Transport in Turkey
This article deals with the system of transport in Turkey, both public and private.
The TCDD - Türkiye Devlet Demir Yolları (Turkish State Railways) possess 10,984 km of 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) gauge, of which 2,336 km are electrified (2005).
There are daily regular passenger trains all through the network. TCDD has started an investment program of building 5.000 km high-speed lines until 2023. By February 2014, three high speed train routes are running. Ankara-Eskişehir, Ankara-Konya and Eskişehir-Konya.
The freight transportation is mainly organized as block trains for domestic routes, since TCDD discourages under 200 to loads by surcharges.
Between Istanbul and Ankara, a high speed railroad line is being constructed now next to the normal speed railroad which is being renovated. When finished, travel time between the two major cities will reduce from 6,5 hours to 3 hours and 10 minutes, using trains ordered from Spain that can reach up to 250 km/h. Construction of a high speed railroad line between Ankara and Konya was begun in order to connect the two cities with a direct line and reduced travel time from several hours to approximately one hour. The high speed railroad line between Ankara and Konya was finished on 3 June 2011 and was put into service on 23 August 2011. Several other high speed and normal railroad projects are currently in the planning stage.
Because of works connected with the Marmaray and Istanbul-Ankara high speed line there are currently no rail services linking Istanbul with the rest of Anatolia. The suburban services from Haydarpaşa terminate at Pendik where the train tracks end.
After almost 30 years without any trams, Turkey is experiencing a revival in trams. Established in 1992, the tram system of Istanbul earned the best large-scale tram management award in 2005. Another award winning tram network belongs to Eskişehir, (EsTram) a city with a new tram system opened in 2004. Several other cities are planning or constructing tram lines, usually with modern low-floow trams.
By 2014, there have been 12 cities in Turkey using metro, light rail and tram systems. They are Istanbul, Izmir, Ankara, Bursa, Eskisehir, Kayseri, Gaziantep, Konya, Samsun, Adana, Antalya and Adapazari. The total network is more than 500 kilometers and the rolling stock exceeds 1800 by now.
- Cities with commuter rail systems: Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir
- Cities with metro systems: Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, Adana, Bursa
- Cities with light rail transit systems: Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, Adana, Bursa, Eskişehir, Konya, Antalya, Kayseri, Gaziantep, Samsun
- Azerbaijan - via Georgia - under construction
- Armenia - closed (see Kars Gyumri Akhalkalaki railway line)
- Bulgaria - open - 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)
- Greece - open - 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) (Note: Passenger services as Express of Friendship/Filia suspended from 13 February 2012 )
- Georgia - under reconstruction - break-of-gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)/1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in).
- Iran - via Lake Van train ferry - same gauge
- Iraq - No direct link, traffic routed via Syria - same gauge
- Syria - closed - 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) (Note: It was suspended after breakout of Syrian Civil War in 29 August 2011)
There are two types of intercity roads in Turkey:
- The first is the historical and free road network called State roads (Devlet Yolları) that are completely under the responsibility of the General Directorate of Highways except for urban sections (like the sections falling within the inner part of ring roads of Ankara, Istanbul or İzmir. Even if they mostly possess dual carriageways and interchanges, they also have some traffic lights and intersections.
- The second type of roads are controlled-access highways that are officially named Otoyol. But it isn't uncommon that people in Turkey call them Otoban (referring to Autobahn) as this types of roads enterred in popular culture by the means of Turks in Germany. They also depend on the General Directorate of Highways except the newest Otoyol 5 that is financed with a BOT model.
- Total network: 426,906 km
Public road transport
There are numerous private bus companies providing connections between cities in Turkey. For local trips to villages there are dolmuşes, small vans that seat about twenty passengers. As of 2010, number of road vehicles is around 15 million. The number of vehicles by type and use is as follows.
- Car 7,544,871
- Minibus 386,973
- Bus 208,510
- Small truck 2,399,038
- Truck 726,359
- Motorcycle 2,389,488
- Special Purpose vehicle 35,492
- Tractor 1,404,872
- Total: 15,095,603
According to the figures released by Turkey's statistics authority (TurkStat) the total number of motor vehicles in Turkey reached 15.023 million as of November 2010. The provinces with the highest rates of car ownership were:-
- 1 - Ankara (158 cars per 1,000 pop.)
- 2 - İstanbul (129)
- 3 - Muğla (106)
- 4 - İzmir (103)
- 5 - Eskişehir (98)
- 6 - Denizli (98)
- 7 - Antalya (95)
- 8 - Burdur (90)
- 9 - Kayseri (85)
- 10- Karabük (84)
- 11- Bursa (83)
- 12- Zonguldak (79)
Total number of passenger cars was 6,472,156 at the end of 2007. Total number of motor vehicles (excluding tractors and construction vehicles) was 11,695,611 at the end of 2007. The number of passenger cars had increased to 9,800,000 by 2010.
In 2013 Turkey had the tenth largest passenger air market in the world with 74,353,297 passengers.
Total number of Airports in Turkey: 117 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways
over 3,047 m: 16
2,438 to 3,047 m:″ 33
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 16
under 914 m: 4 (2010) (Link:)
Airports - with unpaved runways
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 4 (2010) (Link:)
Heliports 20 (2010)
About 1,200 km
Ports and harbors
gas 10,706 km; oil 3,636 km; Total:14,342 km (2010)
- TCDD Statistics - PDF file
- Uysal, Onur. "Traveling by Train in Turkey", Rail Turkey, 05 Mar 2014
- Uysal, Onur. "5 Billion Needed Annually for High Speed Trains", Rail Turkey, 30 Jan 2014
- Uysal, Onur. "Public Transport by Rail in Turkish Cities", Rail Turkey, 18 September 2014
- Railway Gazette International - January 2008 p51
- http://www.tuik.gov.tr/metaveri/52_m9.doc. Retrieved December 1, 2008. Missing or empty
- World Bank Datebase, http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.AIR.PSGR