Traumatic stress

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Traumatic stress is a common term for reactive anxiety and depression, although it is not a medical term and is not included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). What is popularly referred to as Traumatic Stress is covered in DSM-IV by Adjustment Disorders. This includes subtypes of anxiety, depression and disturbance of conduct and combinations of these symptoms. It results from events that are less threatening and distressing than the events that lead to post-traumatic stress disorder.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders was updated in 2013 called the DSM-5. Trauma and Stress-Related Disorders were updated under the code 313 and there are many sub categories. There are several subcategories in this disorder including Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder, Reactive Attachment Disorder, Acute Stress Disorder, Adjustment Disorders and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.[1]


Symptoms of Traumatic Stress[edit]

Symptoms of traumatic stress are both physical and emotional. Physical symptoms of traumatic stress include trembling and shaking, pounding heart, rapid breathing, feeling as if a lump is in your throat and feeling choked up, stomach tightening or churning, feelings of dizziness or feeling faint, cold sweats, and racing thoughts.[2] Emotional symptoms include feelings of shock and disbelief, fear, sadness, helplessness, guilt, anger, shame, and anxiety. [3]

Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder[edit]

One category is "Disinhibited social engagement disorder" according to the DSM-5 is "code 313.89, ICD-10 and F49.12." [4] This is a stress-related disorder and begins when a person is neglected in their childhood. Neglect means not meeting the child’s basic needs including physical and emotional needs. One example of this may be when a parent leaves an infant in the crib for the entire day, depriving the child of physical touch, food, and diaper changes. This touches on nature vs. nurture. Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development infant to 18 months is trust vs. mistrust. A neglected infant does not learn to trust their parent will meet their basic needs which leads to feelings of mistrust and anxiety. Eventually this neglect can lead to traumatic stress including Disinhibited social engagement disorder among others.( [5]) There is specific guidelines in the DSM-5 for a Psychiatrist to diagnose this disorder. Also the outlined specific symptoms must be present for at least 12 months in order to be considered persistent to be diagnosed.

Reactive Attachment Disorder[edit]

Another disorder in this category is Reactive Attachment Disorder according to the DSM-5 code 313.89, ICD-10, F49-1. This is a trauma disorder that involves when a parent does not console a child when they are feeling emotionally upset. For example, if a child is waiting for the other parent to pick them up for a visit and the parent doesn't’ show up. The child is not consoled by the parent creating sadness, irritability and fear. This happening on a regular basis can lead to a diagnosis of Reactive Attachment Disorder.[6] . n the fifth edition of the DSM (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013), the construct of attachment disorders was revised. The cluster of symptoms relating to indiscriminate behaviors is now regarded as a disorder called disinhibited social engagement disorder (DSED), which is related to, but separate from, RAD. RAD now refers to the cluster of inhibited symptoms only. Both RAD and DSED are categorized under the chapter “Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders” in DSM-5 and are still considered associated with severe pathogenic care. [7][8]

Acute Stress[edit]

Another disorder in this category is Acute stress disorder and is listed in the DSM-5 under code 308.3, ICD-10, F43.0. According to the DSM-5 "Acute Stress Disorder is a caused by trauma (traumatic stress) and lasts at least 3 days." [9]

Adjustment Disorder[edit]

Another disorder in this category is Adjustment Disorder DSM-5 code 309, ICD-10, F43-2. "Adjustment disorder is a maladaptive reaction to identifiable psychosocial stressor(s) or life change(s) characterized by preoccupation with the stressor and failure to adapt."[6]

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder[edit]

The last disorder listed in the DSM-5 is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder "Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that can occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as a natural disaster, a serious accident, a terrorist act, war/combat, rape or other violent personal assault." [10]

See also[edit]

[11]==References==

  1. ^ Trauma and Stressor-related Disorders. (May 04, 2019). Traumadissociation.com. Retrieved May 4, 2019 from http://traumadissociation.com/trauma-stressor.html
  2. ^ Smith, Melinda, et al. “Traumatic Stress.” HelpGuide.org, 28 Mar. 2019, www.helpguide.org/articles/ptsd-trauma/traumatic-stress.htm.
  3. ^ Smith, Melinda, et al. “Traumatic Stress.” HelpGuide.org, 28 Mar. 2019, www.helpguide.org/articles/ptsd-trauma/traumatic-stress.htm.
  4. ^ American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. pp. 5–25. ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8.
  5. ^ Santrock, John. Essentials Of Life-Span Development. McGraw-Hill Education, 2017.
  6. ^ a b Black, Donald (2014). DSM-5 Guidebook: The Essential Companion to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. American Psychiatric Publishing. ISBN 9781585624652.
  7. ^ Lehmann, Stine, et al. "Development and Examination of the Reactive Attachment Disorder and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder Assessment Interview." Assessment, Sept. 2018, doi:10.1177/1073191118797422.
  8. ^ Lehmann, Stine, et al. “Reactive Attachment Disorder and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder in School-Aged Foster Children - A Confirmatory Approach to Dimensional Measures.” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, vol. 44, no. 3, 2015, pp. 445–457., doi:10.1007/s10802-015-0045-4.
  9. ^ Black, Donald (2014). DSM-5 Guidebook: The Essential Companion to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. American Psychiatric Publishing. ISBN 9781585624652.
  10. ^ Parekh, Ranna. “What Is Posttraumatic Stress Disorder?” What Is PTSD?, 2017, www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/ptsd/what-is-ptsd.
  11. ^ Smith, Melinda, et al. “Traumatic Stress.” HelpGuide.org, 28 Mar. 2019, www.helpguide.org/articles/ptsd-trauma/traumatic-stress.htm.

Further reading[edit]