Transgender people and religion
|Part of a series on|
The relationship between transgender people and religion varies widely around the world. Religions range from condemning any gender variance to honoring transgender people as religious leaders. Views within a single religion can vary considerably, as can views between different faiths.
- 1 Abrahamic religions
- 2 African religious beliefs
- 3 Australian Aboriginal
- 4 Chinese religions
- 5 Classical myth
- 6 Confucianism
- 7 Indian religions
- 8 Neopagan religion
- 9 Pacific Islands
- 10 Shinto
- 11 Further reading
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
There are many different interpretations of creation stories in Abrahamic religions in which God creates people, "male and female". This is sometimes interpreted as a divine mandate against challenging the gender binary and also for challenging the gender binary.
In the Baha'i Faith, transgender people can gain recognition in their gender if they have medically transitioned under the direction of medical professionals, and if they have sex reassignment surgery (SRS). After SRS, they are considered transitioned, and may have a Baha'i marriage.
The New Testament presents eunuchs (Greek eunochos, similar to Hebrew saris) as acceptable candidates for evangelism and baptism, as demonstrated in the account of the conversion of an Ethiopian eunuch. While answering questions about marriage and divorce, Jesus says that "there are eunuchs who have been so from birth, and there are eunuchs who have been made eunuchs by others, and there are eunuchs who have made themselves eunuchs for the sake of the kingdom of heaven." Discussion has occurred about the significance of the selection of the Ethiopian eunuch as being an early gentile convert to Christianity: the inclusion of a eunuch, representing a sexual minority, in the context of the time.
Some Christian denominations accept transgender people as members and clergy:
- In 2003 the United Church of Christ General Synod called for full inclusion of transgender persons.
- In 2005 Sarah Jones became the first openly transgender person to be ordained by the Church of England as a priest: the first transperson to minister in the Church of England was Carol Stone, who had been ordained in 1978 and transitioned in 2000.
- In 2008, the United Methodist Church Judicial Council ruled that openly transgender pastor Drew Phoenix could keep his position. At the UMC General Conference the same year, several petitions that would have forbidden transgender clergy and added anti-transgender language to the Book of Discipline were rejected. In 2017, the United Methodist Church commissioned its first non-binary clergy member, a transgender non-binary deacon named M Barclay. Also in 2017, the Unitarian Universalist Association's General Assembly voted to create inclusive wordings for non-binary, genderqueer, gender fluid, agender, intersex, two-spirit and polygender people, replacing the words "men and women" with the word "people." Of the six sources of the living tradition, the second source of faith, as documented in the bylaws of the denomination, now includes “Words and deeds of prophetic people which challenge us to confront powers and structures of evil with justice, compassion, and the transforming power of love.” Also, Joy Everingham was the Methodist Church in Great Britain's first openly transgender minister.
- In 2012 the Episcopal Church in the United States approved a change to their nondiscrimination canons to include gender identity and expression.
- In 2013 Shannon Kearns became the first openly transgender person ordained by the North American Old Catholic Church. He was ordained in Minneapolis.
- In 2014 Megan Rohrer became the first openly transgender leader of a Lutheran congregation (specifically, Grace Evangelical Lutheran Church of San Francisco.) 
- In 2017, the General Synod of the Church of England passed a motion stating, "That this Synod, recognising the need for transgender people to be welcomed and affirmed in their parish church, call on the House of Bishops to consider whether some nationally commended liturgical materials might be prepared to mark a person's gender transition."
In contrast, a 2000 document from the Catholic Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith concludes that the sex-change procedures do not change a person's gender in the eyes of the Church. "The key point", that document states, "is that the transsexual surgical operation is so superficial and external that it does not change the personality. If the person was a male, he remains male. If she was female, she remains female." The document also concludes that a "sex-change" operation could be morally acceptable in certain extreme cases, but that in any case transgender people cannot validly marry. Pope Benedict XVI denounced gender studies, warning that it blurs the distinction between male and female and could thus lead to the "self-destruction" of the human race. He warned against the manipulation that takes place in national and international forums when the term "gender" is altered. "What is often expressed and understood by the term 'gender,' is definitively resolved in the self-emancipation of the human being from creation and the Creator", he warned. "Man wants to create himself, and to decide always and exclusively on his own about what concerns him." The Pontiff said this is humanity living "against truth, against the creating Spirit". As well, in 2015, the Vatican declared that transgender Catholics cannot become godparents, stating in response to a transgender man's query that transgender status "reveals in a public way an attitude opposite to the moral imperative of solving the problem of sexual identity according to the truth of one's own sexuality" and that, "[t]herefore it is evident that this person does not possess the requirement of leading a life according to the faith and in the position of godfather and is therefore unable to be admitted to the position of godfather or godmother." Catholics, nevertheless, have held a range of positions regarding transgender issues. Theologian James Whitehead, for instance, has said, “The kind of transition that trans people are talking about is very similar to the journey of faith through darkness and desert that people have been making for thousands of years.” The Roman Catholic Church has been involved in the outreach to LBGT community for several years and continues doing so through Franciscan urban outreach centers, namely, the "Open Hearts" outreach in Hartford, CT.
In 2006 Albert Mohler, then president of the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, said "Only God has the right to determine gender", adding, "any attempt to alter that creation is an act of rebellion against God." He also stated, "Christians are obligated to find our definitions … in the Bible. What the activists want to call 'sex-reassignment surgery' must be seen as a form of bodily mutilation rather than gender correction. The chromosomes will continue to tell the story...Gender is not under our control after all. When a nation's moral rebellion comes down to this level of confusion, we are already in big trouble. A society that can't distinguish between men and women is not likely to find moral clarity in any other area of life." In 2014, the Southern Baptist Convention approved a resolution at its annual meeting stating that "God's design was the creation of two distinct and complementary sexes, male and female" and that "gender identity is determined by biological sex, not by one's self-perception". Furthermore, the resolution opposes hormone therapy, transition-related care, and anything else that would "alter one's bodily identity", as well as opposing government efforts to "validate transgender identity as morally praiseworthy". Instead, the resolution asks transgender people to "trust in Christ and to experience renewal in the Gospel".
Unitarian Universalism, a liberal religion with roots in liberal Christianity, became the first denomination to accept openly transgender people as full members with eligibility to become clergy (in 1979), and the first to open an Office of Bisexual, Gay, Lesbian, and Transgender Concerns (in 1973). In 1988 the first openly transgender person was ordained by the Unitarian Universalist Association. In 2002 Rev. Sean Dennison became the first openly transgender person in the Unitarian Universalist ministry called to serve a congregation; he was called to South Valley UU Society, Salt Lake City, UT.
The Roman Catholic Church's catechism, or teaching, has no comprehensive or specific doctrine on transgender people. However, the church does traditionally equate the anatomy given at birth with gender, stating that going though processes to medically change one's body is self mutilation and sinful, "dishonoring" God's creation of that body. The church says that gender dysphoria and same sex attraction are a consequence of original sin, and that it is sinful if individuals act upon these things. Pope Francis has said "biological sex and the socio-cultural role of sex (gender) can be distinguished but not separated,” furthering the belief that the sex an individual was born with is their assigned gender.
This section relies too much on references to primary sources. (April 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Although the church has no official doctrine on transgender individuals, the LGBTQ community has tried to form and influence positive beliefs into the church’s teachings and beliefs. DignityUSA is an example of an LGBTQ organization advocating for change in the Catholic church's teaching. DignityUSA believes that LBGTQ individuals can and should "express our sexuality and/or gender identities and expressions in a loving, life-affirming manner that is in keeping with Christ's teaching," promoting the belief that one can be both Catholic and LGBTQ. When addressing transgender individuals specifically, DignityUSA claims they have the same goal of promoting acceptance and belonging in the church. When addressing the Trump administration's military ban on transgender individuals, Linda Roberts, treasurer of DignityUSA, Co-Chair of the group's Transgender Support Caucus and identifying transgender women, claims that the military ban is a violation of the Equal Protection Clause and later states "we [DignityUSA] stand with those fighting for the right to serve and continue their careers openly in their true gender. They must be safe, free from harassment, and supported by their command structure.” With organizations like DignityUSA, transgender and other LGB individuals are making grounds in the church to change its views and making it possible for the LGBTQ community to practice the faith fully and without discrimination.
In Islamic literature, the word mukhannathun is used to describe "effeminate men". The term has sometimes been equated to transgender women, gay men, members of a third gender, or intersex individuals, though it does not neatly fit into any of those categories.
The treatment of mukhannathun varied throughout early Islamic history, and the meaning of the term took on new dimensions over time. In some eras, men deemed mukhannathun were persecuted and castrated, while in others they were celebrated as musicians and entertainers. In later years, the term came to be associated with the receptive partner in gay sexual practices, as homosexuality was seen as an extension of effeminacy. In the late medieval era, several Islamic scholars held that mukhannathun who had innate feminine mannerisms were not blameworthy as long as they did not violate religious laws concerning sexual morality.
Due to Ayatollah Khomeini issuing a fatwa allowing sex reassignment surgery for intersex and transgender individuals, Iran carries out more sex change operations than any other nation in the world except for Thailand. It is sanctioned as a supposed "cure" for homosexuality, which is punishable by death under Iranian law. The government even provides up to half the cost for those needing financial assistance and a sex change is recognised on the birth certificate.
The term saris, (סָרִיס) generally translated to English as "eunuch" or "chamberlain", appears 45 times in the TaNaKh. It frequently refers to a trusted but gender-variant person who was delegated authority by a powerful person. It is unclear whether most were in fact castrated. In Isaiah 56 God promises eunuchs who keep the Sabbath and hold fast to his covenant that he will build an especially good monument in heaven for them, to make up for their childlessness.
Tumtum (טומטום in Hebrew, meaning "hidden") is a term that appears in Jewish Rabbinic literature and usually refers to a person whose sex is unknown, because their genitalia are covered or "hidden". A tumtum is not defined as a separate gender, but rather a state of doubt.
Orthodox Judaism asserts that sex/gender is an innate and eternal category based on verses in the Book of Genesis about Adam and Eve and the creation of maleness and femaleness. Sex-change operations involving the removal of genital organs are forbidden on the basis of the prohibition against “anything which is mauled, crushed, torn or cut” (Lev. 22:24). A further prohibition in Deut. 22:5, proscribes not only cross-dressing but any action uniquely identified with the opposite sex, and this would also apply to an operation to transform sexual characteristics. There are, nevertheless, Orthodox authorities who recognize the efficacy of sex reassignment surgery (SRS) in changing halachic sex designation. In 2007 Joy Ladin became the first openly transgender professor at an Orthodox institution (Stern College for Women in Manhattan).
Hasidic Judaism currently makes no place for trans people, as everything in the community is determined by gender roles. Most Hasidic Jews are barely aware of trans people, and the topic is never discussed altogether. The first person to come out as trans in a Hasidic community was trans activist and writer Abby Stein, who is also a direct descendant of Hasidic Judaism's founder the Baal Shem Tov. When Stein came out she was shunned by her family, and received much scorn from the Hasidic community.
Conservative Judaism has mixed views on transgender people. In 2003 the Committee on Jewish Law and Standards approved a rabbinic ruling that concluded that sex reassignment surgery (SRS) is permissible as a treatment of gender dysphoria, and that a transgender person's sex status under Jewish law is changed by SRS. There have not yet been any openly transgender rabbis or rabbinical students affiliated with Conservative Judaism. But the Jewish Theological Seminary, one of three Conservative movement schools, openly admits students of all sexual orientations and gender identities for rabbinical training and ordination. Also, Emily Aviva Kapor, who had been ordained privately by a "Conservadox" rabbi in 2005, came out in 2012, thus becoming the first openly transgender female rabbi in all of Judaism. In 2016 the Rabbinical Assembly, which is the international association of Conservative rabbis, passed a "Resolution Affirming the Rights of Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming People".
Reform Judaism has expressed positive views on transgender people. Reform Judaism's Central Conference of American Rabbis first addressed the issue of transgender Jews in 1978, when they deemed it permissible for a person who has undergone sex reassignment surgery (SRS) to be married according to Jewish tradition. In 1990, the Central Conference of American Rabbis declared that people who have undergone sex reassignment surgery (SRS) may convert to Judaism. In 2002 at the Reform seminary Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion in New York, Rabbi Margaret Wenig organized the first school-wide seminar at any rabbinical school which addressed the psychological, legal, and religious issues affecting people who are transsexual or intersex. In 2003 Reuben Zellman became the first openly transgender person accepted to Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion; he was ordained there in 2010. Also in 2003, the Union for Reform Judaism retroactively applied its pro-rights policy on gays and lesbians to the transgender and bisexual communities, issuing a resolution titled, "Support for the Inclusion and Acceptance of the Transgender and Bisexual Communities."  Also in 2003, Women of Reform Judaism issued a statement describing their support for human and civil rights and the struggles of the transgender and bisexual communities, and saying, "Women of Reform Judaism accordingly: Calls for civil rights protections from all forms of discrimination against bisexual and transgender individuals; Urges that such legislation allows transgender individuals to be seen under the law as the gender by which they identify; and Calls upon sisterhoods to hold informative programs about the transgender and bisexual communities."  In 2006 Elliot Kukla, who had come out as transgender six months before his ordination, became the first openly transgender person to be ordained by the Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion. In 2007 the Union for Reform Judaism issued a new edition of Kulanu, their resource manual for gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender inclusion, which for the first time included a blessing sanctifying the sex-change process. It was written by Elliot Kukla at the request of a friend of his who was transgender. Also in 2007, David Saperstein of the Religious Action Center called for a trans-inclusive Employment Non-Discrimination Act. In 2015 the Union for Reform Judaism passed a "Resolution on the Rights of Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming People" with 9 points calling for securing and defending the rights of transgender and gender non-confirming people to respectful and equitable treatment and affirming its own commitment to continued pursuit of same.
Reconstructionist Judaism has expressed positive views on transgender people. In 2003 the Reform rabbi Margaret Wenig organized the first school-wide seminar at the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College which addressed the psychological, legal and religious issues affecting people who are transsexual or intersex. In 2013 the Reconstructionist Rabbinical Association issued a resolution stating in part, "Therefore be it resolved that the RRA [Reconstructionist Rabbinical Association] directs its executive director and board to move forward, in cooperation with the RRC [Reconstructionist Rabbinical College] and all relevant associated entities, in educating RRA members about issues of gender identity, to urge the Reconstructionist movement to similarly educate its constituency and to adopt policies that will do all that is possible to provide full employment opportunities for transgender and gender nonconforming rabbis, and to explore how the Reconstructionist movement can best influence the wider Jewish and non-Jewish world to [be] welcoming and inclusive of all people, regardless of gender identity."  In 2017, the Reconstructionist Rabbinical Association approved a resolution committing themselves to work for "full inclusion, acceptance, appreciation, celebration and welcome of people of all gender identities in Jewish life and in society at large"; the resolution also "strongly advocates for the full equality of transgender, non-binary, and gender non-conforming people and for equal protections for people of all gender identities under the law, at all levels of government, in North America and Israel."
In 1998, after she won the Eurovision song competition, a serious religious debate was held as to whether, and how, Dana International (a transgender woman) should pray in a synagogue. One rabbinical authority concluded that Dana should be counted in a minyan as a man, but could not sing in front of the community since she was also a woman, according to the rabbi, and that would violate the Orthodox rule of kol isha.
In January 2015 a transgender Jewish woman, Kay Long, was denied access to the Western Wall, first by the women's section and then by the men's section. Long's presence was prevented by "modesty police" at women’s section who are not associated with the rabbi of the Western Wall or the site administration. They are a group of female volunteers who guard the entrance to the women’s section preventing entry to visitors who are not dressed to their idea of Orthodox modesty standards for women. The director of Jerusalem’s Open House, a community center for the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community, noted that Long’s experience was not unique. "Gender separation at the Western Wall is harmful for transgender people. This is not the first story that we know of with transgender religious people that wanted to go to the Western Wall and pray and couldn’t," said Elinor Sidi, who expected that the battle for access to the Western Wall for the LGBTQ community would be a long and difficult one. It was later asserted that Kay Long would have been permitted in the women's section except for her clothing. "It was not an issue of her gender, but the way she was dressed."
Several non-denominational Jewish groups provide resources for transgender people. Hillel: The Foundation for Jewish Campus Life published an LGBTQ Resource Guide in 2007. Jewish Mosaic has published interpretations of Jewish texts that affirm transgender identities. Keshet, an LGBT Jewish advocacy group, has assisted American Jewish day schools with properly accommodating transgender students.
African religious beliefs
The Akan people of Ghana have a pantheon of gods that includes personifications of celestial bodies. These personification manifest as androgynous and transgender deities, and include Abrao (Jupiter), Aku (Mercury), and Awo (Moon).
According to the creation myth of the Dogon people the first 8 people on the earth, 4 men and 4 women, started the 8 Dogon families through a special arrangement with Amman where they could fertilize themselves, being dual and bisexual.
The Rainbow Serpent Ungud has been described as androgynous. Shaman identify their erect penises with Ungud, and his androgyny inspires some to undergo ceremonial penile subincision. Angamunggi is another Rainbow Serpent, worshipped as a "giver of life".
Other Australian mythological beings include Labarindja, blue-skinned wild women or "demon women" with hair the colour of smoke. Stories about them show them to be completely uninterested in romance or sex with men, and any man forcing his attention upon them could die, due the "evil magic in their vaginas". They are sometimes depicted as gynandrous or intersex, having both a penis and a vagina. Ths is represented in ritual by having their part played by men in women's clothes.
Eunuchs, male-bodied people castrated for royal services, existed in China from 1700 BC until 1924 AD. This social role had a long history, with a continuous community, and a highly public role. Before being castrated a Chinese eunuch would be asked if he "would ever regret being castrated" and if the answer was "no" then surgery would take place. It's an open question as to who would answer this way and why. The historical status of Chinese eunuchs was a curious mixture of extreme weakness and great power. The allure of power and influence were sometimes offered as excuses for the decision to become a eunuch. It has been speculated that Chinese monarchs trusted their eunuchs because the inability to have children left them with no motivation to seek power or riches. It is not clear to what extent eunuchs were transgender or otherwise gender-variant, but the history of eunuchs in Chinese culture is important to its views on transgender people.
The patron god is Dionysus, a god gestated in the thigh of his father Zeus, after his mother died from being overwhelmed by Zeus's true form. Aphroditus was an androgynous Aphrodite from Cyprus with a religious cult in which worshipers cross-dressed, in later mythology became known as Hermaphroditus, the son of Hermes and Aphrodite who merged bodies with the water nymph Salmacis, transforming him into an androgynous being. In Phrygia there was Agdistis, a hermaphroditic being created when Zeus unwittingly impregnated Gaia. The gods feared Agdistis and Dionysus castrated her; she then became the goddess Cybele.
In addition, Norse gods were capable of changing gender at will, for example Loki, frequently disguised himself as a woman and gave birth to a foal while in the form of a white mare, after a sexual encounter with the stallion Svaðilfari. Comparison of a man to a child-bearing woman was a common insult in Scandinavia, and the implication that Loki may be bisexual was considered an insult.
Human fertility was a major aspect of Egyptian mythology, and was often entwined with the crop fertility provided by annual flooding of the river Nile. This connection was shown in iconography of Nile-gods, such as Hapi, god of the Nile, and Wadj-wer, god of the Nile Delta, who although male were depicted with female attributes such as pendulous breasts, symbolizing the fertility the river provides.
This section does not cite any sources. (July 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
One issue that Confucianism is quite clear on is the importance of filial piety with an accompanying tradition of veneration of the dead. People are supposed to respect and obey their parents, get married, and then have children to extend their family lines. Gender variant people who are physically capable of living up to this standard would be generally encouraged to enter a marital relationship, have children, and be discreet about any additional relationships (for example homosexual partners) on the side, if absolutely necessary.
In Thai Buddhism, being kathoey (an umbrella term that roughly maps to a range of things from MtF transsexualism to male homosexuality) is seen as being part of one's karma if it should be the case for a person. The response is one of "pity" rather than "blame". Kathoey are generally seen as not likely to form lasting relationships with men, and the lay explanation of their karma is that they are working out debts from adulterous behavior in past lives. In the past they disrupted marriages, and now they are doomed to never marry.
In Thailand, kathoey are still not allowed to legally become female or marry a man. Same-sex marriage is not possible in Thailand. Transgender women however can marry their European partners, if that is legislatively possible in their partner's country, and leave Thailand.
Hindu philosophy has the concept of a third sex or third gender (tritiya-prakriti – literally, "third nature"). The people in this category of sex/gender are called Hijras in Hinduism. This category includes a wide range of people with mixed male and female natures such as homosexuals, transsexuals, bisexuals, the intersexed, and so on. Such persons were not considered fully male or female in traditional Hinduism, being a combination of both. They are mentioned as third sex by nature (birth) and were not expected to behave like ordinary men and women. Hijras identify themselves as incomplete men, that they do not have the desires (for women) that other men do. This lack of desire they attribute to a "defective organ." If a Hijra is not born with a "defective" organ (and most are not), he must make it so by emasculation. They often kept their own societies or town quarters, performed specific occupations (such as masseurs, hairdressers, flower-sellers, domestic servants, etc.) and were generally attributed a semi-divine status. Their participation in religious ceremonies, especially as crossdressing dancers and devotees of certain temple gods/goddesses, is considered auspicious in traditional Hinduism. Some Hindus believe that third-sex people have special powers allowing them to bless or curse others. However, these beliefs are not upheld in all divisions of Hinduism. In Hinduism, the universal creation is honored as unlimitedly diverse and the recognition of a third sex is simply one more aspect of this understanding.
Transgender people in ancient Hindu society
This section does not cite any sources. (June 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Within the Hindu context, Hijras have always been considered a part of the third gender diaspora, and hence the term Hijra, Transgender or Third gender will be used interchangeably.
Due to their classification as third gender and being sexually neutral, Transgender people, especially the devotees of Lord Krishna, have been historically shown to bestow blessings. Being sexually neutral was considered especially auspicious in Vedic culture because the attraction between a man and woman was thought to create further attachments such as children due to procreation, and a home in terms of property, which would result in the living entities being entangled in samsara, the cycle of repeated birth and death.
The people of the third sex have had a prominent role in the arts and entertainment. Historically referred to as Nartaka, at the birth of a baby Nartaka dancers would arrive, dance and sing the name of the God Krishna and bless the baby. As per custom, they were given precious jewellery and silks by the family of the baby for their contribution.
One more example of Transgender people being portrayed in Hindu history is that of Lord Arjuna being depicted as Brihannala in the Mahabharata, who was a person of third gender. Brihanalla was shown to be an instructor singing and dancing in King Virata’s court. But Lord Arjuna/ Brihanalla was first tested for his third-sex nature by assuring he had no lust for females, and would have been examined for testicles if he had been a eunuch. This is not the first example of the presence of a person of third gender in Hindu texts, but this example most pertains to the topic of third gender people and their auspiciousness.
Transgender people in contemporary Indian society
In October 2013, "India's Supreme court stated that transgenders have remained untouchable in society with restricted access to education, health care and jobs. The justices criticized the government for such discrimination during a hearing of public interest litigation filed by the National Legal Services Authority". This problem for Hijras first began during the British rule (1757-1947) with the introduction of Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code in 1860 which declared homosexuality as a crime, and had an extended listing which has declared "Transgenders as criminal elements in society".
Transgender people have been treated as outcasts within Indian society and thus have been "deprived of social and cultural prticipation for nearly two centuries." Many biologically male Hijras undergo a ritualized castration called nirva (sex reassignments). They have limited access to education, health care and public facilities and are treated as nonentities legally, which is in violation of the Constitution of India. Despite being recognized as legal citizens, only an estimated 25% of transgender people have obtained the national identification (Aadhar card). Transgender people are unable to "exercise their democratic rights in marriage, adopting/raising children and utilizing financial support system such as free and subsidized health care, surgeries and medical treatments".
There has been some support for transgender people as "The Supreme Court has directed the central government to place transgendered people in the other backward classes (OBCs) to classify their castes denoting their socially and economically disadvantaged status in society" as they fall within the classification of people as defined in Article 15 (4) of the Constitution of India. The Supreme Court of India has directed all Indian states to build separate restrooms for transgender people, and "to establish welfare agencies to enhance their health and medical needs."
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2009)
In most branches of Wicca, a person's status as trans- or cisgender is not considered an issue. Transgender people are generally magickal people, according to Karla McLaren in her Energetic Boundaries study guide. Transgender people are almost always welcomed in individual communities, covens, study groups, and circles. Many transgender people were initially attracted to Modern Paganism because of this inclusion.
However, there are some Neopagan groups that do not welcome transgender people. In some cases, this is because of the emphasis on the union of male and female, and the exclusion of transgender individuals from such practices. Also, some gender separatist groups exclude transgender people, often on the basis that non-transgender individuals share certain spiritual qualities derived from genetic or biological sex. Dianic Wicca is an example of such a separatist group.
Third gender, or gender variant, spiritual intermediaries are found in many pacific island cultures, including the bajasa of the eastern Toradja people of Sulawesi, the bantut of the Tausūg people of the south Philippines, and the bayoguin of the pre-Christian Philippines. These shamans are typically biologically male but display feminine behaviours and appearance, and are often homoerotically inclined. The pre-Christian Philippines had a polytheistic religion, which included the hermaphroditic gods Bathala and Malyari, whose names means "Man and Woman in One" and "Powerful One" respectively; these gods are worshipped by the Bayagoin.
The Big Nambas speakers of Vanuatu have the concept of divinely approved-of homoerotic relationships between men, with the older partner called the "dubut". This name is derived from the word for shark, referring to the patronage of the shark-human hybrid creator god Qat.
Among their pantheon of deities, the Ngaju people of Borneo worship Mahatala-Jata, an androgynous god. The male part of this god is Mahatala, who rules the Upper World, and is depicted as a hornbill living above the clouds on a mountain-top; the female part is Jata, who rules the Underworld from under the sea in the form of a water-snake. These two manifestations are linked via a jewel-encrusted bridge that is seen in the physical world as a rainbow. Mahatala-Jata is served by "balian", female hierodules, and basir", transgender shamans metaphorically described as "water snakes which are at the same time hornbills".
Similar transgender shamans, the manang bali (which literally means a transformed shaman from a male into a woman), are found in the Iban people in Borneo such as in Sarawak. Manang bali is the third and highest degree of shamanism after accomplishing the second degree of manang mansau "cooked shaman" and the first degree of manang mataq "uncooked shaman". The initiation ceremony for becoming a manang bali is called "Manang bangun manang enjun" which can be literally translated as the Awakened shaman, shaken shaman. After this ceremony, a manang bali dresses and acts like women and have homoerotic relationships. This makes them both the target of ridicule and respected as a spiritual intermediary. Boys fated to become manang bali may first dream of becoming a woman and also of being summoned by the god of medicine Menjaya Raja Manang or the goddess Ini Inee or Ini Andan, who is regarded the natural-born healer and the god of justice. Menjaya Raja Manang began existence as a malegod, until their brother Sengalang Burong's wife became extremely sick. This prompted Menjaya into becoming the world's first healer, allowing him to cure his sister-in-law, but this treatment also resulted in Menjaya changing into a woman or androgynous being. Menjaya was consecrated as the first manang bali by his own sister, Ini Inee Ini Andan in the first ever awakening-shaking ceremony and the first healing by a name-changing "belian" curing rite.
Shinto kami associated with same-sex love or gender variance include: shirabyōshi, female or transgender kami represented as half-human, half-snake. They are linked to Shinto priests of the same name, who are usually female (or occasionally transgender) and perform ceremonial dances in traditional men's clothing; Ōyamakui no kami, a transgender mountain spirit that protects industry and childbearing (notably enshrined in Hie Shrine); and Inari Ōkami, the kami of agriculture and rice, who is depicted as various genders, the most common representations being a young female food goddess, an old man carrying rice, and an androgynous bodhisattva. Inari is further associated with foxes and Kitsune, shapeshifting fox trickster spirits. Kitsune sometimes disguise themselves as women, independent of their true gender, in order to trick human men into sexual relations with them. Common belief in medieval Japan was that any woman encountered alone, especially at dusk or night, could be a fox.
- Dzmura, Noach (2014). Balancing on the Mechitza: Transgender in Jewish Community. North Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1-58394-971-9.
Gender Identity In Halakhic Discourse by Charlotte Fonrobert, part of Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia
Transitional Belief: Christianity as Viewed through the Lens of a Transgender Believer by Mr. Ashley Ford (Jul 12, 2013)
- Christianity and transgender people
- Homosexuality and religion
- Timeline of LGBT Jewish history
- Timeline of LGBT Mormon history
- Genesis 1:27
- Quran 75:39
- Ladin, Joy (2018). The Soul of the Stranger: Reading God and Torah from a Transgender Perspective. Chicago, Illinois: The University of Chicago Press. p. 2. ISBN 9781512602937.
- "Transsexuality". Universal House of Justice. 26 December 2002.
- Acts 8
- Matthew 19
- Rogers, Jack Bartlett (2009). Jesus, the Bible, and Homosexuality: Explode the Myths, Heal the Church. Westminster John Knox. pp. 132–135. ISBN 978-0-664-23269-6.
- "Transgender Resources for Open and Affirming Churches". UCC Open and Affirming Coalition.
- Wenjuan, Angelina (28 February 2011). "Church of England's first transsexual priest: God cares about me". JUS News. University of Sheffield. Archived from the original on 22 April 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- "TREC Speaker - Rev Sarah Jones". Trans Resource and Empowerment Centre Limited. Archived from the original on 5 March 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- "Bishop defends transsexual curate". BBC News. 24 September 2005. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- "Vicar plans sex change". BBC News. 19 June 2000. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- Bartolone, Pauline (30 October 2007). "Methodists Vote to Keep Transgender Pastor". Bryant Park Project. NPR.
- "The United Methodist Church". Transgender Christians. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- Zauzmer, Julie. "The United Methodist Church has appointed a transgender deacon". The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
- Zr. Alex Kapitan Activist, Organizer & Educator (30 June 2017). "Unitarian Universalist General Assembly Votes To Change UU Bylaws To Include Non-Binary People". Believe Out Loud. Retrieved 8 July 2017.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Joy Everingham becomes U.K. Methodist Church's first transgender minister". The Washington Times.
- Kaleem, Jaweed (9 July 2012). "Episcopal Church Takes Bold Step On Transgender Priests". The Huffington Post.
- Theisen, Scott. "Transgender Priest Ordained in Minneapolis". KSTC-TV. Archived from the original on 16 February 2013.
- Nahmod, David-Elijah (27 February 2014). "Lutherans install trans pastor". Bay Area Reporter.
- "Welcoming Transgender People". Churchofengland.org. 9 July 2017. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
- "Church of England votes to explore transgender services - BBC News". BBC News. Bbc.com. 9 July 2017. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
- Norton, John (14 January 2003). "Vatican says 'sex-change' operation does not change person's gender". Catholic News Service. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
- Norton, John (14 January 2003). "Vatican says 'sex-change' operation does not change person's gender". Catholic News Service. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
- "The Advertiser - Latest Adelaide and South Australia News - The Advertiser". www.news.com.au.
- "Pontiff Calls for "Ecology of Man" | ZENIT - The World Seen From Rome". ZENIT. 22 December 2008. Archived from the original on 24 December 2008. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
- Wofford, Taylor (2 September 2015). "Transgender Catholics Can't Be Godparents, Vatican Says". Newsweek.com. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
- Schneider, Nathan (2 March 2014). "A nun's secret ministry brings hope to the transgender community". Al Jazeera America. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
- "Open Hearts LGBT Ministry :: Community Life :: St. Patrick - St. Anthony Church and The Franciscan Center for Urban Ministry :: Hartford, CT Roman Catholic Church". www.spsact.org.
- "TransGriot". transgriot.blogspot.com.
- Roberts, Monica (15 October 2006). "TransGriot: Being True To Themselves". Transgriot.blogspot.com. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
- "Southern Baptist Convention Approves Anti-Transgender Resolution | Human Rights Campaign". Hrc.org. 10 June 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
- "Unitarian Universalist LGBTQ History & Facts". Unitarian Universalist Association. 16 May 2013. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- "Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Ministries". Unitarian Universalist Association. 9 October 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- "The Unitarian Universalist Association and Homosexuality". Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance.
- "Unitarian Universalist LGBTQ History & Facts". Unitarian Universalist Association. Unitarian Universalist Association. 21 August 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- Campaign, Human Rights. "Stances of Faiths on LGBTQ Issues: Roman Catholic Church". Human Rights Campaign. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- Catholic Answers (21 September 2016), What Does the Church Think of Transgender People?, retrieved 11 March 2019
- "Church Statements on Gender Identity". New Ways Ministry. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "For US bishops, Pope Francis brings clarity to transgender issues". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "What is Dignity? | DignityUSA". www.dignityusa.org. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
- "DignityUSA Deplores Supreme Court Ruling Allowing Transgender Military Ban". Dignity San Antonio. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
- Roughgarden, Joan (2013). Evolution's Rainbow: Diversity, Gender, and Sexuality in Nature and People. University of California Press. p. 362. ISBN 9780520957978.
- Alipour, M (2016). "Islamic shari'a law, neotraditionalist Muslim scholars and transgender sex-reassignment surgery: A case study of Ayatollah Khomeini's and Sheikh al-Tantawi's fatwas". International Journal of Transgenderism. 17:1: 91–103. doi:10.1080/15532739.2016.1250239.
- Rowson, Everett K. (October 1991). "The Effeminates of Early Medina" (PDF). Journal of the American Oriental Society. 111 (4): 671–693. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.693.1504. doi:10.2307/603399. JSTOR 603399.
- Hendricks, Muhsin (July 2006). Islam and Homosexuality (PDF). ILGA's preconference on religions: ILGA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 22 June 2007.
- Touma, Habib (1975). The Music of the Arabs. p. 135–136.
- Barford, Vanessa. "Iran's 'diagnosed transsexuals'". BBC News.
- Kukla, Elliot (2006). "Terms for Gender Diversity in Classical Jewish Texts" (PDF). Trans Torah. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- Multiple Authors (November 2016). "What guidance, if any, does Judaism offer to transgender people?". Moment. 41: 22–23 – via ProQuest.
- "Sefaria Source Sheet: More Than Just Male and Female: The Six Genders in Ancient Jewish Thought". www.sefaria.org. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- Strong's Concordance, #5631
- "The forty-five occurrences of saris in the Old Testament". Born Eunuchs Library.
- Isaiah 56
- Rosner, Fred (2003). Encyclopedia of Jewish Medical Ethics: A Compilation of Jewish Medical Law on All Topics of Medical Interest ... Feldheim Publishers. ISBN 9781583305928.
- Apple, Raymond. "Transsexuality - Ask the Rabbi". OzTorah. Retrieved 16 June 2014. See also Bleich, J. David; Rosner, Fred (2000). Jewish Bioethics. KTAV Publishing House. ISBN 9780881256628.
- Orens, Beth. "About the responsa of Rabbi Eliezer Yehuda Waldenberg, author of the Tzitz Eliezer, which are relevant to the status of transexuals". Beth Orens' Gender Pages. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- Ladin, Joy (15 March 2012). Through the door of life : a Jewish journey between genders. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 9780299287306.
- "Hot Topics Guest Speakers". Edward & Bernice Wenger Center for the Arts. Sid Jacobson Jewish Community Center. Archived from the original on 14 March 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- Katz, Brigit (23 February 2016). "Amid a shifting tide of tolerance, transgender Jews search for faith and community". New York Times. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
- Fears, Donika (18 November 2015). "I left Hasidism to become a woman". New York Post. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
- McCormick, Joseph Patrick. "This trans woman got some serious hate when she left Hasidism behind". Pink News. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
- Rabinowitz, Mayer (3 December 2003). "Status of Transsexuals". Keshet.
- "JTS :: The Rabbinical School". The Jewish Theological Seminary. Archived from the original on 15 January 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- Zeveloff, Naomi (15 July 2013). "Emily Aviva Kapor: Creating a Jewish Community for Trans Women". The Jewish Daily Forward.
- "Resolution Affirming the Rights of Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming People". The Rabbinical Assembly. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- Zauzmer, Julie. "The rabbis of Conservative Judaism pass a resolution supporting transgender rights". The Washington Post. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- "About Us". The Rabbinical Assembly. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- "Reform Devises Sex-Change Blessings". The Jewish Daily Forward. 15 August 2007. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- "137. Marriage After a Sex-Change Operation". American Reform Responsa. Central Conference of American Rabbis (CCAR). 1978. pp. 52–54. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- "Conversion and Marriage after Transsexual Surgery". CCAR Responsa. Central Conference of American Rabbis. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- "Rabbi Margaret Moers Wenig, D.D." Jewish Institute of Religion. Hebrew Union College. Archived from the original on 23 June 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- Spence, Rebecca (31 December 2008). "Transgender Jews Now Out of Closet, Seeking Communal Recognition". The Jewish Daily Forward. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- "The Reform Movement on LGBT Issues". Jewish Mosaic. Archived from the original on 11 May 2013.
- "Rabbi Zellman". Congregation Beth El. Congregation Beth El. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- Commission on Social Action of Reform Judaism (March 2003). "Support for the Inclusion and Acceptance of the Transgender and Bisexual Communities". Union for Reform Judaism. Archived from the original on 3 January 2014.
- "Transgender and Bisexual Rights - 2003". Women of Reform Judaism. Archived from the original on 16 May 2013.
- Eskenazi, Joe; Ben Harris (17 August 2007). "Blessed are the transgendered, say S.F. rabbi and the Reform movement". Jweekly. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- "Reform Jewish Leader Calls on House to Pass Transgender Inclusive Non-Discrimination Act" (Press release). Religious Action Center of Reform Judaism. 29 October 2007. Archived from the original on 15 August 2008.
- Liston, Barbara. "U.S. Reform Jews adopt sweeping transgender rights policy - Yahoo News". News.yahoo.com. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
- "Resolution on the Rights of Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming People". URJ. 20 October 2015. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
- Ott, Kate M. Sex and the Seminary: Preparing Ministers for Sexual Health and Justice (PDF). Religious Institute on Sexual Morality, Justice, and Healing, Union Theological Seminary. ISBN 978-1-893270-49-7. Retrieved 6 October 2013.
- "RRA Resolution on Gender Identity" (PDF). Reconstructionist Rabbinical Association. 12 March 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 February 2014.
- "Reconstructionist rabbis affirm full inclusion of transgender, gender-fluid Jews | Jewish Telegraphic Agency". Jta.org. 2017. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
- "the space between | Stanford prof: Talmudic rabbis were into analyzing sexuality | j. the Jewish news weekly of Northern California". Jweekly.com. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
- Transgender woman denied entry to Western Wall YNET News, January 6, 2015
- Transgender woman prevented from accessing Western Wall Haaretz, January 7, 2015
- Transgendered woman barred from Western Wall prayer Times of Israel, January 7, 2015
- "LGBTQ Resource Guide Released". Hillel: The Foundation for Jewish Campus Life. 18 December 2007.
- Kukla, Elliot; Zellman, Reuben. "TransTexts: Exploring Gender in Jewish Sacred Texts". Keshet.
- Amanda Borschel-Dan, Why Jewish communities welcome 7-year-old transgender kids, Times of Israel, 24 April 2015
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 40, "Abrao"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 47, "Aku"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 79, "Awo"
- Griaule, Marcel. Conversations with Ogotemmeli. London: Oxford, 1934. p. 297
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 243, "Mwari"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 329, "Ungud"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 58, "Angamunggi"
- Róheim (2008), p. 388 May 2014
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 211, "Labarindja"
- Jay, Jennifer W. (December 1993). "Another side of Chinese eunuch history: Castration, marriage, adoption, and burial". Canadian Journal of History. 28 (3): 459. doi:10.3138/cjh.28.3.459. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014.
- Anderson, Mary M. "Hidden Power: The Palace Eunuchs of Imperial China". Archived from the original on 27 July 2008.
- "Dionysus". Subjects in the Visual Arts. glbtq.com. 19 September 2002. Archived from the original on 12 July 2009. Retrieved 16 July 2009.
- Macrobius, Saturnalia iii.8
- Pausanias, Description of Greece vii.17.§ 5
- "Homosexuality in Viking Scandinavia". The Viking Answer Lady.
- Zimmerman, Bonnie; Haggerty, George E. (1999). The Encyclopedia of Lesbian and Gay Histories and Cultures. Taylor & Francis. p. 527. ISBN 978-0-8153-1920-7.
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p.170, "Hapy"
- Matzner, Andrew (2000). "14 Questions". Golden Scene.
- Nanda, Serena (1990). Neither Man Nor Woman: The Hijras of India. p. 137. ISBN 978-0534509033.
- Pattanaik, Devdutt (2002). The Man Who Was a Woman and Other Queer Tales from Hindu Lore. Binghamton, NY: Harrington Park Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-1560231806.
- "Chapter 3:49". The Laws of Manu. Translated by George Bühler.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Nanda, Serena (1990). Neither Man Nor Woman: The Hijras of India. p. 143. ISBN 978-0534509033.
- Wilhelm, Amara Das (2003). Tritiya-Prakriti: People of the Third Sex. Philadelphia: Xlibris. p. 110. ISBN 978-1-4535-0317-1.[self-published source]
- Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy; Hsu, Minna J. (2014). "Living on the Societal Edge: India's Transgender Realities". Journal of Religion and Health. 54 (4): 1451–1459. doi:10.1007/s10943-014-9987-z. PMID 25536925.
- "The Scoop on Gay Wicca". Wicca Spirituality: A New Wicca for a New World.
- Rabinovitch, Shelley; James Lewis (2002). The Encyclopedia of Modern Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism. Citadel Press. ISBN 978-0806524061.
- Adler, Margaret (2006). Drawing down the moon: witches, Druids, goddess-worshippers, and other pagans in America. Penguin Books. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-14-303819-1.
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 81, "Bajasa"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 82, "Bantut"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 85, "Bayoguin"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 84, "Bathala"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 225, "Malyari"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 90, "Big Nambas"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 224, "Mahatala-Jata"
- "Manangism" By the Venerable Archdeacon J. Perham
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 225, "Manang bali"
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 230, "Menjaya Raja Manang"
- Conner, Randy P.; Sparks, David Hatfield; Sparks, Mariya (1998). "Shirabyoshi". Cassell's Encyclopedia of Queer Myth, Symbol and Spirit. p. 305. ISBN 978-0-304-70423-1.
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 259, "Oyamakui"
- Smyers, Karen Ann (1999). The fox and the jewel : shared and private meanings in contemporary Japanese inari worship. Honolulu: Univ. of Hawaií Press. p. 8. ISBN 9780824820589.
- Conner & Sparks (1998), p. 203, "Kitsune"
- Tyler (1987), xlix.[full citation needed]