Transport in Turkey

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This article deals with the system of transport in Turkey, both public and private.

Rail transport[edit]

Rail network[edit]

Rail transport map of Turkey along with urban rail networks indication

The TCDD - Türkiye Devlet Demir Yolları (Turkish State Railways) possess 10,984 km of 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) gauge, of which 2,336 km are electrified (2005).[1]

There are daily regular passenger trains all through the network.[2] TCDD has started an investment program of building 5.000 km high-speed lines until 2023. By February 2014, three high speed train routes are running. Ankara-Eskişehir, Ankara-Konya and Eskişehir-Konya.

The freight transportation is mainly organized as block trains for domestic routes, since TCDD discourages under 200 to loads by surcharges.

In 2004, Marmaray project started on a rail tunnel under the Bosphorus straits.

Between Istanbul and Ankara, a high speed railroad line is being constructed now next to the normal speed railroad which is being renovated. When finished, travel time between the two major cities will reduce from 6,5 hours to 3 hours and 10 minutes, using trains ordered from Spain that can reach up to 250 km/h. Construction of a high speed railroad line between Ankara and Konya was begun in order to connect the two cities with a direct line and reduced travel time from several hours to approximately one hour. The high speed railroad line between Ankara and Konya was finished on 3 June 2011 and was put into service on 23 August 2011. Several other high speed and normal railroad projects are currently in the planning stage.[3]

Because of works connected with the Marmaray and Istanbul-Ankara high speed line there are currently no rail services linking Istanbul with the rest of Anatolia. The suburban services from Haydarpaşa terminate at Pendik where the train tracks end.

Urban rail[edit]

Trams in Kayseri

After almost 30 years without any trams, Turkey is experiencing a revival in trams. Established in 1992, the tram system of Istanbul earned the best large-scale tram management award in 2005. Another award winning tram network belongs to Eskişehir, (EsTram) a city with a new tram system opened in 2004. Several other cities are planning or constructing tram lines, usually with modern low-floow trams.

By 2014, there have been 12 cities in Turkey using metro, light rail and tram systems. They are Istanbul, Izmir, Ankara, Bursa, Eskisehir, Kayseri, Gaziantep, Konya, Samsun, Adana, Antalya and Adapazari. The total network is more than 500 kilometers and the rolling stock exceeds 1800 by now.[4]

Railway links with adjacent countries[edit]

Road transport[edit]

Road network[edit]

Turkish Otoyol network map

There are two types of intercity roads in Turkey:

- The first is the historical and free road network called State roads (Devlet Yolları) that are completely under the responsibility of the General Directorate of Highways except for urban sections (like the sections falling within the inner part of ring roads of Ankara, Istanbul or İzmir. Even if they mostly possess dual carriageways and interchanges, they also have some traffic lights and intersections.

- The second type of roads are controlled-access highways that are officially named Otoyol. But it isn't uncommon that people in Turkey call them Otoban (referring to Autobahn) as this types of roads enterred in popular culture by the means of Turks in Germany. They also depend on the General Directorate of Highways except the newest Otoyol 5 that is financed with a BOT model.

  • Total network: 426,906 km

As of 2010, there are 155 tunnels (total length 99.5 km) and 6447 bridges (total length 296.3 km) on the network.[8][9]

Public road transport[edit]

Ankara intercity bus station

There are numerous private bus companies providing connections between cities in Turkey. For local trips to villages there are dolmuşes, small vans that seat about twenty passengers. As of 2010, number of road vehicles is around 15 million. The number of vehicles by type and use is as follows.[10]

Car ownership[edit]

According to the figures released by Turkey's statistics authority (TurkStat) the total number of motor vehicles in Turkey reached 15.023 million as of November 2010.[11] The provinces with the highest rates of car ownership were:-

Total number of passenger cars was 6,472,156 at the end of 2007. Total number of motor vehicles (excluding tractors and construction vehicles) was 11,695,611 at the end of 2007.[12][13][14] The number of passenger cars had increased to 9,800,000 by 2010.[15]

Air transport[edit]

Main article: Aviation in Turkey

In 2013 Turkey had the tenth largest passenger air market in the world with 74,353,297 passengers.[16]

Airlines[edit]

Turkish Airlines, the flag carrier of Turkey

Airports[edit]

Istanbul Atatürk airport, Turkey's busiest airport

Total number of Airports in Turkey: 117 (2007)

Airports - with paved runways
total: 88
over 3,047 m: 16
2,438 to 3,047 m:″ 33
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 16
under 914 m: 4 (2010) (Link:[1])

Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 4 (2010) (Link:[2])

Heliports 20 (2010)

Water transport[edit]

About 1,200 km

Ports and harbors[edit]

Black Sea

Aegean Sea

Mediterranean Sea

Sea of Marmara

Pipelines[edit]

gas 10,706 km; oil 3,636 km; Total:14,342 km (2010)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ TCDD Statistics - PDF file
  2. ^ Uysal, Onur. "Traveling by Train in Turkey", Rail Turkey, 05 Mar 2014
  3. ^ Uysal, Onur. "5 Billion Needed Annually for High Speed Trains", Rail Turkey, 30 Jan 2014
  4. ^ Uysal, Onur. "Public Transport by Rail in Turkish Cities", Rail Turkey, 18 September 2014
  5. ^ Railway Gazette International - January 2008 p51
  6. ^ http://www.tcdd.gov.tr/home/detail/?id=233
  7. ^ http://www.kgm.gov.tr/Sayfalar/KGM/SiteTr/Kurumsal/YolAgi.aspx
  8. ^ http://www.kgm.gov.tr/SiteCollectionDocuments/KGMdocuments/Istatistikler/T%C3%9CNEL%20ENVANTER%20B%C4%B0LG%C4%B0LER%C4%B0.pdf
  9. ^ http://www.kgm.gov.tr/SiteCollectionDocuments/KGMdocuments/Istatistikler/KopruSayiUzunlugu.pdf
  10. ^ http://www.tuik.gov.tr/VeriBilgi.do?tb_id=52&ust_id=15
  11. ^ http://www.thefreelibrary.com/NUMBER+OF+MOTOR+VEHICLES+-Number+of+registered+motor+vehicles+in...-a0247580632
  12. ^ http://tuikrapor.tuik.gov.tr/reports/rwservlet?ulastirmadb2=&report=tablo2.RDF&p_yil1=2007&p_ar1=1&p_ar2=2&p_ar3=3&p_ar4=4&p_ar5=5&p_ar6=6&p_ar7=7&p_ay1=9&p_tur=1&desformat=html&ENVID=ulastirmadb2Env
  13. ^ http://www.tuik.gov.tr/ulastirmadagitimapp/ulastirma.zul
  14. ^ http://www.tuik.gov.tr/metaveri/52_m9.doc. Retrieved December 1, 2008.  Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  15. ^ http://www.ins.itu.edu.tr/ksogut/S-curve%20car%20ownership.pdf
  16. ^ World Bank Datebase, http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.AIR.PSGR