Transport in Shenzhen
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Shenzhen has an extensive transport network, including various forms of land, water and air transport.
Rail transport in Shenzhen consists of National Railway, Metro and Tram at present.
Shenzhen is served by China's national railway network, China Railway, where train services between Shenzhen and cities across the whole China run. The stations are currently handling high-speed trains to Guangzhou, Changsha, Wuhan, Beijing and intermediate stations on the Beijing-Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong HSR route.
There are 8 railway stations for passenger service in Shenzhen including:
Shenzhen railway station, located in Luohu District, connected to the Luohu Port to Hong Kong, is the most important train station in the city. Guangzhou-Shenzhen Railway, which uses near high speed CRH trains for frequent passenger service, begins at this station. There are also a few long-distance trains departing from this station. Passengers can transfer to Shenzhen Metro Line 1 here.
Shenzhen North railway station, located in Longhua District, is the main terminal for high-speed rail train service in Shenzhen. Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link and Xiamen-Shenzhen Railway both serve this station, offering frequent high-speed train service to other parts of China. Passengers can transfer to Shenzhen Metro Line 4 or Line 5 here.
Shenzhen East railway station, formerly Buji Railway Station, located in Buji subdistrict of Longgang District, on Guangzhou-Shenzhen Railway, is one of the major terminal for long-distance trains departing from Shenzhen. Passengers can transfer to Shenzhen Metro Line 3 or Line 5 here.
Futian railway station, located directly in the city centre, Futian District, is an en-route station of Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong Express Rail Link. Passengers can transfer to Shenzhen Metro Line 2, Line 3 or Line 11 here.
And here are the freight railway stations in Shenzhen.
- Yantian railway station
- Xili railway station
- Sungang railway station
- Lilang railway station
- Mugu railway station
- Pinghu South railway station
- Henggang railway station
- Bantian railway station
- Georges Bassil
Shenzhen Metro was first opened on 28th Dec., 2004, then expanded in 2011 and 2016. Now there are 8 lines covering over 300km in the metro system, named Line 1 to Line 5, Line 7, Line 9 and Line 11, with 182 stations in total and 30 interchange stations. Additional 7 lines, Line 6, Line 8, Line 10, Line 12 to Line 14, Line 16 and some extension of current metro lines are under construction.
A single journey normal ticket in the metro costs 2 RMB to 14 RMB and a single journey business ticket of Line 11 costs three times as much as travel fare of normal ticket. Discounts of 5% off are given using Shenzhen Tong IC Card instead of a single journey normal ticket.
There are 3 interchange stations joining 3 or more metro lines together, Chegongmiao(Line 1, Line 7, Line 9 and Line 11), Futian(Line 2, Line 3 and Line 11) and Qianhaiwan(Line 1, Line 5 and Line 11), while passengers cannot transfer from Line 4 to Line 11 directly at present.
The metro system is operated by two companies, Shenzhen Metro Corporation and MTR Corporation, Shenzhen. MTR Shenzhen is now operating Line 4 of Shenzhen Metro.
Shenzhen Tram is a light rail system in Longhua District, Shenzhen, consisting of 11.7 km, 2 lines and 21 stations. It opened on 28th Oct., 2017 and integrates central Guanlan, the north side of Longhua into Qinghu Station of the city's rail network. It is expected to help local residents commute and relieve traffic congestion, especially since the north extension of Shenzhen Metro Line 4 is still being built. Each single ticket costs 2 RMB.
The 2 lines of Shenzhen Tram are:
- Line 1: Qinghu–Xiawei. 8.6 km.
- Line 2: Qinghu–Xinlan. 6.8 km.
Road transport in Shenzhen consists of various forms of transport as follows:
- Intercity buses and coaches
- Bus and coach services of customised routes
- Vehicle for hire services
- Public bicycles
- Highway system
- Urban roads
- Greenway system
Bus services in Shenzhen began in 1975, and now have expanded to a network consisting of nearly 1000 routes. Three franchised companies, Shenzhen Bus Group, Shenzhen Eastern Bus and Shenzhen Western Bus operate most of the routes, with the remaining operated by a few private companies.
Bus services in Shenzhen are subsidized by the government, where the operators have to set the bus fares according to a guideline. Bus fares usually range from 2 RMB to 10 RMB, except for branches, where the fare can be 1 RMB or 2 RMB, and privately-operated premium services, which may be charged as much as 30 RMB. Fare has to be given when boarding the bus in short-haul routes and expresses with no charge. However, for most long-haul routes, fare is collected manually according to the travel distance of the passenger. Shenzhen Tong IC Card or its mobile payment is accepted on most of the bus routes with 20% off at least, except a few privately-operated premium routes.
Bus routes in Shenzhen are categorised into three categories, beginning from Dec. 2008:
These are long-haul routes connecting the city and the suburbs/exurbs, travelling on motorways. The buses used for these routes, which are normally actually coaches for long-distance travel, are green. Normally, no standing passengers are allowed on these routes. These routes are charged a flat fare with a maximum of 10 RMB, according to the distance of the route. Renumbered routes in this category start with E, for example, E11 and E33, and a few routes beginning with 3 in the old numbering scheme running on motorways also fall into this category, e.g. 398.
These are medium to long routes, travelling on trunk roads, for example, national highway G107, using full-sized cyan transit buses. These routes are charged according to the travel distance of the passengers, from 2 RMB to 10 RMB, if the full fare is greater than 3 RMB, sectional fares and manual fare collection are used, with passengers of short-haul routes paying only 2 RMB, 2.5 RMB or 3 RMB. Renumbered routes in this category start with M, for example, M206 and M408, and most of the routes in the old numbering scheme fall into this category, e.g. 1 and 337.
These are short-haul routes travelling in neighbourhoods, narrow streets and alleys, using orange minibuses/midibuses. With one exception, these routes are charged a flat fare of 1 RMB or 2 RMB. Renumbered routes in this category start with B, for example, B611 and B852. Some of the routes in the old numbering scheme, starting with 7 or 9, fall into this category, e.g. 720 and 915.
In addition, there are some other bus routes, not belonging to the above categories, with Chinese characters forming part of the route number, which include:
- 高峰专线XX: Rush hour routes
- 高快巴士XX: Rush hour expresses
- 旅游X: Traveling routes
- 深莞X, 深惠X: Intercity bus routes connecting Shenzhen with Dongguan or Huizhou. These are all standard bus routes using transit buses, not long-distance coaches.
- Old numbering scheme
Before Dec. 2008, bus routes in Shenzhen were numbered using the hundred district according to the districts where the route operated in.
- XX, 1XX, 2XX: Full-sized bus routes operating in the central districts including Futian District, Luohu District, Nanshan District and Yantian District, which become main-lines in the current categorisation.
- 3XX: Full-sized bus routes crossing the former border of the Special Economic Zone(SEZ), which become main-lines or expresses in the current categorisation.
- 4XX: Minibus routes in the 4 central districts, abolished in 2004.
- 5XX: Minibus routes crossing the former border of the SEZ, abolished in 2004 except premium express routes in form of K5XX. Only K578 remained up to now.
- 6XX: Full-sized bus routes serving Bao'an District, Longhua District and Guangming District which become main-lines in the current categorisation.
- 7XX: Minibus routes serving Bao'an District, Longhua District and Guangming District, gradually replaced by full-sized bus after 2004, which become branches or main-lines in the current categorisation.
- 8XX: Full-sized bus routes serving Longgang District, Pingshan District and Dapeng New District, which become main-lines in the current categorisation.
- 9XX: Minibus routes serving Longgang District Pingshan District and Dapeng New District, gradually replaced by full-sized bus after 2004, which become branches or main-lines in the current categorisation.
- N-prefixed: Nightly route services at night which are usually parallel to their corresponding regular routes at daytime. Sometimes a letter N appearing before the route number started with E, M or B means an nightly route which is parallel to the corresponding route without N. For example, NE26 is the nightly service of E26. This usage have been put into operation since Oct. 2018.
A letter A or B may be added after the route number, which indicates small variations of the route, and a letter K appearing before the route number means the route an express which is parallel to the corresponding route without K. For example, K113(now M133) is the express of 113. These usage have been abolished since July 2018.
New routes starting from Dec. 2008 no longer use this numbering scheme, and old routes extensively modified are renumbered to the new scheme sequentially assigning a number starting with E, M or B instead.
As of Dec. 2017, the entire fleet of over 16,300 buses has been replaced with electric buses, the largest fleet of electric buses of any city in the world. The city began rolling out electric buses made by BYD in 2009, and has heavily invested in acquiring electric buses and taxis since.
Intercity buses and coaches
There are a lot of long distance coach stations in Shenzhen, with coach services to the other parts of Guangdong, Hong Kong, Macau and other various parts of China. Shenzhen Coach Station, also called Yinhu Coach Station, is located in Yinhu Subdistrict, Luohu District. There are also coach stations at Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport and several railway stations like Shenzhen railway station and Shenzhen North railway station.
Apart from these long-distance coaches, there are also some coaches running between Shenzhen and other cities in Guangdong, for example, Guangzhou and Dongguan, with a "route number" starting with 长 (meaning long), for example, 长16路. These numbered coaches are mainly unregulated or even illegal, which are not recommended for passengers.
Apart from coaches, transit buses can also be used for intercity travel between Shenzhen and its neighbouring cities, Dongguan, Huizhou and Hong Kong. The "intercity" bus routes like 深莞X线 and 深惠X线 are official regulated bus routes between these cities, and there are also a few de facto intercity bus routes with regular numbering, like 398, M184 and M325, with 208 from Huizhou, 285 from Dongguan, B6 from Hong Kong which travel across the city border.
Bus and coach services of customised routes
Thanks to the rapid development of Information Technology and sharing economy, bus and coach services of customised routes have spread throughout China, including Shenzhen. They leave the city boundaries disregarded providing services both in and between the cities.
- Services in the city
Besides bus routes designated by Transport Commission of Shenzhen and its organizations, there are also bus services of customised routes ("定制公交" in Chinese). That is, passengers book tickets at certain apps "E巴士" or "优点巴士" and choose their routes in advance, and they can take these buses. With a few stops like expresses, these routes provide commutes for work, study or travel faster than regular buses. Passengers can also submit their origin and destinations to the apps to lodge routes of their own. When a certain number of people share the same locations the routes between them would be put into operation.
Number of these routes operated by franchised companies often start with P, PJ, PT by Shenzhen Eastern Bus or F, H, T by Shenzhen Bus Group whose information would not be shown at regular bus stops, so passengers can only get their information with the apps. They are very popular among workers and visitors in Shenzhen as an alternative of comfort. The first customised route operated by franchised companies started operation in Jan. 2016 by Shenzhen Eastern Bus.
Vehicle for hire services
All colors of taxicabs are able to operate in the entire Shenzhen, as follows:
- Red taxis and Green taxis are fuel taxis united together by governments in May 2017, then were replaced by blue ones in Dec 2018.
- Blue taxis are electric vehicles and fuel surcharge does not apply on them.
The taxi fare consists of 2 parts, 10 RMB for up to 2 km(about 1.24 mile) first and 2.6 RMB/km(about 4.18 RMB/mile) for the distance remained. Extra 2 to 4 RMB is needed for fuel taxis as fuel surcharge according to local price of fuel.
DiDi is also very popular in Shenzhen.
Public bicycle systems in Shenzhen can be roughly divided into 2 kinds.
- Dock-based Public Bicycles
Dock-based public bicycle system in Shenzhen was first operated in Yantian District in Dec 2011, and it is the first public bicycle system in Shenzhen. Then it spread to Luohu, Futian, Longgang and Nanshan Districts. Yantian public bicycle system is the only one covering the whole district in Shenzhen. These bicycle systems are franchised by governments at district level and usually incompatible with each other. Franchised bicycle system in Luohu District suspended in Feb 2018.
Bike sharing usually refers to dockless public bicycle system by private sectors in China. It starts in Oct 2016 in Nanshan District by Mobike. Users download their apps and scan QR codes to unlock for a ride. Then many private bike sharing operators like Ofo, Xiaoming etc. appeared and were developing rapidly in 2017. The government has begun to regulate the number of these bicycles as there are too many. Some operators like Bluegogo also met a bankruptcy because of the high operational cost.
Expressways in Shenzhen usually need a fare of about 1 RMB/km(about 1.6 RMB/mile) for a private car due to the provincial standard, while more needed for a larger vehicle. Speed limits also vary with the type of vehicles that usually ranged from 60 km/h to 100 km/h (37.29 mile/h to 62.15 mile/h).
- Normal highways
Normal highways are free with lower speed limits than expressways.
The following are their numbers with names or destinations:
- National highway in Shenzhen
Number of these highways starts with G.
- G4 Jinggang'ao Expressway
- G0422 Wushen Expressway
- G15 Shenhai Expressway
- G25 Changshen Expressway
- G94 Zhusanjiao Ring Expressway
- G107 Beijing-Hong Kong
- G205 Shanhaiguan-Shenzhen
- G220 Dongying-Shenzhen
- G228 Dandong-Dongxing
- Provincial highway in Shenzhen
Number of these highways starts with S.
- S3 Guangshen Riverside Expressway
- S28 Shuiguan Expressway
- S29 Congguanshen Expressway
- S30 Huishen Coastal Expressway
- S31 Longda Expressway
- S33 Nanguang Expressway
- S202 Huiyan Road
- S203 Danping Express
- S301 Nanping Express
- S359 Xichong-Bao'an
- S360 Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant-Longhua
- S550 Coastal Boulevards
There are also County highways and Country highways in Shenzhen, but many of them have been detoured or renewed with the rapid urbanization of the city.
Being a relatively new city dating back to only the late 1970s, Shenzhen, especially the former SEZ, has had the advantage of planned street grids.
Typically, urban roadways in Shenzhen are designated as street, road, avenue and boulevard. Streets in Shenzhen tend to be narrow, with 1-2 lanes, Roads have 2-4 lanes, while Avenues and Boulevards are wide, which can have anywhere between 4-12 lanes.
There are 2 famous pedestrian streets in Shenzhen.
Located in Luohu District, East Gate Pedestrian Street, is one of the oldest pedestrian streets in Shenzhen. Commercial activities had begun there even before the city was built. In 1990, the first McDonald's in Mainland China opened there. As the busiest pedestrian street in Shenzhen, it covers a comprehensive range of goods and mainly focuses on clothing. People can now get there by Shenzhen Metro Line 1 or Line 3 at Laojie(meaning Old Street) Station, or Line 3 at Shaibu Station.
Huaqiang North Pedestrian Street is located in Futian District. It turned pedestrian in late 2016 after the construction of Shenzhen Metro Line 7, later with the underground commercial part completed in July 2018. It was once well-known as an ideal marketplace for electronic devices but becoming less popular as online shopping increases. People can now get there by Shenzhen Metro Line 2 or Line 7 at Huaqiang North Station, Line 1 at Huaqiang Road Station, or Line 3 or Line 7 at Huaxin Station.
There are ferries from Shekou Passenger Terminal to other cities in Pearl River Delta region, including Hong Kong, Macau, Zhuhai, etc. There is also a ferry terminal at Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport, with direct ferry connecting Hong Kong International Airport totally in airside. Moreover, there are a few ferries traveling inside Shenzhen like the Yantian-Nan'ao ferry connecting Yantian District with Nan'ao Subdistrict, Dapeng New District.
The city's 260-kilometre (162 mi) coastline is divided by the main landmass of Hong Kong (namely the New Territories and the Kowloon Peninsula) into two halves, the eastern and the western. Shenzhen's western port area, in Nanshan District, lies to the east of Lingdingyang in the Pearl River Estuary and possesses a deep water harbour with superb natural shelters. It is about 20 nautical miles (40 km) from Hong Kong to the south and 60 nautical miles (110 km) from Guangzhou to the north. By passing Pearl River system, the western port area is connected with the cities and counties in Pearl River Delta networks; by passing On See Dun waterway, it extends all ports both at home and abroad. On the other hand, Shenzhen's eastern port area is located in Yantian District, connected with Pinghu-Yantian Railway at Yantian freight Railway Station.
Shenzhen handled a record number of containers in 2005, ranking as the world's third-busiest port, after rising trade increased cargo shipments through the city. China International Marine Containers, and other operators of the port handled 16.2 million standard 20-foot (6.1 m) boxes last year, a 19 per cent increase. Investors in Shenzhen are expanding to take advantage of rising volume. Port of Shenzhen then remained the third busiest port in the world.[circular reference]
Donghai Airlines, Shenzhen Airlines and Jade Cargo International are located at Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport. The airport is 35 kilometres (22 miles) from central Shenzhen and connects the city with many other parts of China, as well as international destinations. The airport also serves as an Asian-Pacific cargo hub for UPS Airlines. Shenzhen Donghai Airlines has its head office in the Shenzhen Airlines facility on the airport property. SF Airlines has its headquarters in the International Shipping Center.
Shenzhen is also served by Hong Kong International Airport; ticketed passengers can take ferries from the Shekou Cruise Centre and the Fuyong Ferry Terminal to the HKIA Skypier. There are also coach bus services connecting Shenzhen with HKIA.
There is also a heliport in Nanshan District for official use or luxurious service.
- Shenzhen Metro
- Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport
- Shenzhen Tram
- List of bus routes in Shenzhen
- List of provincial expressways in Guangdong
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