A transport protein (variously referred to as a transmembrane pump, transporter, escort protein, acid transport protein, cation transport protein, or anion transport protein) is a protein that serves the function of moving other materials within an organism. Transport proteins are vital to the growth and life of all living things. There are several different kinds of transport proteins.
Carrier proteins are proteins involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across a biological membrane. Carrier proteins are integral membrane proteins; that is, they exist within and span the membrane across which they transport substances. The proteins may assist in the movement of substances by facilitated diffusion (i.e., passive transport) or active transport. These mechanisms of movement are known as carrier-mediated transport. Each carrier protein is designed to recognize only one substance or one group of very similar substances. Research has correlated defects in specific carrier proteins with specific diseases. A membrane transport protein (or simply transporter) is a membrane protein that acts as such a carrier.
- Sadava, David, et al. Life, the Science of Biology, 9th Edition. Macmillan Publishers, 2009. ISBN 1-4292-1962-9. pg 119.
- Thompson, Liz A. Passing the North Carolina End of Course Test for Biology. American Book Company, Inc. 2007. ISBN 1-59807-139-4. pg. 97.
- Sadava, David, Et al. Life, the Science of Biology, 9th Edition. Macmillan Publishers, 2009. ISBN 1-4292-1962-9. pg 119.
- Membrane transport proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- Vesicular Transport Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)