Transgender pregnancy

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Transgender pregnancy is the incubation of one or more embryos or fetuses by transgender people.

Trans men[edit]

Pregnancy is possible for transgender men who retain a functioning vagina, ovaries, and a uterus.[1][2][3] Regardless of prior hormone replacement therapy treatments, the progression of pregnancy and birthing procedures are typically the same as those of cisgender women. However, trans men who carry pregnancies are often subjected to a variety of negative, social, emotional, and medical experiences, as pregnancy is regarded as an exclusively feminine or female activity. According to the study "Transgender Men Who Experienced Pregnancy After Female-to-Male Gender Transitioning" by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists,[4] there is a lack of awareness, services, and medical assistance available to pregnant trans men. Inaccessibility to these services may lead to difficulty in finding comfortable and supportive services concerning prenatal care, as well as an increased risk for unsafe or unhealthy practices. Additionally, the study also exposed that some individuals reported having gender dysphoria and feelings of isolation due to the drastic changes in appearance which occur during pregnancy, such as enlarged breasts, and due to changes in public reception of their gender identity. Researchers also found that prior use of testosterone did not affect pregnancy.

Testosterone therapy affects fertility, but many trans men who have become pregnant were able to do so within six months of stopping testosterone.[5] Future pregnancies can be achieved by oophyte banking, but the process may increase gender dysphoria or may not be accessible due to lack of insurance coverage.[5] Testosterone therapy is not a sufficient method of contraception, and trans men may experience unintended pregnancy,[5][6] especially if they miss doses.[5]

Matt Rice, a transgender man, bore a son named Blake in October 1999 following random sperm donations from three cisgender male friends[7] during a relationship with transgender writer Patrick Califia.[7]

Thomas Beatie, another transgender man, has borne three children. He chose to become pregnant because his wife Nancy was infertile, doing so with cryogenic donated sperm and a syringe, at home. Thomas wrote an article about the experience in The Advocate.[3] The Washington Post further broadened the story on March 25 when blogger Emil Steiner called Beatie the first "legally" pregnant man on record,[8] in reference to certain states' and federal legal recognition of Beatie as male.[2][3] In 2010, Guinness World Records recognized Beatie as the world's "First Married Man to Give Birth."[9] Beatie gave birth to a girl named Susan Juliette Beatie on June 29, 2008.[10][11] Barbara Walters announced Beatie's second pregnancy on The View,[12] and Beatie gave birth to a boy named Austin Alexander Beatie on June 9, 2009.[13] Beatie gave birth to his third child, a boy named Jensen James Beatie, on July 25, 2010.[14][15]

Yuval Topper, an Israeli transgender man, gave birth to a child on December 28, 2011.[16] Fernando Machado, a South American transgender man, gave birth to a child. The baby is a biological child between Machado and his trans wife Diane Marie Rodríguez Zambrano.[17] More cases are documented in the United Kingdom and Australia. According to figures compiled by Medicare for Australia, one of the few national surveys as of 2020, 75 male-identified people gave birth naturally or via C-section there in 2016, and 40 in 2017.[18]

Sabastion Sparks is a transgender man who lives with his wife Angel, a transgender woman, in suburban Atlanta. They got married in 2016. Sparks gave birth to son Jaxen in October 2016.[19]

Non-binary people[edit]

Non-binary people with a functioning vagina, ovaries and uterus can give birth.[20] Not all non-binary people (or trans people of any gender identity) medically transition through hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or any kind of surgeries due to various factors ranging from medical conditions, accessibility and/or expenses, but those that do have to interrupt their HRT in order to carry the pregnancy.[citation needed] Unintended pregnancies by non-binary people on testosterone therapy may be more common if they are on a low dose of testosterone.[5] Non-binary parents choose parental titles such as "mom" and "dad", or utilize invented gender-neutral or non-binary titles.[21]

Non-binary people who have written or been profiled about their experiences of pregnancy include Rory Mickelson,[22] Braiden Schirtzinger,[23] and Mariah MacCarthy.[24]

Trans women[edit]

Trans women do not naturally have the anatomy needed for embryonic and fetal development. Today, there are no successful cases regarding uterus transplantation concerning a transgender woman.[25]

There is a case report of intentional abdominal pregnancy to a patient with müllerian agenesis.[26]

Uterine transplantation, or UTx, is currently in its infancy and is not yet publicly available. To date, in cisgender women, more than 42 UTx procedures have been performed, with 12 live births resulting from the transplanted uteruses as of publication.[27] The International Society of Uterine Transplantation (ISUTx) was established internationally in 2016, with 70 clinical doctors and scientists, and currently has 140 intercontinental delegates.[28] Its goal is to, 'through scientific innovations, advance medical care in the field of uterus transplantation.'[29]

In 2012, McGill University published the "Montreal Criteria for the Ethical Feasibility of Uterine Transplantation", a proposed set of criteria for carrying out uterine transplants, in Transplant International.[30] Under these criteria, only a cisgender woman could ethically be considered a transplant recipient. The exclusion of trans women from candidacy may lack justification.[31]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Obedin-Maliver, Juno; Makadon, Harvey J (2016). "Transgender men and pregnancy". Obstetric Medicine. 9 (1): 4–8. doi:10.1177/1753495X15612658. PMC 4790470. PMID 27030799.
  2. ^ a b Labor of Love website Archived 2010-01-23 at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ a b c Thomas Beatie, "Labor of Love: Is society ready for this pregnant husband?", The Advocate, April 8, 2008, p. 24.
  4. ^ Light, Alexis D.; Obedin-Maliver, Juno; Sevelius, Jae M.; Kerns, Jennifer L. (1 December 2014). "Transgender men who experienced pregnancy after female-to-male gender transitioning" (PDF). Obstet Gynecol. 124 (6): 1120–1127. doi:10.1097/AOG.0000000000000540. PMID 25415163. S2CID 36023275.
  5. ^ a b c d e Berger, Anthony P.; Potter, Elizabeth M.; Shutters, Christina M.; Imborek, Katherine L. (2015). "Pregnant transmen and barriers to high quality healthcare". Proceedings in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 5 (2): 1–12. doi:10.17077/2154-4751.1285.
  6. ^ Light, Alexis; Wang, Lin-Fan; Zeymo, Alexander; Gomez-Lobo, Veronica (2018). "Family planning and contraception use in transgender men". Contraception. 98 (4): 266–269. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2018.06.006. PMID 29944875.
  7. ^ a b Califia-Rice, Patrick (2000-06-20). "Two Dads With a Difference — Neither of Us Was Born Male". The Village Voice. Retrieved 2008-03-22.
  8. ^ Thomas Beatie: The First Man to Give Birth? The Washington OFF/beat blog March 25, 2008
  9. ^ "First Married Man to GIve Birth", Guinness World Records 2010 edition, page 110"
  10. ^ The Pregnant Man Gives Birth, Originally posted Thursday July 03, 2008 02:55 PM EDT
  11. ^ 'Pregnant man' gives birth to baby girl named Susan Juliette Beatie at
  12. ^ "Pregnant man pregnant again". 2008-11-14. Archived from the original on 2013-04-18. Retrieved 2008-10-11.
  13. ^ "'Pregnant Man' Gives Birth Again". People Magazine. 2009-06-09.
  14. ^ "First known transgender man to give birth delivers third child". perth now. 2010-08-03. Archived from the original on 2010-08-05.
  15. ^ "'Pregnant man' Thomas Beatie splits from wife".
  16. ^ "Israeli man gives birth". Israel: 2011-12-30.
  17. ^ Haworth, Jessica (March 3, 2017). "Transgender couple who had child 'sent threats to kill their son'". mirror.
  18. ^ Hattenstone, Simon (April 20, 2019). "The dad who gave birth: 'Being pregnant doesn't change me being a trans man'". The Guardian – via
  19. ^ "He gave birth. He breastfed. Now, he wants his son to see him as a man". CNN. June 15, 2018.[dead link]
  20. ^ Toze, Michael (2018). "The risky womb and the unthinkability of the pregnant man: Addressing trans masculine hysterectomy" (PDF). Feminism & Psychology. 28 (2): 194–211. doi:10.1177/0959353517747007. S2CID 149082977.
  21. ^ King-Miller, Lindsay (March 13, 2020). "Not All Parents Are "Mom" Or "Dad"". Ravishly. Retrieved June 4, 2020.
  22. ^ "I'm Pregnant, But I'm Not a Woman". 2018-11-13. Retrieved 2020-03-10.
  23. ^ "Non-binary, pregnant and navigating the most gendered role of all: Motherhood". Washington Post. Retrieved 2020-03-10.
  24. ^ "I'm Nonbinary. I Loved Being Pregnant. It's Complicated". Narratively. 2018-09-03. Retrieved 2020-03-10.
  25. ^ William Leith (2008-04-10). "Pregnant men: hard to stomach?". Telegraph. London.
  26. ^ Pregnancy in a case of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome
  27. ^ Uterine transplantation in transgender women
  28. ^ "History of ISUTx".
  29. ^ "About - 'Vision'". ISUTx.
  30. ^ Lefkowitz, Ariel; Edwards, Marcel; Balayla, Jacques (2012). "The Montreal Criteria for the Ethical Feasibility of Uterine Transplantation". Transplant International. 25 (4): 439–47. doi:10.1111/j.1432-2277.2012.01438.x. PMID 22356169. S2CID 39516819.
  31. ^ Lefkowitz, Ariel; Edwards, Marcel; Balayla, Jacques (Oct 2013). "Ethical considerations in the era of the uterine transplant: an update of the Montreal Criteria for the Ethical Feasibility of Uterine Transplantation". Fertility and Sterility. 100 (4): 924–926. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2013.05.026. ISSN 0015-0282. PMID 23768985. However, it certainly bears mentioning that there does not seem to be a prima facie ethical reason to reject the idea of performing uterine transplant on a male or trans patient. A male or trans patient wishing to gestate a child does not have a lesser claim to that desire than their female counterparts. The principle of autonomy is not sex-specific. This right is not absolute, but it is not the business of medicine to decide what is unreasonable to request for a person of sound mind, except as it relates to medical and surgical risk, as well as to distribution of resources. A male who identifies as a woman, for example, arguably has UFI, no functionally different than a woman who is born female with UFI. Irrespective of the surgical challenges involved, such a person's right to self-governance of her reproductive potential ought to be equal to her genetically female peers and should be respected.