Transport in Romania
|Transport in Romania|
As a densely populated country in a central location in Central-Southeastern Europe and with a developed economy, Romania has a dense and modern transportation infrastructure.
Transportation infrastructure in Romania is the property of the state, and is administered by the Ministry of Transports, Constructions and Tourism, except when operated as a concession, in which case the concessions are made by the Ministry of Administration and Interior.
The country's most important waterway is the river Danube. The largest port is that of Constanta. Bucharest Airport is a major international airport and European transportation hub. Air travel is used for greater distances within Romania but faces competition from the state-owned CFR's rail network. Public transport is available in most areas.
The first important human improvements were the Roman roads linking major settlements and providing quick passage for marching armies.
A fast-growing number of Romania's major cities have modern tram or light rail networks, including Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca Oradea. Recently the tram has seen a very big revival with many experiments such as ground level power supply in Oradea.
Roads and automotive transport
According to CIA Factbook, Romania total road network is estimated to be 198,817 km long, out of which 60,043 km are paved and 138,774 km (2004) are unpaved. The World Bank estimates that the road network that is outside of cities and communes (i.e. excluding streets and village roads) is about 78,000 km long.
Motorways are identified by A followed by a number. As of July 2015, Romania has 696 km of motorway in use, with another 230 km under construction. In recent years, a master plan for the national motorway network has been developed and approved by the European Commission in July 2015.
Currently A1 Motorway, part of the Pan European IV Corridor the northern branch, with a length of 576.72 km has opened 353.38 km and under construction are the segments Timișoara—Lugoj 25.6 km and Lugoj—Deva 72.1 km, whereas Sibiu—Pitești 116.64 km is tendered.
A2 Motorway is the only motorway in Romania opened on all its segments, it has a length of 205 km.
A3 Motorway, which is the largest motorway project in Europe with a length of 588 km from Bucharest to Oradea (near the Hungarian border), has 107.6 km opened and also has under construction the 64 km segment between Oradea (Bors) and Suplacu de Barcău which has been re-auctioned after the contract with Bechtel was annulled, and now the works are in progress. Also Gilău—Nădășelu 8.7 km and Câmpia Turzii—Târgu Mureș 51.8 km the works are in progress, all three segments are due in 2016; the segment Nădășelu—Mihăiești 16.8 km is tendering and Bucharest bypass—Bucharest 6.5 km will be re-auctioned after the contract with Pizzarotti was cancelled; the remaining segments totaling 332.6 km are still in the planned phase, even though the segment Comarnic—Brașov 54 km might be tendered in the near future. The entire project is expected to be finished in 2018.
A4 Motorway also called Constanța bypass because it goes around the west side of the city. It has 22 km opened, from Ovidiu to Agigea, and also has 45 km planned, from Agigea to Vama Veche (at the border with Bulgaria).
A6 Motorway is also part of the Pan European IV Corridor like A1, but near Lugoj it starts the southern branch, that connects the cities of Sofia, Istanbul and Athens. It has a length of 270 km, of which 11.4 km between A1 and Lugoj bypass are opened.
A10 Motorway is the first motorway which will link two other motorways in Romania: A1 (near Sebeș) and A3 (near Turda). It has 70 km, and all segments are under construction and are due completion in 2016.
A11 Motorway is a 135 km motorway, the second to connect A1 with A3 this time between Arad and Oradea, of which a 2.4 km stretch near Arad called "Arad bypass" has been opened.
According to europaworld.com, in 2004 in Romania there were:
- 3,225,000 automobiles
- 43,000 buses and coaches
- 482,000 lorries and vans
- 235,000 motorcycles and mopeds
In 2013, there were an estimated 4.5 million automobiles in Romania.
Bucharest is the only city in Romania which has an underground railway system, comprising both the Bucharest Metro and the light rail system of the Regia Autonomă de Transport București. Although construction was planned to begin in 1941, decades of delays meant the Bucharest Metro was only opened in 1979. It now forms the backbone of the Bucharest public transport network with an average of 800,000 passengers during the workweek. In total, the network is 67 km long and has 49 stations.
The national carrier of Romania is TAROM, a full service airline which flies to 9 domestic destinations and 30 international destinations in 23 countries.
There are 61 airports in Romania (estimated as of 2006).
- Airports - with paved runways : 25
- Runways over 3,047 m: 5
- Runways from 2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
- Runways from 1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
- Airports - with unpaved runways : 36
- Runways from 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
- Runways from 914 to 1,523 m: 11
- Runways under 914 m: 23
- Heliports 1 (2006)
Romanian companies operate over 700 ships of which 400 are registered in Romania. Romania's 110 shipping firms employ 12,500 personnel at sea and 15,500 on shore. Each year, 105 million tonnes of goods and 1 million passengers are transported by sea. Marine transport is responsible for 52% of Romania's imports and exports.
- With terminals:
- Other Black Sea ports:
- Other ports on the Danube:
- Ports on the Danube-Black Sea Canal:
See also: Romanian river ports
As of 2006, there are 1,731 km of navigable waterways of which:
- 1,075 km on Danube River
- 524 km on secondary branches
- 132 km on canals
In 2004, according to europaworld.com, 19 million passenger-km and 4 billion ton-km were carried through these waterways.
- from 142 ships (1,000 gross register tons (GRT) or over) totaling 1,154,127 GRT/1,612,314 tonnes deadweight (DWT) 1999
- to 19 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 146,307 GRT/165,548 DWT in 2007.
50 other ships are registered in other countries: Cambodia 1, Georgia 15, North Korea 6, Malta 10, Marshall Islands 1, Panama 8, Sierra Leone 2, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Syria 4, Tuvalu 1, unknown 4.
International sea-borne freight traffic
- goods loaded: 18.2 million tons
- goods unloaded: 22.3 million tons (2004)
- Oil: 2,427 km
- Natural gas: 3,508 km (2006)
- List of airports in Romania
- License plates in Romania
- List of motorways in Romania
- Tourism in Romania
- Romania : transport worldbank.org
- The CIA world factbook :Romania www.cia.gov
- The domestic Romanian auto market
- http://www.railway-technology.com/projects/bucharest-metro/[unreliable source?]
- European airport passengers up 7% in 2011 to over 1.6 billion at anna.aero
- Romania: Air traffic to grow by 5 percent in 2011, up to 10.7 million passengers at aviationnews.us
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