 July 2019. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  13. ^ "portuguese-makes-comeback-macau Portuguese makes comeback in Macau". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 3 September 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  14. ^ Decreto-Lei n.º 455/91 Archived 9 February 2019 at the Wayback Machine, p. 67 of BO N.º: 2/1992
  15. ^ Limited, Alamy. "Stock Photo - China, Macau, sign board of city street". Alamy. Archived from the original on 19 July 2020. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  16. ^ The Legal and Judiciary System of Macao Archived 14 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine,People's Daily, 15 December 2009
  17. ^ Currency in Circulation in Macao Archived 4 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Monetary Authority of Macau
  18. ^ Bank of China Authorized to Issue HKD and MOP (1987–1992) Archived 11 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Bank of China
  19. ^ Police expects visitor increase with round-the-clock borders Archived 8 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Macau Daily Times, 17 December 2014
  20. ^ LCQ1: Immigration clearance and entry visas to the Mainland for non-Chinese Hong Kong permanent residents with foreign passports Archived 9 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Government Information Centre, 15 February 2012
  21. ^ Certificate of Entitlement to the Right of Abode in the Macao SAR Archived 22 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Identification Services Bureau
  22. ^ Exit and Entry Administration Law of the People's Republic of China Archived 31 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Office of the Commissioner of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
  23. ^ EU Relations with Macao Special Administrative Region (SAR) Archived 25 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, European External Action Service
  24. ^ Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Archived 13 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Direcção dos Serviços de Economia
  25. ^ Macao and Lao initialed new Air Services Agreement to liberalize the air transport market between the two places Archived 12 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Civil Aviation Authority of Macao SAR, 24 November 2010
  26. ^ Restrictions on Taiwan- Macau flights to be lifted Archived 9 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Taipei Times, 18 February 2014
  27. ^ "Member Association - Macau". FIFA. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019.
  28. ^ "Sports Olympic Committee of Macau,China". macauolympic.org. Archived from the original on 28 August 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  29. ^ "The following countries/territories have agreed to grant visa-free access or visa-on-srrival to the holders of Macao (SAR) passport" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 February 2016. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  30. ^ Hong Kong & Macau Archived 17 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, Andrew Stone, Chung Wah Chow, Reggie Ho, Lonely Planet, 2008, page 309
  31. ^ Keesing's Record of World Events Archived 17 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, Volume 37, Longman, 1991
  32. ^ Europa World Year Book 2004 Archived 17 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, Taylor & Francis, 2004, pages 1179–80
  33. ^ Portuguese elected to Macao Parliament Archived 25 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Portugal News, 1 October 2005
  34. ^ Lau in passport battle Archived 27 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Independent, 16 December 1997
  35. ^ A quarter of a century: Remembering Tiananmen Archived 9 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Macau Business Daily, 5 June 2015
  36. ^ HK concern over Macau entry ban, BBC News Online, 4 March 2009
  37. ^ Macau threatens press freedom Archived 3 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine, South China Morning Post, 3 May 2012
  38. ^ Think tank says co-op between govt, civic groups 'important' Archived 10 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Macau News, 21 July 2014
  39. ^ Ms. Huang Ling, Member of Standing Committee of Xiamen Municipal Committee and Director of the United Front Work Department, and entourages visited CityU Archived 4 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine, City University of Macau, 24 November 2015
  40. ^ Pope appoints Hong Kong bishop to Macau Archived 20 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Vatican Radio, 16 January 2016
  41. ^ Religious Freedom in Asia Archived 17 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, Edward P. Lipton Nova Publishers, 2002, page 101
  42. ^ Strolling in Macau: A Visitor's Guide to Macau, Taipa, and Coloane Archived 17 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, Steven K. Bailey, ThingsAsian Press, 2007, page 177
  43. ^ "Macau Cars Number Plates stock image. Image of number - 21973313". Dreamstime. Archived from the original on 17 July 2020. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  44. ^ Circular com matrículas antigas Archived 12 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, E-Konomista
  45. ^ Blurring Boundary – Macao, Hengqin draw closer with 24-hour border crossing Archived 14 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Macauhub, 6 June 2015
  46. ^ Macao, China Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, International Telecommunication Union, 19 February 2013
  47. ^ China Law Archived 17 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, Issues 1–6, 2008, page 50
  48. ^ Fast Facts in China Archived 9 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Frommer's
  49. ^ World Radio TV Handbook Archived 17 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, WRTH Publications Ltd, 2008, page 642
  50. ^ "ISO Online Browsing Platform: MO". Archived from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  51. ^ "MONIC.Mo". Archived from the original on 17 January 2023. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  52. ^ "ISO Online Browsing Platform: CN". Archived from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  53. ^ About Us Archived 29 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Correios de Macau
  54. ^ Macao, China[permanent dead link], Universal Postal Union
  55. ^ First Globalization: The Eurasian Exchange, 1500–1800 Archived 17 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, Geoffrey C. Gunn, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2003, page 270
  56. ^ Controversial Macao statue pulled down Archived 11 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, United Press International, 28 October 1992
  57. ^ "João Ferreira do Amaral". Sítio da Câmara Municipal de Lisboa. Lisbon City Hall. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 1 October 2017. A mudança da administração do território macaense implicou a transferência da estátua para Lisboa, que foi inaugurada no Bairro da Encarnação, em Dezembro de 1999.
  58. ^ Household LPG – Macao Consumer Council Archived 6 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine,
  59. ^ Role of the Chief Executive Archived 5 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine Basic Law of the Macao Special Administrative Region
  60. ^ Political Handbook of the World 1997 Archived 17 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, Arthur S. Banks, Alan J. Day, Thomas C. Muller, Springer, 1997, page 687
  61. ^ Government Headquarters to open to the public during the weekend Archived 19 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Government Information Bureau, 15 October 2015
  62. ^ Commercial and Economic Law in Macau, Jianhong Fan, Alexandre Dias Pereira, Kluwer Law International, page 23
  63. ^ Trade Policy Review: Macau Archived 17 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 1994, page 15
  64. ^ Macao's judicial system being improved: court chief Archived 9 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, China Daily, 10 December 2014
  65. ^ Limited, Alamy. "Stock Photo - China Macau Government Headquarters". Alamy. Archived from the original on 17 July 2020. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  66. ^ Limited, Alamy. "Stock Photo - The Portuguese consulate building in Macau, China". Alamy. Archived from the original on 17 July 2020. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  67. ^ Portugal's Last Days in Macao Marred by Chinese Troop Issue Archived 18 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, 23 March 1999
  68. ^ Renamed Xinhua becomes a new force in Hong Kong's politics Archived 19 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Taipei Times, 21 January 2000
  69. ^ Asia Yearbook Archived 17 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, Far Eastern Economic Review, 1988
  70. ^ Portuguese behavior towards the political transition and the regional integration of Macau in the Pearl River Region Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Moisés Silva Fernandes, in Macau and Its Neighbours in Transition, Rufino Ramos, José Rocha Dinis, D.Y.Yuan, Rex Wilson, University of Macau, Macau Foundation, 1997, page 48
  71. ^ Macao SAR Government to Set up Office in Beijing Archived 25 December 2004 at the Wayback Machine, 26 July 2000
  72. ^ External Economic & Trade Relations > Trade Representative Offices Archived 16 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Macao Economic Services
  73. ^ "Office of the Commissioner of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China in Macao Special Administrative Region". fmcoprc.gov.mo. Archived from the original on 4 November 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  74. ^ "Typical Architectures". m.cityguide.gov.mo. Archived from the original on 17 July 2020. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  75. ^ "Consulado Geral de Portugal em Macau e Hong Kong". cgportugal.org. Archived from the original on 9 April 2016. Retrieved 27 March 2016.
  76. ^ Official Journal of the European Communities: Information and notices Archived 17 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, Volume 33, Issues 134–148, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1990, page 140
  77. ^ Wallace, Charles P. (21 July 1989). "Portugal Offers Citizenship to Many in Last Colonial Outpost : Macao, a 'Poor Relation,' Draws Envy of Hong Kong". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 15 January 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  78. ^ Macao allows Taipei office to issue visas to Chinese Archived 3 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Taipei Times, 7 January 2002
  79. ^ MAC minister launches renamed Taiwan office in Macau Archived 16 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine,Taiwan Today, 20 July 2011
  80. ^ Filatelia | Macau, selo a selo Archived 19 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Revista Macau, 13 April 2015
  81. ^ Macao Magazine Archived 3 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, November 2012, page 31
  82. ^ Sobre o CPSP > História Archived 2 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Corpo de Polícia de Segurança Pública (CPSP) da Região Administrativa Especial de Macau
  83. ^ Decorations, Medals and Certificates of Merit List for 2014 Archived 15 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Government Information Bureau, 11 November 2014
  84. ^ The Europa Year Book Archived 17 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, Volume 2, Taylor & Francis, 1991, page 2219
  85. ^ China Perspectives Archived 17 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, Issues 33–38, C.E.F.C., 2001, page 58
  86. ^ Jane's All the World's Aircraft Archived 17 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, pages 48–49
  87. ^ Airlines of Asia: Since 1920 Archived 17 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, Putnam, 1997, page 277
  88. ^ Lotus Square, Macao Government Tourism Office
  89. ^ Achieving the unthinkable: University of Macau in Hengqin Archived 30 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine, China Daily, August 2013
  90. ^ University of Macau Moves Over the China Border Archived 18 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, 14 July 2013

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]