Transport in Jakarta

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Transport in Jakarta
Jakarta Car Free Day.jpg
Jakarta pedestrians, joggers and bicyclists take over the main avenue during Car-Free Day
Overview
LocaleJabodetabek
Transit typeCommuter rail, metro, light metro, bus rapid transit and bus, angkot, taxicab, motorcycle taxi, bajaj, private automobile, bicycle, pedestrian

As a metropolitan area of about 30 million people, Jakarta has a variety of transport systems.[1] However, Jakarta is still strained by traffic jams during rush hours.[2] The city prioritised development of road networks, which were mostly designed to accommodate private vehicles.[3] A notable feature of Jakarta's present road system is the toll road network. Composed of an inner and outer ring road and five toll roads radiating outwards, the network provides inner as well as outer city connections. In 2016, 'odd-even' policy was introduced which designated cars with either odd or even-numbered registration plates on a particular day as a transitional measure to alleviate traffic congestion until the future introduction of Electronic Road Pricing. At present rapid transit in Greater Jakarta consists of a BRT TransJakarta, Jakarta MRT, and commuter rail, KRL Jabodetabek and Soekarno-Hatta Airport Rail Link, and Jakarta LRT. Another transit system Greater Jakarta LRT is now being under construction, which is expected to be operational by early 2021.

TransJakarta serves as the bus rapid transit service for the city, as well as part of Greater Jakarta area. Besides TransJakarta, other private owned bus systems like Kopaja, MetroMini, Mayasari Bakti and PPD also provide important services for Jakarta commuters with numerous routes throughout the city. Pedicabs has been banned from the city for causing traffic congestion. Bajaj auto rickshaw provide local transportation in the back streets of some parts of the city. Angkot microbuses also play a major role in road transport of Jakarta. Taxicabs and ojeks (motorcycle taxis) are available in the city. KRL Jabodetabek is a commuter rail system which serves commuters in Greater Jakarta, as well as to Rangkasbitung in Banten and Cikarang in Bekasi Regency. Soekarno–Hatta International Airport (CGK) is the main airport serving the Greater Jakarta area. A second airport, Halim Perdanakusuma Airport (HLP) serves domestic flight of low-cost airline, private and VIP/presidential flights. Jakarta's main seaport Port of Tanjung Priok serves many ferry connections to different parts of Indonesia. Port of Tanjung Priok is Indonesia's busiest port, and the 21st busiest port in the world in 2013, handling over 6.59 million TEUs.

Usage shares[edit]

As of 2015, about 1.4 million commuters travel into the city centre from the outskirts of Jakarta. Based on the survey, 58 percent of these commuters use motorcycles, 12.8 percent use cars and only 27 percent use public transportation.[4] In 2004, a study was undertaken to prepare a master-plan for an integrated public transport system within Greater Jakarta, which revealed the mode of transport among city dwellers.[5][6] The city's 9.5% average annual growth rate of motorized vehicles far exceeds the 0.01% increase in road length between 2005 and 2010. As of 2010, public transportation in Jakarta serves only 56% of commuter trips. [6]

Usage of transport modes in Jakarta[5]
Transport mode No. trips (thousands) % share
Walking 14,073 37.7
Angkot (small bus) 7,818 20.9
Motorcycle 4,890 13.1
Sedan/MPV/SUV 2,783 7.5
Medium Bus 2,012 5.4
Large Bus 1,224 3.3
Ojek (Motorcycle taxi) 1,073 2.9
Bicycle 787 2.1
School/Company bus 466 1.2
Economy Train 434 1.2
Patas AC (Bus) 422 1.1
Colt/Mini Cab 298 0.8
Omprengan 295 0.8
Bajaj 217 0.6
Becak 202 0.5
Pick Up 131 0.4
Taxi 126 0.3
Express Train 39 0.1
Truck 33 0.1
Other 8 0.0
Total 37,330 100

Road transport[edit]

Streets and highways[edit]

Part of Jakarta Inner Ring Road or Jalan Tol Lingkar Dalam Jakarta in Grogol Petamburan, West Jakarta
A street in Jakarta

A structured road network had been developed in the early 19th century as a part of the Java Great Post Road by former Governor-General Daendels, which connects most major cities throughout Java. During the following decades, the road network was expanded to a great extent, although it could not keep up with the rapidly increasing numbers of motorised vehicles, resulting in highly congested traffic.[1][2] The city prioritised development of road networks, which were mostly designed to accommodate private vehicles.[3] According to the National Development Planning Agency, or Bappenas, traffic congestion in Greater Jakarta wastes about $7.4 billion each year due to the high number of motorcycles and cars on the roads.[7]

A notable feature of Jakarta's present road system is the toll road network. Composed of an inner and outer ring road and five toll roads radiating outwards, the network provides inner as well as outer city connections. Jakarta Outer Ring Road 2 is an under-construction toll road encircling greater Jakarta area, parallel with Jakarta Outer Ring Road (JORR 1).

The five radiating toll roads are:

Throughout the years, several attempts have been made to reduce traffic congestion on Jakarta's main arteries. Implemented solutions include a 'three-in-one' rush-hour law, during which cars with fewer than three passengers are prohibited from driving on the main avenues. However, "car jockeys" were paid by commuters to ride into the centre of the city to permit the use of three-in-one roads.[8] Another example is the ban on trucks passing main avenues during the day.[9] In 2016, 'odd-even' policy was introduced which designated cars with either odd or even-numbered registration plates on a particular day.[10] This aims to function as a transitional measure to alleviate traffic congestion until the future introduction of Electronic Road Pricing which would be more effective.[11]

Due to the city's acute gridlock, the Jakarta administration has decided to implement Electronic Road Pricing in 10 districts: Tanah Abang, Menteng, Setiabudi, Tebet, Matraman, Senen, Gambir, Tambora, Sawah Besar and Taman Sari.[12] The ERP is planned to be implemented in the three-in-one zone and along Jl. Rasuna Said. The ERP system is expected to be operational by 2019 along with the opening of the Jakarta MRT.[13] Implementation of the ERP system is planned to take place in two phases; the first will be for vehicles moving from the Senayan traffic circle to the Hotel Indonesia traffic circle while the second will be installed from the HI traffic circle to Jl. Medan Merdeka Barat.[14]

Bus service[edit]

A Kopaja bus

There are many bus terminals in the city, from where buses operate on numerous routes to connect neighborhoods within the city limit, to other areas of Greater Jakarta area and to cities across the island of Java. The biggest of the bus terminal is Pulo Gebang Bus Terminal, which is arguably the largest of its kind in Southeast Asia.[15] Besides TransJakarta, other private owned bus systems like Kopaja, MetroMini, Mayasari Bakti and PPD also provide important services for Jakarta commuters with numerous routes throughout the city. Since January 2013, Jakarta Government has integrated Kopaja AC buses with TransJakarta feeder bus routes. For the future, Metromini AC bus it is also possible to enter TransJakarta bus lanes to enhance integrated bus rapid transit system.

Traditional transports[edit]

Compressed natural gas fuelled Bajaj in Jakarta.

In 1966, an estimated 160 thousand pedicabs (becak) operated in the city; as much as 15% of Jakarta's total workforce was engaged in becak driving. In 1971, becaks were banned from major roads, and shortly thereafter the government attempted a total ban, which substantially reduced their numbers but did not eliminate them. A campaign to eliminate them succeeded in 1990 and 1991, but during the economic crisis of 1998, some returned amid less effective government attempts to control them.[16] Becaks were banned because they caused traffic congestion and they were seen as the exploitation of humans by other humans.[17] Becaks were replaced by bemo, betor, helicak, minicar, and bajaj.[17] In 2018, Governor Anies Baswedan attempted to allow becaks again because of a political contract with becak drivers during his campaign.[18] Most cycle rickshaw drivers in the 1980s were former landless agricultural laborers from rural areas of Java.[16] As of March 2018, there are about 1,500 becaks in Jakarta.[19]

Bajaj auto rickshaw provide local transportation in the back streets of some parts of the city. From the early 1940s to 1991 they were a common form of local transportation in the city. They are colored blue (for the ones which use Compressed natural gas) and orange (for the ones which use normal gasoline fuel).[20] The blue ones are imported from India with the brand of Bajaj and TVS and the orange ones are the old design from 1990. The government is currently replacing the orange bajajs with the blue ones because blue bajajs are less polluting and the gas fuel is cheaper.[20][21] Bemo was a three-wheeled vehicle similar to bajaj, which were eliminated in 1996 because they were old, too dangerous and cause much pollution, but they continued to exist until recently,[22] when in 2017, Bajaj Qute was introduced to replace bemo.[23] Angkot microbuses also play a major role in road transport of Jakarta. They operates in numerous routes to connect neighbourhoods of the city.

Taxi cab[edit]

A Blue Bird taxicab waiting at a mall in Jakarta

Plenty of taxi cabs are available in the city. Many companies operate & maintain pools of different model of cars in their own brands. Transportation network companies Go-Jek and Grab also have wide presence. The emergence of transportation network companies, known in Indonesia as taksi online (online taxi), has reduced the conventional taxi companies operating in Jakarta from 32 to 4 companies (Blue Bird, Express, Gamya, and Taxiku).[24]

Motorcycle taxi/ojek[edit]

Although ojek are not an official form of public transport, they can be found throughout Indonesia and in Jakarta. They are especially useful when navigating crowded urban roads, narrow alleyways, heavy traffic and cramped locations that larger vehicles cannot reach. Nowadays most of the ojeks are operated under app-based Transportation network companies including Go-Jek and Grab, in Indonesia called ojek online. Go-Jek was founded in 2011 so that ojek drivers who had been working with unpredictable income could operate professionally with better income, and its app was created in 2015.[25]

Bicycle[edit]

There are bicycle taxis (ojek sepeda ontel) in the Kota Tua (Old City) region. However, the revenues are declining because of the popularity of ojek online.[26] As of November 2019, Jakarta has 63 kilometres of separate bicycle lane, which will be extended to 200 kilometres by 2020.[27] Bicycle-sharing company Gowes, which means "to paddle," in Indonesian, started operation in limited areas of Jakarta in 2018.[28]

Rail[edit]

Argo Bromo Anggrek, a non-stop train connecting Jakarta and Surabaya

Long-distance railways and local tram services were first introduced during the Dutch colonial era. While the trams were replaced with buses in the post-colonial era, long-distance railways continued to connect the city to its neighbouring regions as well as cities throughout the island of Java. Main terminus for long distance train services are Gambir and Pasar Senen. High-speed railways are planned connecting Jakarta-Bandung and Jakarta-Surabaya.

High speed rail[edit]

The first high-speed rail to connect Jakarta with Bandung is currently under construction which is expected to start operation in 2021. The contract was awarded to China. Both Japan and China contested as a potential contractor, but it was awarded to China mainly because of their proposal did not require Indonesian fiscal spending or government debt guarantees.[29] The project cost was estimated to be US$5.5 billion. China Development Bank will fund 75 percent of the project. A joint venture company PT Kereta Cepat Indonesia-China has formed by China Railway Group Limited (CREC) with a consortium of Indonesia's state-owned enterprises (SOEs) led by PT Wijaya Karya Tbk to develop the project.[30]

Another project to upgrade of existing Jakarta-Surabaya route to high speed rail is undertaken in 2016. Priority was given to Japan this time who had been one of the biggest investors to Indonesia. The route is supposed to finish construction in 2019.[31]

Rapid transit[edit]

At present rapid transit in Greater Jakarta consists of a BRT TransJakarta, the Jakarta MRT, and commuter rail, KRL Jabodetabek and Soekarno-Hatta Airport Rail Link. Other transit systems, those are now being under construction are Jakarta LRT and Greater Jakarta LRT.

Bus rapid transit[edit]

TransJakarta has the world's longest bus rapid transit routes.

TransJakarta bus rapid transit service (known as Busway) was developed in the context of development reforms (or reformasi) and used Bogota's TransMilenio system as a model.[32] Jakarta's first busway line, from Blok M to Jakarta Kota opened in January 2004 and as of 14 February 2013, twelve out of fifteen corridors are in use. TransJakarta has the world's longest bus rapid transit routes (230.9 kilometres (143.5 mi) in length).[33][34] TransJakarta had a total of 128 routes as of April, 2018 (corridor, cross route & feeder route) - a significant increase from 41 routes in 2015. TransJakarta has targeted to serve one million passengers per day by the end of 2018.[35] In addition there are 18 'feeder' routes that serve beyond the exclusive busway corridors. Located in the municipalities surrounding Jakarta, the feeder service uses special buses that allow for boarding at either ground level or the TransJakarta station platforms. Transjakarta owned more than 1,500 buses in the first three months of 2017 and targets to have 3,000 buses by the end of the year.[36]

Commuter rail[edit]

A KRL Jabotabek commuter train

KRL Jabodetabek or commonly known as Commuterline is a commuter rail system which serves commuters in Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, South Tangerang, and Bekasi. The commuter system was started in 2000.[37] The number of passengers in 2014 reached 208 million, rising from 158 million in the previous year.[38].KRL Jabotabek serves all municipalities in Jakarta excluding the Thousand Islands, as well as Greater Jakarta region. The rail system uses rolling stock of rapid transit standard and operates at high frequency with a minimum headway. Daily ridership average was about 0.95 million [39] with total 315.8 million commuters used KRL Jabodetabek in the year of 2017.[40]

Major rail stations of commuter line are Jakarta Kota, Jatinegara, Tanah Abang, Duri, Pasar Senen, Manggarai and Sudirman. As a transit station, the Manggarai railway station is the busiest station in Indonesia, with more than 100,000 passengers boarding and alighting each day.[41] Though during rush hours, the number of passengers greatly exceeds the system's capacity, and crowding is common.

Jakarta MRT[edit]

Jakarta MRT tunnel construction between Dukuh Atas and Bundaran HI station

After a long planning and years of delay, Jakarta Mass Rapid Transit is currently in service. Jakarta city government decided for a rail-based system because of its ability to carry large numbers of people quickly and cheaply.[42] Jakarta MRT has a North–South line between Kota and Lebak Bulus and an East–West line. Preparation work started in April 2012,[43] and groundbreaking was done in October 2013. The first phase, between Bundaran HI and Lebak Bulus began operations on 24 March 2019,[44] and the entire North–South line is scheduled to be operational by 2024.[45][46]

Jakarta LRT[edit]

Jakarta LRT is a light metro system currently under construction.[47] Eight two-cars trainsets were procured. The first phase of the LRT, from Velodrome to Kelapa Gading with six stations and a length of 5.8 kilometres (3.6 mi),[48] is planned to begin operations in 2019, though no date has been set.[49]

Greater Jakarta LRT[edit]

Greater Jakarta LRT (LRT Jabodebek) is a light metro system which is currently under construction. The light rail transit (LRT) project was launched to replace the previously abandoned monorail project.[50]The groundbreaking ceremony was held on 9 September 2015, with the first phase of the construction will connect Cibubur in East Jakarta with Dukuh Atas in downtown Central Jakarta, passing through Cawang intersection. This phase will be 42.1 kilometres (26.2 miles) long, which includes 18 stations, and is expected to be operational by April 2021, after multiple delays.

Airport rail link[edit]

Soekarno-Hatta Airport Rail Link is a commuter train service connecting the Soekarno-Hatta International Airport to the Sudirman Baru railway station in Central Jakarta.[51] Another express train service is now under planning stage to connect Soekarno-Hatta International Airport with Halim Perdanakusuma Airport. Completion of this line is expected to be in 2019 at the earliest.[52]

Air[edit]

Soekarno–Hatta International Airport (CGK) is the main airport serving the Greater Jakarta area. The airport is named after the first President of Indonesia, Soekarno, and the first Vice President of Indonesia, Mohammad Hatta. The airport is often called Cengkareng airport or Soetta by Indonesians. The airport's IATA code, CGK, originates from the name of the Cengkareng locality, Tangerang, Banten, although the location of this airport is located outside of the city, it is used as a gate out by the Jakartans and citizen of the surrounding areas, therefore at the main gate of the airport, there is an inscription "Jakarta Airports".[53] Soekarno–Hatta International Airport was ranked as 17th busiest airport in the world by Airports Council International, with about 63 million passengers in 2017.[54] Today the airport is running over capacity. After T3 Soekarno-Hatta Airport expansion has finished in May 2016, the total capacity of three terminals become 43 million passengers a year. T1 and T2 also will be revitalised, so all the three terminals finally will accommodate 67 million passengers a year.[55]

A second airport, Halim Perdanakusuma Airport (HLP) serves domestic flight of low-cost airline, private and VIP/presidential flights. Other airports in the Jakarta metropolitan area include Pondok Cabe Airport and an airfield on Pulau Panjang, part of the Thousand Island archipelago (Kepulauan Seribu).

Waterway[edit]

Port of Tanjung Priok, the busiest port in Indonesia.

Sea[edit]

Jakarta's main seaport Port of Tanjung Priok serves many ferry connections to different parts of Indonesia. Port of Tanjung Priok is Indonesia's busiest port, and the 21st busiest port in the world in 2013, handling over 6.59 million TEUs.[56] To boost the port capacity, two-phase "New Tanjung Priok" extension project is currently ongoing. When fully operational in 2023, it will triple existing annual capacity.

The port is also an important employer in the area, with more than 18,000 employees who provide services to more than 18,000 ships every year. The Port of Tanjung Priok has 20 terminals: general cargo, multipurpose terminal, scraps terminal, passenger terminal, dry bulk terminal, liquid bulk terminal, oil terminal, chemicals terminal and three container terminals, 76 berths, a quay length of 16,853 metres (55,292 feet), a total storage area of 661,822 square metres (7,123,790 square feet) and a storage capacity of 401,468 tonnes.[57]

In December 2011, Muara Angke Port was renovated for Rp 130 billion ($14.4 million) in a 3 hectare area. Muara Angke Port would then be used as a public port to Thousand Islands (Indonesia), while Marina Ancol Port would be used as a tourist port.[58]

River[edit]

On 6 June 2007, the city administration introduced the Waterway (officially Angkutan Sungai), a new river boat service along the Ciliwung River.[2][59] Unfortunately, due of varying water levels during the dry and wet seasons in addition to floating plastic trashes that comes with water from upstream during raining, this service closed-down.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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