Trauma focused cognitive behavioral therapy

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Trauma focused cognitive behavioral therapy
Specialtypsychology

Trauma focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) is an evidence-based psychotherapy or counselling that aims at addressing the needs of children and adolescents with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other difficulties related to traumatic life events.[1] This treatment was developed and proposed by Drs. Anthony Mannarino, Judith Cohen, and Esther Deblinger in 2006.[2] The goal of TF-CBT is to provide psychoeducation to both the child and non-offending caregivers, then help them identify, cope, and re-regulate maladaptive emotions, thoughts, and behaviors. Research has shown TF-CBT to be effective in treating childhood PTSD and with children who have experienced or witnessed traumatic events, including but not limited to physical or sexual victimization, child maltreatment, domestic violence, community violence, accidents, natural disasters, and war.[3][4][5][6]

Description[edit]

TF-CBT is a treatment model that incorporates various trauma-sensitive intervention components.[7] It aims at individualizing TF-CBT techniques to children and their circumstances while maintaining therapeutic relationship with both the child and parent.[8] TF-CBT treatment can be used with children and adolescents who have experienced traumatic life events. It is a short-term treatment (typically 12-16 sessions) that combines trauma-sensitive interventions with cognitive behavioral therapy strategies.[9] It can also be used as part of a larger treatment plan for children with other difficulties.[10] TF-CBT includes individual sessions for both the child and the parents, as well as parent-child joint sessions.

Major treatment phases and components[edit]

Major components of TF-CBT include psycho-education about childhood trauma and individualizing relaxation skills. There are 3 treatment phases (stabilization, trauma narration and processing, and integration and consolidation). These phases include 8 different components throughout these sessions, denoted by the ‘PRACTICE’ acronym seen below.[2] The provider will facilitate 4-5 sessions each phase, while the PRACTICE components are delivered in sequential order.[2]

  • Psychoeducation and Parenting skills
  • Relaxation
  • Affective Expression and Regulation
  • Cognitive Coping
  • Trauma Narrative Development and Processing
  • In Vivo Gradual Exposure
  • Conjoint Parent-Child sessions
  • Enhancing Safety and Future Development

Phase 1: Stabilization[edit]

Psychoeducation and parenting skills. Information about trauma responses and reminders are given, normalized, and validated. Caregivers are also given strategies to respond to these trauma responses.[2]

Relaxation. The child is given skills that inform relaxation in order to cope with their stress responses. The caregivers are then educated on the child’s techniques.[2]

Affective Expression and Regulation. This component assists the child in becoming more comfortable with the expression of feelings and thoughts, so that they may practice and develop skills in order to manage their stress response. The caregivers are educated on these skills.[2]

Cognitive Coping. This component helps both the child and caregiver recognize maladaptive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and replace them with more accurate responses.[2]

Phase 2: Trauma Narration and Processing[edit]

Trauma Narrative Development and Processing. This is an interactive process that allows the child to address specific details about their experience with trauma. A written summary is developed through a creative medium, which serves as a tool to process these reactions. This content is then shared with the caregiver, in order to give the opportunity for the caregiver to also process these cognitions.[2]

Phase 3: Integration and Consolidation[edit]

In Vivo Gradual Exposure. This is the only optional component within TF-CBT. The caregiver and child develop a fear hierarchy and develop strategies to face each fear. The caregiver is crucial in this session, as they must give consistent encouragement and persistence for the child to use their relaxation and TF-CBT skills.[2]

Conjoint Parent-Child Sessions. Direct communication is encouraged between child and caregiver to continue open communication about the trauma experience, and other important issues before treatment concludes.[2]

Enhancing Safety and Future Development. Practical strategies are developed that assist in enhancing the child’s sense of safety and trust.[2]

Treatment Sessions[edit]

Unless, it is a conjoint parent-child session, each session is about 1 hour, and the therapist spends 30 minutes with the child and 30 minutes with the parent.[2] In the conjoint parent-child sessions, the therapist meets with the caregiver alone for 5–10 minutes, then the child alone for 5–10 minutes, then both caregiver and child together for 40–50 minutes.[2]

Child-specific sessions[edit]

During the child therapy sessions, the therapist focuses on relaxation training such as deep breathing and muscle relaxation skills, emotion regulation (identifying feelings), a trauma narrative and processing (discussing the overwhelming events and associated feelings), as well as cognitive coping strategies (identifying and replacing negative thoughts).[11]

Parent-specific sessions[edit]

Parents or primary caregivers are considered as the central therapeutic agents for improvement in TF-CBT.[4] During the parent sessions, the therapist discusses the appropriateness of the treatment and safety plans with the parents and encourages positive parenting skills to maximize effective parenting.[12] These sessions are important in helping the caregiver use and model specific coping skills for their own psychopathology for their child to show how they can manage their own symptoms.[13]

Parent-child conjoint sessions[edit]

During the conjoint sessions, the therapist shares the trauma narratives and challenges to incorrect/negative thoughts as a means to encourage and facilitate parent-child communication. The therapist would only intervene when inaccurate cognitions were not addressed.[1]

Group sessions[edit]

Group TF-CBT is an alternative to individual TF-CBT that reduces individual therapist hours and provides relief after disasters or in areas with limited resources.[14] Similar to individual TF-CBT, group TF-CBT involves both child and caregiver and utilizes the ‘PRACTICE’ elements, typically delivered through 12 structured sessions that target the reduction of distress and feelings of shame.[14]

Evaluation of effectiveness[edit]

Randomized clinical trials examining the efficacy of TF-CBT have found it to be an effective treatment plan for a variety of disorders in both children and adolescents.[15][16] TF-CBT has been proven to effectively reduce symptoms of PTSD, depression, anxiety, externalizing behaviors, sexualized behaviors, and feelings of shame in traumatized children.[17] TF-CBT has been shown to improve positive parenting skills and support of the child through the enhancement of parent-child communication.[10] A study examining the combinatorial effect of TF-CBT with sertraline has found that there were only minimal benefits associated with adding sertraline to the treatment, providing evidence for an initial trial of TF-CBT before medication.[18]

While TF-CBT has been shown to just as effective as Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for the treatment of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults, the results were tentative given low numbers in the studies, high drop out rates, and high risk of experimenter bias.[19]

Methods of access[edit]

Therapist[edit]

TF-CBT can be delivered by a variety of mental health professionals ranging from clinical social workers, counselors to psychologists and psychiatrists.[20] Qualified therapists are required to be rostered or nationally certified in TF-CBT. Part of the training for this treatment includes an online TF-CBT certified training course.[21] Additional criteria are required in order for a clinician to be rostered or nationally certified.[22] It is recommended that the practitioner not only complete the online training course, but also attend a multi-day in-person training, and receive continuing supervision for 6–9 months from TF-CBT supervisor or consultant, while also practicing with families who have experienced trauma.[23]

Implementation and adaptations[edit]

Since its development in the 1980s, TF-CBT has been used by therapists in many countries such as Australia, Cambodia, Canada, China, Denmark, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, Sweden, United States, and Zambia.[24] In some US states, implementation has been done in collaboration with the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration National Child Traumatic Stress Network.[23] It has also been used with children in the foster care system, with those who have suffered from traumatic life events, including the 9-11 terrorist attacks, and those who experienced Hurricane Katrina.[25]

TF-CBT has also been adapted to different cultures, including Latino populations. The treatment manual book has been translated into a variety of languages, such as Dutch, German, Japanese, Korean, and Mandarin.[26] Because TF-CBT can be implemented by local lay counselors, it makes it a feasible mental health resource option in low and middle income countries, or in areas with low-resources.[27]

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic there was a shift from in-person to remote delivery of psychotherapy. Because of the increase in demand for trauma-focused treatment in trauma-affected areas, practitioners have been able to facilitate TF-CBT virtually.[28] Virtual TF-CBT therapy is more cost effective and has increased access to psychotherapy.[28]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Cohen, Judith A. (2006). Treating trauma and traumatic grief in children and adolescents ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). New York: The Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1593853082.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P. (July 2015). "Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Traumatized Children and Families". Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 24 (3): 557–570. doi:10.1016/j.chc.2015.02.005. PMC 4476061. PMID 26092739.
  3. ^ Cohen, J. A.; Mannarino, A. P.; Perel, J. M.; Staron, V. (2007). "A pilot randomized controlled trial of combined trauma-focused CBT and sertraline for childhood PTSD symptoms". Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 46 (7): 811–819. doi:10.1097/chi.0b013e3180547105. PMID 17581445.
  4. ^ a b COHEN, J. A.; MANNARINO, A. P.; BERLINER, L.; DEBLINGER, E. (1 November 2000). "Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Children and Adolescents: An Empirical Update". Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 15 (11): 1202–1223. doi:10.1177/088626000015011007.
  5. ^ Ford, J. D.; Russo, E. (2006). "Trauma-focused, present-centered, emotional self-regulation approach to integrated treatment for posttraumatic stress and addiction: trauma adaptive recovery group education and therapy (TARGET)". American Journal of Psychotherapy. 60 (4).
  6. ^ de Arellano, Michael A. Ramirez; Lyman, D. Russell; Jobe-Shields, Lisa; George, Preethy; Dougherty, Richard H.; Daniels, Allen S.; Ghose, Sushmita Shoma; Huang, Larke; Delphin-Rittmon, Miriam E. (May 2014). "Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Children and Adolescents: Assessing the Evidence". Psychiatric Services. 65 (5): 591–602. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.201300255. ISSN 1075-2730. PMC 4396183. PMID 24638076.
  7. ^ COHEN, JUDITH A.; MANNARINO, ANTHONY P.; KNUDSEN, KRAIG (October 2004). "Treating Childhood Traumatic Grief: A Pilot Study". Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 43 (10): 1225–1233. doi:10.1097/01.chi.0000135620.15522.38. PMID 15381889.
  8. ^ COHEN, JUDITH A.; MANNARINO, ANTHONY P.; STARON, VIRGINIA R. (December 2006). "A Pilot Study of Modified Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Traumatic Grief (CBT-CTG)". Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 45 (12): 1465–1473. doi:10.1097/01.chi.0000237705.43260.2c. PMID 17135992.
  9. ^ Cohen, JA; Mannarino, AP; Iyengar, S (Jan 2011). "Community treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder for children exposed to intimate partner violence: a randomized controlled trial". Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 165 (1): 16–21. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.247. PMID 21199975.
  10. ^ a b Cohen, JA; Mannarino, AP; Knudsen, K (Feb 2005). "Treating sexually abused children: 1 year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial". Child Abuse & Neglect. 29 (2): 135–45. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2004.12.005. PMID 15734179.
  11. ^ "Trauma-Focused CBT Training". Retrieved 20 April 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  12. ^ Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P. (November 2008). "Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Children and Parents". Child and Adolescent Mental Health. 13 (4): 158–162. doi:10.1111/j.1475-3588.2008.00502.x.
  13. ^ Martin, Christina Gamache; Everett, Yoel; Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Zalewski, Maureen (September 2019). "The Role of Caregiver Psychopathology in the Treatment of Childhood Trauma with Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Systematic Review". Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review. 22 (3): 273–289. doi:10.1007/s10567-019-00290-4. ISSN 1096-4037. PMC 8075046. PMID 30796672.
  14. ^ a b Deblinger, Esther; Pollio, Elisabeth; Dorsey, Shannon (2015-12-23). "Applying Trauma-Focused Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy in Group Format". Child Maltreatment. 21 (1): 59–73. doi:10.1177/1077559515620668. ISSN 1077-5595. PMID 26701151.
  15. ^ Cohen, JA; Deblinger, E; Mannarino, AP; Steer, RA (Apr 2004). "A multisite, randomized controlled trial for children with sexual abuse-related PTSD symptoms". Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 43 (4): 393–402. doi:10.1097/00004583-200404000-00005. PMC 1201422. PMID 15187799.
  16. ^ Cohen, JA; Berliner, L; Mannarino, A (Apr 2010). "Trauma focused CBT for children with co-occurring trauma and behavior problems". Child Abuse & Neglect. 34 (4): 215–24. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2009.12.003. PMID 20304489.
  17. ^ Seidler, GH; Wagner, FE (Nov 2006). "Comparing the efficacy of EMDR and trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of PTSD: a meta-analytic study". Psychological Medicine. 36 (11): 1515–22. doi:10.1017/S0033291706007963. PMID 16740177.
  18. ^ Cohen, JA; Mannarino, AP; Perel, JM; Staron, V (Jul 2007). "A pilot randomized controlled trial of combined trauma-focused CBT and sertraline for childhood PTSD symptoms". Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 46 (7): 811–9. doi:10.1097/chi.0b013e3180547105. PMID 17581445.
  19. ^ Bisson J, Roberts NP, Andrew M, Cooper R, Lewis C (2013). "Psychological therapies for chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 12 (12): CD003388. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003388.pub4. PMID 24338345
  20. ^ "What is Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT)?". Retrieved 20 April 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  21. ^ "TF-CBT Web: A web-based learning course for trauma focused cognitive behavioral therapy". Retrieved 20 April 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  22. ^ "TF-CBT.org Certification Criteria".
  23. ^ a b Lang, Jason M.; Ford, Julian D.; Fitzgerald, Monica M. (2010). "An algorithm for determining use of trauma-focused cognitive–behavioral therapy". Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training. 47 (4): 554–569. doi:10.1037/a0021184. ISSN 1939-1536.
  24. ^ "Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT)". Retrieved 20 April 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  25. ^ Dorsey, S (2012). "Trauma-focused CBT for youth in foster care: Preliminary findings from a randomized controlled trial". In Presented at the San Diego Conference on Child and Family Maltreatment San Diego.
  26. ^ "Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT)". Retrieved 20 April 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  27. ^ Thomas, Fiona C.; Puente‐Duran, Sofia; Mutschler, Christina; Monson, Candice M. (2020-11-20). "Trauma‐focused cognitive behavioral therapy for children and youth in low and middle‐income countries: A systematic review". Child and Adolescent Mental Health: camh.12435. doi:10.1111/camh.12435. ISSN 1475-357X.
  28. ^ a b Jones, Chelsea; Miguel-Cruz, Antonio; Smith-MacDonald, Lorraine; Cruikshank, Emily; Baghoori, Delaram; Kaur Chohan, Avneet; Laidlaw, Alexa; White, Allison; Cao, Bo; Agyapong, Vincent; Burback, Lisa (2020-09-21). "Virtual Trauma-Focused Therapy for Military Members, Veterans, and Public Safety Personnel With Posttraumatic Stress Injury: Systematic Scoping Review". JMIR mHealth and uHealth. 8 (9): e22079. doi:10.2196/22079. ISSN 2291-5222. PMC 7536597. PMID 32955456.

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