Transport in Beijing

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Roads in Beijing
Mobikes jamming sidewalks in Beijing

Beijing, as the capital and one of the four municipalities of the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a transport hub, with a sophisticated network of roads, railways and a major airport. Five completed ring roads encircle a city with nine expressways heading in virtually all compass directions, supplemented by eleven China National Highways.

Transport in the capital is overseen by the Beijing Municipal Commission of Transport.[1]

Road network[edit]

The Badaling Expressway near the intersection with the Northern 6th Ring Road (taken in November 2002)

Ring roads[edit]

The city is served by five completed ring roads. From the centre of the city outward, they are:

The "1st Ring" of Beijing refers to the historic tram route (now demolished) through Xidan, Ping'anli, Di'anmen, Beixinqiao, Dongdan and Tiananmen. No ring roads are built on this route but it is still called "1st Ring". From that on, ring road built on Beijing's historic city limit is called 2nd Ring.

Expressways[edit]

Main topic: Expressways of Beijing

Nine toll expressways link Beijing to its suburbs, outlying regions, and other cities; these are:

China National Highways[edit]

Map of central Beijing (1988)

Eleven China National Highway routes depart from Beijing in virtually all compass directions:

Traffic congestion[edit]

Beijing as of 2011 has an estimated 5 million registered cars on its roads, so traffic congestion is widespread. Traffic in the city centre is often gridlocked and is only predicted to get worse as the number of vehicles on Beijing's roads increase. It is predicted by 2016 Beijing will have over 6 million cars on its roads.[3] To combat congestion the local government has rapidly been building the subway system adding more lines and working towards doubling the length of the subway system by 2015. In addition to this they have decreased the cost of fares in an attempt to encourage more people to use public transport. In 2008 Beijing introduced restrictions on the number of cars on its roads in attempt to reduce congestion and pollution during the Olympic games period. They did this by adopting odd-even traffic restriction on alternative days. Cars with number plates ending with odd numbers were restricted one day and the next day cars with number plates ending with even numbers were restricted. Drivers who were unable to use their cars did not have to pay road or vehicle taxes, costing the city around 1.3 billion yuan.[4]

Urban public transportation[edit]

Beijing has an extensive public transportation network of buses, trolleybuses, suburban rail and a rapidly expanding subway system. In 2011 42% of commuters used public transit in Beijing.[5]

Beijing Subway[edit]

The Beijing Subway now has 22 lines, 608.2 km (377.9 mi) of lines and 370 stations in operation. Subway travel is generally fast, clean, economical and during peak periods congested. Currently an average of around 12 million people ride the subway daily. By 2020, the city predicts daily ridership will increase to over 18.5 million journeys a day.[6] A ¥3 minimum fare that rises according to the distance travelled applies to all lines, except the Airport Express, which costs ¥25. The electronic commuter fare card, Yikatong is accepted on all lines.

Beijing Suburban Railway[edit]

The Beijing Suburban Railway, a suburban commuter train service, is managed separately from the Beijing Subway. The two systems, although complementary, are not related to each other operationally. Beijing Suburban Railway is run as part of the Beijing Railway Bureau.

There are 3 suburban railway lines currently in operation: Line S2, Sub-Central line and Huairou–Miyun line.

City bus & trolleybus[edit]

The Beijing Public Transport Holdings, Ltd. ("BPT") is the main bus and trolleybus operator in the city. It is owned by the city and, as of 2009, operated nearly 28,000 buses (including trolleybuses) on 882 bus lines and delivered 5.03 billion rides in 2009.[7] in 2011, Beijing had more than 28,343 buses carrying over 13.39 million person/trips a day.[5]

Beijing Bus No. 1 on Chang'an Boulevard at Tiananmen Square.
A Beijing trolleybus.
Double-Decker Bus No. 特8 in Beijing

The Beijing Yuntong Bus Company operates its own bus routes, which carry the prefix 运通 before the route number. Yuntong bus routes are distinct from the more numerous BPT bus routes, and the two should not be confused. For example, Beijing Bus 110 and 运通110 are two distinct bus lines. Yuntong Bus fares follow the same fare schedule as the BPT buses.

Bus pass[edit]

The BPT also offers three-day, seven-day, 14-day and month-long bus passes. Passes are not accepted on Yuntong Buses.

Bus enquiry services[edit]

The BPT provides enquiry services via both its official website http://www.bjbus.com and a helpline: +86-10-96166.

Taxi[edit]

Taxi fares depend on the vehicle type: these start at CNY 13 for the first 3 kilometers, and go up by CNY2.30 per extra kilometer; the per-kilometer charge is based upon the make and model of the vehicle. After 10pm the base fare goes up by 20%. Idling time is also factored into the total fare, which is CNY2.30 (CNY4.60 during rush hours of 07:00−09:00 and 17:00−19:00) per 5 minutes of standing or running at speeds lower than 12 km/h (7.5 mph) . All legal cabs will be part golden yellow or all black in color, and display their permits and paperwork on the dash board and windshield.

There are also many illegal cabs known as 黑车 (heiche, meaning 'Black Cabs' as in "black market" or "illegal"), which operate via a pre-negotiated fare.

Taxi-like services, including Pedicabs, are also widely used. A motorized or manual bicycle is probably the most commonly seen form, although pedicabs are still available in certain parts of the city. These quaint modes of transport also employ the pre-negotiated fare system

In 1999, the environmentally unsound "bread cars" (Minivans) (mianbao che, a.k.a. miandi) were decommissioned in a stringent manner. They used to charge CNY 1 per kilometre. Although it was sound, budget-wise, their poor environmental record and an increasing consciousness of the image of the capital were the factors that landed them in the dumpster.[citation needed] As of 2004, 1.20 RMB/km taxicabs were phased out, and as of 2006 all taxi fares were 2.00 RMB per km with the same 10 RMB starting fare for 3 km rule. The Hyundai Elantra is the common new type of taxi, along with the Volkswagen Jetta CiF.

Intercity transportation[edit]

Air[edit]

Beijing's main airport is the Beijing Capital International Airport near Shunyi, which is about 20 kilometres northeast of Beijing central business district. Flights from all major international cities land there as well as a large number of domestic flights. The airport has seen a number of expansions. The second terminal opened in 1999, and in 2008 saw the opening of terminal three. The opening of terminal three has seen the airport's capacity increase to be able to handle around 82 million passengers per year.[8]

A second large airport is being planned in Daxing south of Beijing and due to open in 2018, with a long-term capacity of 100 million passengers per year.

Other airports in the city include Liangxiang Airport, Nanyuan Airport, Xijiao Airport and Badaling Airport. However, these are less well-known.

Trains[edit]

Stations[edit]

Beijing Railway Station
Beijing West Railway Station
Beijing South Railway Station

Beijing has three main railway stations: Beijing Railway Station, Beijing West Railway Station and Beijing South Railway Station. The latter two are among the biggest railway stations in the world. Other railway stations in urban Beijing include: Beijing East, Fengtai, Guanganmen, Changping North Railway Station and Xinghuo. The Hepingli Railway Station is no longer in service.Beijing North has been temporary closed for the construction of the new high-speed line for the winter Olympics until 2022 and all trains departing there are moved to Changping North station and Huangtudian Station(Suburban railway line S2)

Railways[edit]

Beijing is a major railway hub in China's railway network. The following eight major railways radiate out of Beijing:

The city also hosts a number of high speed railway lines:

Further high speed connections being proposed include links to Shenyang, Tangshan, Zhangjiakou, Kowloon, Taipei, and Taiyuan.

International trains departing from Beijing[edit]

There are a number of international trains departing from Beijing to neighbouring countries. The Trans-Siberian train to Ulaan Baatar (Mongolia) and then onto Moscow (Russia) departs from Beijing. There are also trains to Pyongyang (North Korea) and Hanoi (Vietnam) which depart from Beijing. The trains also stop at other cities and towns along the route. International trains currently depart from Beijing West Railway Station and Beijing Railway Station.[9] The following is a guide to the international services which depart Beijing.

  • K3/4: Beijing to Moscow via Ulaan Baatar: Departs from Beijing Railway Station every Wednesday at 7:45 a.m.
  • Z5/6: Beijing to Hanoi via Nanning: Departs from Beijing West Railway Station every Thursday and Friday at 4:08 p.m.
  • K19/20: Beijing to Moscow: Departs from Beijing Railway Station every Saturday at 11:00 p.m.
  • K23/24: Beijing to Ulaan Baatar: Departs from Beijing Railway Station every Saturday at 7:45 a.m.
  • K27/28: Beijing to Pyongyang: Departs from Beijing Railway Station every Monday, Wednesday, Thursday and Saturday at 5:30 p.m.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-05-27. Retrieved 2014-05-26. 
  2. ^ "Beijing Expressway Guide - Get in and out Beijing by car". www.beijing-travels.com. 
  3. ^ ""Beijing car ownership exceeds 5 mln"". 
  4. ^ Mulvenney, Nick (19 Jun 2008). "Beijing to launch Olympic odd-even car ban in July". Reuters. Retrieved 2018-03-19. 
  5. ^ a b 王辉. "Beijing to invest $16 billion in subways". www.chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 2018-03-19. 
  6. ^ 李松. "Beijing's subway is going full bore - China - Chinadaily.com.cn". www.chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 2017-09-22. 
  7. ^ "Statistics" bjbus.com Archived 2011-07-22 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 2011-02-03
  8. ^ "Beijing Capital International Airport Expansion, Chaoyang District - Airport Technology". Airport Technology. Retrieved 2018-03-19. 
  9. ^ ""China - International Trains"". Archived from the original on 2010-02-19. 

External links[edit]