Harmoni Central Busway
|Transit type||bus rapid transit|
|Number of lines||12 (BRT) (1 under construction, 1 planned)
11 BRT express
25 city bus (integrated to BRT)
10 suburban bus
8 low cost apartment feeder
|Number of stations||223|
|Began operation||January 25, 2004|
|Operator(s)||PT Transportasi Jakarta|
|System length||210.31 kilometres (130.68 mi)|
TransJakarta is a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system in Jakarta, Indonesia. It was the first BRT system in Southern and Southeast Asia. TransJakarta system began operations on January 25, 2004. TransJakarta was designed to provide Jakarta citizens with a fast public transportation system to help reduce rush hour traffic. The buses run in dedicated lanes and ticket prices are subsidized by the regional government.
In 2011, the system achieved the annual peak performance with the buses carried 114.7 million passengers and then in the next following years the number is declining and in 2014, the buses carried 111.6 million passengers, while in 2015 served 102.95 million passengers. In 2016, a new record of 123.73 million passengers was achieved. The fare cost has remained Rp 3,500 (27 US cents) per passenger since initial operation.
TransJakarta has the world's longest BRT system (210.31 km in length), with 12 primary routes and 10 cross-corridor routes. Three more corridors were due to commence construction in 2014 or 2015 and will be partially elevated whereas the existing corridors are at ground level. In addition there are 18 'feeder' routes that continue past the end of the exclusive busways into the municipalities surrounding Jakarta and use special buses that allow for boarding at either ground level or the TransJakarta station platforms.TransJakarta has total 80 routes (corridor, cross route & feeder route) at the end of 2016. A significant increase from 41 routes in 2015. While TransJakarta deploys 1,056 buses in 2016 and also a significant increase from 605 buses in 2015.
- Closed Trunk System without a Feeder System
- Elevated Platform for Rapid Boarding and Alighting
- Public Sector Bus Procurement and Private Sector Bus Operation
- Operating at 350,000 passengers/day (2014)
History and problems
The first TransJakarta line opened to the public on January 15, 2004. Following two weeks in which it was free to use, commercial operations started on February 1, 2004.
TransJakarta was built to provide a fast, comfortable, and affordable mass transportation system. To accomplish those objectives, the buses were given lanes restricted to other traffic and separated by concrete blocks on the streets that became part of the busway routes.
Normal operating times are from 5:00am to 10:00pm. Some routes have extended hours until 11:00pm. Seven routes have limited overnight services providing 24-hour operation.
The buses run along the following routes:
- January 15, 2004: Corridor 1, (Blok M to Kota) (soft launch)
- February 1, 2004: Corridor 1, (Blok M to Kota) (commercial service)
- January 15, 2006: Corridor 2, (Pulo Gadung to Harmoni) and Corridor 3, (Kalideres to Pasar Baru) opened
- January 27, 2007: Corridor 4, (Pulo Gadung to Dukuh Atas 2), Corridor 5, (Kp. Melayu to Ancol), Corridor 6, (Halimun to Ragunan) and Corridor 7, (Kampung Rambutan to Kampung Melayu) opened
- February 21, 2009: Corridor 8, (Lebak Bulus to Harmoni) opened
- December 31, 2010: Corridor 9, (Pluit to Pinang Ranti) and Corridor 10, (PGC Cililitan to Tanjung Priok) opened.
- March 18, 2011 Corridor 9 was the only corridor serving until 11.00 pm. Followed by Corridor 1, with transit point with Corridor 9 at Semanggi shelter. The night service however, only stops at a certain shelters only.
- May 20, 2011 Corridor 2 and Corridor 3 initialized to serve until 11.00pm, but only open 9 shelters out of 22 on Corridor 2 and 9 out of 13 shelters on Corridor 3 remain open during the extended hours.
- July 1, 2011 Corridors 4 to 7 began their late night service, so all corridors now has already deployed late night service except for Corridor 8.
- September 28, 2011 3 feeder bus routes launched with Route 1 from West Jakarta Municipal Office to Daan Mogot, Route 2 from Tanah Abang to Medan Merdeka Selatan and Route 3 from SCBD to Senayan. The fare will be Rp.6,500 ($0.72), which cover tickets for both the feeder service and TransJakarta buses. But the feeder routes eventually shut down because of low number of riders.
- December 13, 2011: Transjakarta began to separate male and female passengers, in which the commuter rail network (pt kai commuter jabodetabek) has already done the separation earlier. The woman-only areas are located between middle door and driver cabins.
- December 28, 2011: Corridor 11, (Kp. Melayu to Pulo Gebang) opened.
- February 14, 2013: Corridor 12, (Pluit to Tanjung Priok) opened.
- May 19, 2014: The extension of Corridor 2, (Pulo Gadung to Harapan Indah) opened.
On June 1, 2014, 24-hour operation began on three corridors — the Blok M-Kota route (Corridor 1), Pinang Ranti-Pluit route (Corridor 9) and Kalideres-Pasar Baru route (Corridor 3). Service is provided by 18 buses with 2 buses in reserve and service frequency is between 30 minutes and an hour. On May 6, 2015, 24-hour operation began on four corridors - the Harmoni-Pulogadung route (Corridor 2), Cililitan-Ancol Route (Corridor 5), Harmoni-Lebak Bulus route (corridor 8) and Tanjung Priok-Cililitan route (corridor 10). Service is provided by 28 buses with 2 buses in reserve and frequency is between 30 minutes and 60 minute.
In order to promote gender equity, TransJakarta is increasing the number of female driver recruits. The projected proportion is 30% of the total.
A number of design and operational problems have been identified. Despite having an 'exclusive' bus lane, unauthorised vehicles illegally using the lanes in an attempt to more quickly navigate through the traffic jams are a common problem. Depot maintenance shops and special gas stations (most buses use compressed natural gas (CNG)) often have long lines of buses, restricting the availability of buses for service. The CNG powered buses also have suffered from higher fuel consumption than expected (1 litre for 1.3 km vs. 2.1 km as specified) and high oil and moisture content requiring extra maintenance. Other problems identified were: a lack of feeder bus services, a lack of adequate transfer information and transfer facilities and a lack of articulated buses. A 2010 survey showed 75% of passengers transferred from medium or micro buses to the TransJarkara buses and it was estimated if 'direct service' operations were implemented (i.e., multiple stopping points at some stations with bypass lanes and some services continuing beyond the trunk corridors) patronage would increase by 50%. A feeder bus service called APTB was introduced in 2012.
In May 2013 it was reported the system was losing passengers due to unpredictable service frequency, worsening travel times and poor maintenance of the infrastructure and vehicles. The problem of excluding private vehicles from busway was ongoing. By November 2013, after a campaign to 'sterilize' the lanes improved travel times, reports indicate patronage had increased by 20,000 per day up to between 330,000 and 355,000.
Current Operator and fleet
- PT. Eka Sari Lorena
Hino RK1 JSNL-RHJ CNG
- PT. Bianglala Metropolitan
Hino RG J08C-TI, Mercedes-Benz OH1521 Intercooler OM366LA.
- Perum Damri
Zhongtong Bus LCK6180GC Doosan CNG Euro V, INKA Inobus Cummins ATC 320 CNG Series.
- PT Transportasi Jakarta
Zhongtong Bus LCK6180GC Doosan CNG Euro V, Ankai HFF6180G02D Weichai CNG Euro IV, Ankai Single Bus HFF6120D17D Weichai CNG Euro III, Yutong ZK6180HGC Weichai CNG Euro III, Hino RK8JSKA-NHJ R260, Scania K320IA CNG Euro VI, Scania K340IA CNG Euro VI, Mercedes Benz OH1526 NG, Mercedes Benz OH1626 A/T.
- Perum PPD (Pengangkutan Penumpang Djakarta)
Hino RK8JSKA-NHU R260, INKA Inobus SGL 290 Doosan CNG Euro IV
- KOPAJA (Koperasi Angkutan Jakarta)
Toyota Dyna 110FT, Hino FB130, Isuzu NQR 71, Isuzu FRR 90.
- PT. Mayasari Bakti
Scania K320IA CNG Euro VI, Scania K310IB 6x2.
- Foton BJ6180C8CTD (Red colored)
- Foton BJ6180CTD (Blue colored)
- INKA New Inobus Doosan ATC (Articulated) 340 CNG Euro IV Series.
- INKA New Inobus Doosan SGL (Single) 290 CNG Euro IV series.
- Ankai HFF6180 G02D.
- All New AAI Komodo Doosan CNG Euro V
- Asiastar Wertstar / Xiamen Fengtai BCI FBC6181BLNZ2
- Hino New RK1 JSNL-RHJ CNG 6-speed Automatic
- UD Trucks JP 251S.
- Scania K310IB6x2*4 Euro V
- Scania K250UB4x2 Euro V
- Scania K320IA Euro VI.
- Mercedes-Benz OH 1526
- Mercedes-Benz O500U 1726
- Mercedes-Benz OC500RF 2542
- Mercedes-Benz O500MA 2831 Cummins CNG 6x2 A/T.
- Volksbus 18.280 OT LE
- Volvo B11R
Accidents and incidents
From January to July 2010 there were 237 accidents involving TransJakarta buses, resulting in 57 injuries and eight deaths. Accidents occurred due to pedestrians crossing the busway and cars making u-turns. In 2011, in an effort to stop non TransJakarta vehicles using the bus lanes, the Jakarta Police Chief suggested that TransJakarta buses should run against the direction of traffic flow. Usually non-TransJakarta vehicles used busway lanes during peak hours between 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. and 4 p.m. to 7 p.m.
On January 12, 2012, a policeman from Indonesian Police Headquarters, who was hired by Securicor, fired his gun near the ear of a TransJakarta officer, after threatening to kill him. The policeman was angry after the TransJakarta officer stopped the Securicor car from entering the busway lane which only allows TransJakarta buses, ambulances and firefighter to enter. The police spokesman said that the policeman will be charged by criminal law or disciplinary sanction.
On March 12, 2012, four TransJakarta buses were hijacked by alleged university students at the Medan Merdeka Selatan street. The buses were then driven to the front of the Universitas Kristen Indonesia (Christian University of Indonesia) campus. Three drivers were able to escape from their buses, but one driver was prevented from leaving and forced to drive the hijackers to their destination. Fire extinguishers, glass-breaking hammers and drivers' jackets were also stolen from the buses.
Each bus is constructed with passengers' safety in mind. For example, the body frame is constructed using Galvanyl (Zn - Fe Alloy), a strong and rust-resistant metal. There are also eight or ten glass-shattering hammers mounted on some of the window frames, and three emergency doors for fast evacuation during an emergency. There are also two fire extinguishers at the front and back of the buses.
The Mercedes-Benz OH and Hino RG air-conditioned buses are painted red and yellow, with a picture of a young brahminy kite, which looks very similar to a bald eagle grasping a tree branch with three snakefruit on it. The buses use special fuel which is (a mix of diesel and biodiesel). For Corridor 2 (bus colors: blue and white) and 3 (bus colors: yellow and red), the buses are CNG-fueled Daewoo buses imported from South Korea. Due to various coachbuilders being involved and design tweaks applied over time, the exterior and interior appearance, quality, and comfort varies between buses operating in the same corridor.
The capacity of each bus is 30 seated and 55 standing passengers, though during rush hours these numbers are often exceeded by up to 80 passengers per bus.
The passenger doors are higher than on normal buses so that passengers can only board from designated shelters. The doors employ automated folding mechanisms which can be manually controlled by the driver. Because the normal folding doors cannot open properly when the bus is overcrowded, buses on corridors II and III use sliding doors in order to accommodate the surge of passengers during rush hours. Protective full-height acrylic glass barriers are installed behind passenger seats close to the sliding door mechanism.
Seats in all buses face the aisle to optimize passengers' movement during rush hours. Corridor 1 buses use comfortable cushioned bus seats, the buses from subsequent corridors have less cushioned, hence less comfortable, seats.
Each bus is equipped with an electronic board and speakers that announce the name of shelters in two languages, Indonesian and English. Each bus is also equipped with a bi-directional radio transceiver to allow the driver to provide and receive updated information regarding traffic jams, road accidents or lost items.
To keep the air fresh, especially during rush hours each bus is equipped with automatic air freshener dispensers which periodically spray car fragrance.
In August 2011, TransJakarta operator has installed cameras on one bus for a trial period. The plan is to install four cameras on each bus gradually in efforts to improve services such as to inform passengers waiting for buses about how crowded approaching buses are, and to prevent sexual harassment on its service.
Starting April 21, 2016, TransJakarta launched several new female-only buses for Corridor 1. The bus is crewed by female driver and female onboard officers, and is painted pink to distinguish it from regular buses.
TransJakarta shelters are different from ordinary bus stops. They are usually located in the middle of the road and are reached by elevated bridges. Some stops are equipped with escalator or lift and designed to be integrated to the nearby building in the vicinity. For example, Tosari ICBC stop is connected directly to the UOB Plaza and Blok M stop is connected directly into Mal Blok M via stair access.
The shelters are made from aluminum, steel, and glass. Air ventilation works through fins on the aluminum part of the shelters. Floors are made from tread plate, although newer shelters now use concrete. The shelters are equipped with platform screen doors. Some of the connecting elevated bridge ramps have gentle slopes (with some exceptions) to accommodate the disabled. One disadvantage of some of the ramps is that passengers need to walk a relatively long way up the ramps and then double back to reach the boarding shelters. The floors of the bridge are mostly tread plates although some are made from concrete. One problem with the tread plate is that considerable noise is generated by the movement of passengers across the tread plate surfaces. Another problem is that some of the tread plate surfaces can become very slippery during the rainy season. There are no sanitary facilities in most of the shelters.
Bus stops are open from 05:00 – 22:00 although opening hours can be extended if there are passengers still waiting at closing time. Shelters often become extremely overcrowded because of long and sometimes unpredictable intervals between buses. According to a report from the Indonesian Consumers Protection Foundation in 2011, the most common complaint from passengers about the service offered by Transjakarta was the lengthy waiting time for buses at some of the main shelters.
A free daily internal bulletin, 'Trans Kota', is occasionally available at selected shelters. The content includes sport, showbusiness, crime, health, various tips and tricks, consumer information and TransJakarta news.
The large Harmoni Central Busway (HCB) shelter on Jalan Gadjah Mada, Central Jakarta, is built over the Ciliwung River. It is a transit point between Corridors 1, 2, 3, 7A, and 8. This 500-person shelter has 14 bus bays. Although many trees had to be sacrificed during the construction of it, an old banyan tree was not chopped down because it was considered rich in historical value. However, in October 2006 this tree was vandalized by people from the Pemuda Persatuan Islam religious group. Their motive was to show that the tree does not possess supernatural qualities.
Ticketing and fares
The cost of a TransJakarta ticket since its opening has been a flat rate of Rp 2.000,- at concessional times (05.00a.m. to 07.00a.m.) and Rp 3.500,- (about 27 US cents) at all other times. Passengers who wish to change direction or transit to other corridors do not need to pay again, provided they do not exit the shelter. An exception is in effect at the line terminus.
Passengers can purchase a single-journey paper ticket at the ticket booth in the shelter. In 2013, TransJakarta introduced the use of prepaid cards or e-tickets for passenger use. The prepaid cards that are eligible as ticket are bank-issued cards of BRI BRizzi, BCA Flazz, BNI Tapcash, Mandiri e-money, Bank DKI JakCard, and Bank Mega MegaCash. The prepaid cards can be purchased and topped-up at any ticket booth in the shelter throughout the system, or at the ATM of the issuing bank. The prepaid cards, except for Bank DKI JakCard and Bank Mega MegaCash, are also valid as ticket in the Jabodetabek Commuter Train system as of June 2014, easing the integration plan between the BRT and the commuter train system. In April and May 2014, the TransJakarta management started the compulsory use of the e-tickets at several terminus in the system, based on news said that the BCA Flazz Card can also be used in Jabodetabek Commuter Train. In mid-October 2014, 56 percent passengers have used e-tickets. Now, all TransJakarta corridors and shelters applied the compulsory use of the e-tickets, since February 21, 2015. August 17, 2016 marks the start of tap-out system trial in Corridor 1 (Blok M - Kota), while similar trial was started on September 9, 2016 in Corridor 2. The system is meant to control the flow of people going in and out of the shelters, discourage illegal entrance to and exit from the shelters, and to encourage sales and usage of the "e-tickets". In October 2016, the system had been implemented in all corridors of TransJakarta.
During rush hours, people from upper or middle classes (one of the main targets of TransJakarta) usually prefer to use private cars or taxis to avoid inconvenience of the overcrowded TransJakarta buses even though they have to bear with traffic jams instead. Many passengers are thus lower-middle-class people who are ex-users of other less comfortable and/or more expensive commercial buses.
This situation is at odds with one of the objectives of TransJakarta which was to reduce traffic jam during rush hours by persuading private car owners to use comfortable public transport.
There is a special program for the student groups called TransJakarta goes to school. Participants in program there are assigned a dedicated bus. The aim is to train students to stand in line, be decent, and prefer public transport than personal vehicles.
Since the first commencement in 2004, 15 corridors has been planned with 12 corridors now operational. Corridors 13, 14, and 15 are designed to be a grade-separated elevated BRT line, with Corridor 13 now under construction progress. TransJakarta BRT network is connected with KRL Commuter Jabodetabek and Jakarta MRT in Corridor 13, which is set to be completed in 2016.
Other than main BRT routes, TransJakarta operates 11 BRT express routes (shortened version of the normal BRT routes), 25 city bus routes integrated to BRT stations, 10 suburban routes to satellite cities, and 8 routes serving low cost apartments.
|Corridor #||Origin-Destination||Opened||BRT Standard|
|Kota - Blok M||15 January 2004||Silver|
|Pulo Gadung - Harmoni||15 January 2006||Bronze|
|Kalideres - Pasar Baru||15 January 2006||Bronze|
|Pulo Gadung - Dukuh Atas 2||27 January 2007||Bronze|
|Ancol - Kampung Melayu||27 January 2007||Bronze|
|Dukuh Atas 2 - Ragunan||27 January 2007||Bronze|
|Kampung Melayu - Kampung Rambutan||27 January 2007||Basic BRT|
|Lebak Bulus - Harmoni||21 February 2009||Basic BRT|
|Pluit - Pinang Ranti||31 December 2010||Basic BRT|
|Tanjung Priok - PGC 2||31 December 2010||Basic BRT|
|Kampung Melayu - Pulo Gebang||28 December 2011||Basic BRT|
|Pluit - Tanjung Priok||14 February 2013||Basic BRT|
|Ciledug - Tendean||(under construction)||(TBC)|
|Blok M - Pondok Kelapa||(planned)||(TBC)|
|Manggarai - Depok||(planned)||(TBC)|
In addition to the 15 main corridors, TransJakarta, in cooperation with other public transportation companies, provides feeder buses to passengers from suburbs outside Jakarta to bus termini.
- Bus Rapid Transit
- KRL Jabotabek
- Transport in Indonesia
- Metrobus (Lahore)
- Metrobus (Istanbul)
- Rapid KL BRT Sunway Line
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