Travel restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic

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Some of the countries that have imposed a global travel ban in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, as of 23 April 2020
  Current ban on foreign travelers
  Former ban on foreign travelers

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries and regions have imposed quarantines, entry bans, or other restrictions for citizens of or recent travelers to the most affected areas.[1] Other countries and regions have imposed global restrictions that apply to all foreign countries and territories, or prevent their own citizens from travelling overseas.[2]

Together with a decreased willingness to travel, the restrictions have had a negative economic and social impact on the travel sector in those regions. A possible long-term impact has been a decline of business travel and international conferencing, and the rise of their virtual, online equivalents.[3] Concerns have been raised over the effectiveness of travel restrictions to contain the spread of COVID-19.[4]

The European Union rejected the idea of suspending the Schengen free travel zone and introducing border controls with Italy,[5] a decision which has been criticised by some European politicians.[6][7] After some EU member states announced complete closure of their national borders to foreign nationals,[8] the European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen said that "Certain controls may be justified, but general travel bans are not seen as being the most effective by the World Health Organization."[9] A few days later the EU closed its external borders.[10]

A study in Science found that travel restrictions had only modest effects, delaying the initial spread of COVID-19, unless combined with infection prevention and control measures to considerably reduce transmissions.[11] Researchers came to the conclusion that "travel restrictions are most useful in the early and late phase of an epidemic" and "restrictions of travel from Wuhan unfortunately came too late".[12]

Countries and territories implementing a global travel ban[edit]

Asia[edit]

  •  Brunei: Effective 24 March 2020, all foreigners are not allowed to enter Brunei on all border checkpoints, including those on transit purposes.[13][14]
  •  China: Effective 28 March 2020, entry refused to non-Chinese citizens holding visas or residence permits still valid to the time of the announcement issued on 26 March. All specific visa regulations and entry by foreign nationals with APEC Business Travel Cards will also be suspended.[15]
  •  Hong Kong: Closed its borders to all non-residents.[16] All non-Hong Kong residents who have been in overseas countries/territories (i.e. excluding mainland China, Macau and Taiwan) in the past 14 days are barred from entering Hong Kong, with exceptions provided for certain groups of non-Hong Kong residents such as spouses and minor children of Hong Kong residents as well as Macao residents who are registered under the Macao scheme under agreement between the Macau and the Hong Kong Government, and passengers are no longer allowed to transit through Hong Kong International Airport until further notice starting from 25 March 2020. Non-Hong Kong residents arriving from mainland China, Macau and Taiwan who have not been in any overseas countries/territories in the past 14 days are exempted from the ban, but they are still subject to compulsory quarantine for 14 days same as all other arrivals to Hong Kong.[17] Since Chinese tourists are only allowed to stay in Hong Kong with a valid visa for maximum 7 days, they are also banned from entering the territory.
  •  India: Flights to India are suspended from 00:01 GMT 22 March 2020 until further notice.[18][19] This does not apply to flights that carry goods for trade or essential goods and supplies, and their crew members, helpers, cleaners etc.
  •  Indonesia: Effective 1 April 2020, all foreigners (except residents, family connection, medical personnel, and people responsible for transport of goods) are not allowed to enter Indonesia on all border checkpoints, including those on transit purposes.[20]
  •  Israel: Effective 12 March 2020, foreign travelers from any country are denied entry, unless a specific permit is given by the Foreign Ministry and the person can prove the ability to remain under home isolation for 14 days. Israeli citizens and permanent residents are required to enter 14-day home isolation.[21]
  •  Jordan: Effective 17 March 2020, Jordan will stop all incoming and outgoing passenger flights into the country.[22]
  •  Laos: Flights to Lao People's Dem. Rep. are suspended until 3 May 2020.[23]
  •  Macau: Effective 19 March 2020, all non-residents are prohibited to enter, except residents of mainland China, of Hong Kong and of Taiwan.[24][25] On 5 April 2020, the Macanese government has announced the closure of the Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge which means all public transportation between Macao and Hong Kong has been suspended;[26] only dual licence plate (HK/Macau) and freight vehicles are allowed to use the bridge.[26]
  •  Malaysia: All citizens are prohibited from leaving the country while foreigners are prohibited from entering the country effective 18 March 2020. Malaysians are allowed to return to the country. Airports and airspace remain open.[27]
  •  Myanmar: All flights to Myanmar and visa applications are suspended until 15 May 2020.[28][29]
  •    Nepal: All international flights to Nepal are suspended until 30 April 2020.[30] Visa services are suspended until 2 June 2020.[31]
  •  North Korea: Closed its borders to all international tourists on 21 January 2020, one of the first countries to do so. Chinese visitors make up the bulk of foreign tourists to North Korea.[32] Also tightened/closed their border with mainland China.[33]
  •  Oman: Suspended tourist visas for all visitors, effective 15 March 2020, for 1 month.[34] Moreover, all cruise ships will be prevented from entering Omani ports for 1 month.
  •  Pakistan: Closed its airports for both arrivals and departures on 21 March 2020 for two weeks. The date was later postponed to 31 May 2020.[35]
  •  Palestine: Tourist ban of West Bank from 5 March 2020 for 14 days.[36]
  •  Philippines: Visa issuance and visa-free entry for all foreign nationals are temporarily suspended as of 19 March 2020.[37] On 22 March, all foreign visitors are barred from entry, with exceptions for foreign spouses and children of Filipino citizens, diplomatic officials, and workers for international organizations.[38][39]
  •  Qatar: On 15 March, Qatar said it would ban inbound flights, except for cargo and transit flights, starting from 18 March. The entry ban does not apply to Qatari citizens. Nationals of Qatar are not allowed to exit the country.[citation needed]
  •  Saudi Arabia: All international flights suspended, except in exceptional cases, for a period of two weeks, as of 15 March 2020.[40] The Saudi Ministry of Foreign Affairs recently issued a statement announcing that all religious visits (Umrah) to the sacred Muslim sites of Mecca and Medina have to be cancelled or postponed for the time being.
  •  Singapore: All foreigners are prohibited entry and transit starting from 23 March, 11.59pm. Only people working in essential services like healthcare services and transport will be allowed into Singapore during this time.[41]
  •  Sri Lanka: Effective 8 April 2020, visas and ETAs issued by Sri Lanka have been invalidated.[42] All airports in Sri Lanka are closed.[43]
  •  Taiwan: Effective 19 March, non-citizens are prohibited to enter unless specifically approved.[44]
  •  Thailand: Effective 26 March 2020, passengers are not allowed to enter Thailand except airline crew with pre-existing schedules, diplomats and their family members, passengers with a work permit and passengers with a waiver from PM or PIC of State of Emergency.[45]
  •  Turkmenistan: In order to prevent the spread of coronavirus. Starting 20 March, the national border of Turkmenistan is restricted to foreign citizens and stateless persons. If necessary, during the specified period, the following categories of persons can enter the territory of Turkmenistan in accordance with applicable norms and rules: diplomats of foreign countries, representatives of international organizations, crews of aircraft and ships, freight transport drivers engaged in international transit transport, members of work crews on railway ways and foreign representatives working at business facilities; located in the territory of Turkmenistan.[46]
  •  UAE: Effective 19 March 2020, passengers are not allowed to enter United Arab Emirates except family members (including father, mother, son, daughter, wife, husband, grandparents, grandchildren and domestic helpers) of nationals of United Arab Emirates.[47] All visas to foreigners except diplomatic passport holders, with effect from 17 March 2020 have been invalidated. The decision does not apply to those who already have their visas issued prior to the aforementioned date, and visa on arrival is still available for a large number of countries.[48][49]
  •  Vietnam: Effective 22 March 2020, Entry of all foreigners is suspended until further notice. Temporary suspension of entry will also be applied to all overseas Vietnamese and their spouses and children who have been granted with certificate of visa exemption.[50]

Africa[edit]

  •  Algeria: All international flights to Algeria are suspended.[51] Sea travel with Europe has also been suspended.[52]
  •  Cape Verde: On 17 March, as a contingency measure, Prime Minister José Ulisses Correia e Silva announced[53][54][55] the suspension of all incoming flights from the US, Brazil, Senegal, Nigeria, Portugal, and all European countries affected by the coronavirus. Since at the time Cape Verde had no air travel connections to other countries, in practice, this results in a lockdown.[citation needed]
  •  Democratic Republic of the Congo: The DRC government has declared a State of Emergency effective 24 March to limit the spread of COVID-19. All international passenger flights are suspended (except for limited special commercial flights, organized by embassies). All domestic passenger flights, as well as road and river transport, between Kinshasa and the provinces are suspended. Goods transport continues with controlled checkpoints.[56]
  •  Egypt: Egypt's Prime Minister Moustafa Madbouly announced that Egypt will be shutting down its airports and air travel starting from Thursday 19 March at noon until 15 April to prevent the spread of the coronavirus.[57]
  •  The Gambia: Closed its sole land border with Senegal, and closed its airspace to most flights.[58]
  •  Ghana: Effective 17 March 2020, Ghana will ban anyone that has been to a country with more than 200 cases in the previous 14 days, unless they are an official resident or a Ghanaian national. Citizens and resident-permit holders will be required to self-isolate for 14 days on arrival.[59]
  •  Kenya: Effective 17 March 2020, Kenya halted the entry of foreigners from countries that have confirmed coronavirus cases. Only Kenyan citizens, and any foreigners with valid residence permits will be allowed to come in provided they proceed on self-quarantine or to a government designated quarantine facility.[60]. The restrictions have been extended to 6th June 2020, with President Uhuru Kenyatta extending the travel ban on 16th May 2020 for a further 3 weeks. Effective 0001hrs on Sunday 17 May, there will be cessation of movement of persons and vehicle transporting passengers into and out of the Republic of Kenya through the Kenya-Tanzania and Kenya-Somalia international borders. Movement of cargo is exempt. Drivers of cargo vehicles will be subjected to mandatory testing for Covid-19; and will only be granted entry into Kenya if they test negative for the virus. The nationwide dusk to dawn curfew (1900hrs-0500hrs) has been extended for a further period of 21 days until 06 June 2020. Cessation of movement into and out of the Nairobi Metropolitan Area (NaMA), the counties of Mombasa, Kwale, Kilifi and Mandera has been extended until 06 June 2020.
  •  Madagascar: All flights to Madagascar are suspended until 20 April 2020.[61] On 16 May 2020, the restrictions have been extended to 1 June 2020.[62]
  •  Mauritius: Passengers are not allowed to transit or enter Mauritius.[63]
  •  Morocco: On 15 March 2020, Morocco suspended all international passenger flights to and from the country.[64]
  •  Namibia: Namibia's borders are closed until 23 April 2020.[65]
  •  Nigeria: On 26 March 2020, Nigeria ordered the immediate closure of international airports and land borders for a period of four weeks.[66]
  •  Seychelles: Effective 30 March 2020, Passengers are not allowed to enter Seychelles except specified categories of passengers.[67]
  •  South Africa: A ban on all international travel is in place. Exceptions include repatriation flights either bringing back South Africans stranded in foreign countries or transporting foreign nationals to their home countries. [68]
  •  Sudan: Effective 17 March 2020, Sudan declared a state of emergency and closed all airports and land borders, this after one person died of COVID-19 in the country.[69]
  •  Tunisia: All flights to Tunisia are suspended until 19 April 2020.[70]

Americas[edit]

  •  Argentina: Borders closed to non-residents, effective 15 March through 1 September[71]
  •  Belize: Borders closed to all travelers, including Belizean nationals except for emergency situations.[72][73]
  •  Bermuda: Effective 20 March 2020, a travel ban will be in place to disallow travelers to Bermuda unless the person is a Bermuda resident, a crew member, or a person with the written permission of the Quarantine Authority of Bermuda to enter.[74] Flights to Bermuda are suspended until 1 May 2020.[75]
  •  Bolivia: Effective 20 March, Borders closed to foreigners and international flights cancelled.[76]
  •  Brazil: Effective 30 March 2020, passengers are not allowed to enter Brazil except specific categories of passengers.[77]
  •  Canada: Borders are closed to all travelers who are not citizens, permanent residents or U.S. citizens. Exceptions are placed for diplomats, crew and immediate family members of citizens with clearing a basic health assessment by air operators.[78] The U.S. and Canada later agreed to close the Canada–United States border to non-essential traffic.[79]
  •  Chile: Passengers are not allowed to enter Chile.[80]
  •  Costa Rica: Borders closed to non-residents, effective 16 March through 15 May. Exceptions in place for crews. All returning nationals and residents are subject to mandatory 14 day quarantine.[81] Border restrictions are likely to be extended.[82]
  •  Colombia: Effective 17 March, Colombia will close borders completely until 30 May. Cargo will be permitted, but no persons will be allowed to enter or exit.[83]
  •  Cuba: Effective 24 March 2020, Borders closed to all non-residents; only Cuban and foreign residents will be allowed to enter the country.[84][85]
  •  Dominica: Suspended all flights.[86]
  •  Dominican Republic: The President of the Dominican Republic ordered to close all borders, effective 19 March.[87] Flights to Dominican Rep. are suspended until 12 April 2020.[88]
  •  Ecuador: Effective 25 March 2020, Ecuador's borders are closed, flights to Ecuador are suspended until 5 April 2020.[89][90]
  •  El Salvador: On 11 March, the President of El Salvador announced an Executive Order barring the entry of foreigners.[91] The General Directorate of Migration will deny entry to all foreigners, excluding accredited diplomats and legal residents of El Salvador.[91]
  •  Guatemala: The Guatemalan Government announced on 16 March that the country was closing its borders for two weeks, starting on midnight 17 March.[92]
  •  Guyana: Airports in Guyana are closed to all international passenger flights until 1 May 2020.[93]
  •  Honduras: Borders closed to all traffic, aside from the movement of goods, effective 15 March, 23:59.[94]
  •  Jamaica: No entry except by government authorization.[95]
  •  Panama: From 11.59 p.m on Monday night (16 March), only Panamanians and foreign residents would be allowed to enter Panama.[96] From 11.59 pm on Sunday 22 March, all international flights will be halted.[97]
  •  Paraguay: Flights to Paraguay are suspended until 26 April 2020.[98]
  •  Peru: Peru restricts access to the interior of the country from 12:00 on 17 March.[99]
  •  Suriname: Will close its borders for all persons and flights starting 14 March.[100]
  •  Trinidad and Tobago: On 16 March, Trinidad and Tobago announced that it closed its borders to all except Trinidad and Tobago nationals and certain medical personnel,[101] by midnight on 17 March.[102] Airports in Trinidad and Tobago are closed until 30 April 2020.[103]
  •  Uruguay: Borders closed to non-residents, effective 1 April.[104]
  •  Venezuela: Effective 10 April 2020, flights to Venezuela are suspended.[105]

Europe[edit]

  •  European Union/Schengen Area: The European Council agreed on 17 March to ban incoming travel other than citizens from countries in the European Union, European Economic Area, Switzerland and United Kingdom, long-term residents and people with long-term visa or residence permits, family members of EU and EEA citizens, medical personnel and people responsible for transport of goods for 30 days.[10][106][107] Each country has to implement the decision on the national level. Ireland choose to opt out from the decision due to the Common Travel Area. The agreement was to close borders for 30 days starting at noon on 17 March, though enforcement did not begin immediately as planned.[108] By the end of March, all EU member states (except Ireland) and all associated Schengen states (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) had introduced the travel restriction.[109] The restriction was later prolonged until 15 May[110] and then until 15 June 2020.[111] Some member states went even further and also prohibited EU and EEA citizens from entering, unless they are permanently living in the country or transiting to their home country, which is generally still possible (see also Non-global restrictions below):
    •  Austria: Closed land borders for persons not having medical certificate confirming negative test for SARS-CoV-2 within the last four days. Visitors arriving by air without proof of recently testing negative will be allowed into the country, but then placed in mandatory quarantine for 14 days or until they test negative.[112]
    •  Belgium: Closed its borders to non-essential travel on 20 March.[113]
    •  Croatia: Closed its borders to non-citizens on 19 March.[114]
    •  Czech Republic: Partially closed its borders on 14 March. Closed its borders to all non-residents on 16 March.[115] From 24 April, EU nationals are allowed to enter for short business trips or study, but only with a recent negative COVID-19 test.[116][117]
    •  Cyprus: The Cypriot government announced that only its citizens, along with other Europeans working on the island and people with special permits will be allowed into the country for a 15-day period beginning on 15 March.[118] This ban was extended until 30 April 2020.[119] Commercial flights in and out of the country have been banned until May 28.[120]
    •  Denmark: Closed its borders to all non-citizens 14 March.[121] This includes a ban on crossing the border for all tourism, but exempts travelers with "credible purpose" such as non-citizen Danish residents.[121]
    •  Estonia: Effective 17 March 2020, foreign travelers are not allowed to enter. Right of entry will remain for citizens and those with a right of residence, and foreign citizens whose next of kin live in Estonia. Transit is allowed for foreigners not showing signs of the coronavirus. A mandatory two-week quarantine will be set for anyone entering the country, with the exception of Latvians and Lithuanians from May 15.[122]On 15 May Estonia opened its borders to Latvian and Lithuanian residents.[123]
    •  Finland: Closed its borders on 19 March 2020, except for Finnish citizens returning to Finland, foreigners returning to their countries of origin, essential work-related travel, and goods. Finnish citizens returning home are recommended to quarantine themselves for 14 days after arrival.[124]
    •  France: Banned all non-essential travel into the country on 6 April.[125]
    •  Hungary: Hungary closed its borders for all passenger transport on 17 March and only Hungarian citizens and permanent residents from the EEA are allowed to enter.[126]
    •  Italy: Banned non-essential travel into the country on 28 March. Only travelling for health needs, work requirements and reasons of absolute necessity is allowed.[127]
    •  Latvia: Effective 17 March 2020 all international passenger connections by air, railway, sea and road, were to be cancelled. Only Latvians and foreigners with residency rights in Latvia will be able to enter the country from outside the Schengen Area,[128] but entry of foreign citizens by private vehicle from other Schengen member countries was still allowed.[129]On 15 May Latvia opened its borders to Estonian and Lithuanian residents.[123]
    •  Lithuania: Closed the border for foreigners, except for those with residence permits, effective 00:00 (UTC+02:00) 16 March – 27 April 2020.[130]On 15 May Lithuania opened its borders to Estonian and Latvian residents.[131]
    •  Malta: As of 21 March 2020, island of Malta has closed air borders, except ferry flights, cargo flights, humanitarian flights and repatriation flights.[132]
    •  Norway: Effective 16 March 2020, closed airports temporarily. Foreigners are turned away, and exemptions are made for Norwegians returning from abroad, and for goods.[133]
    •  Poland: Effective 15 March – 3 May 2020,[134] entry ban for all foreigners except for those with residential or work permits, and 14 days' quarantine on all people entering.[135][136][137]
    •  Romania: Effective 22 March 2020 Romania banned foreign citizens from entering the country with the exception of official residents or those who are transiting the country.[138]
    •  Slovakia: Closed its borders to all non-residents on 13 March.[139] Closed all three international airports and require all residents returning from abroad to 14 days quarantine in government designated quarantine facility.[139] Violators may be fined up to 1659 EUR.[140]
    •  Spain: Closed borders to non-residents on 17 March.[141]
    •   Switzerland: Borders closed to foreigners without residential visas or commercial deliveries, unless they are immediately transiting the country, starting 17 March 2020.[142]
  •  Azerbaijan: Effective 23 March 2020, passengers are not allowed to enter Azerbaijan except passengers with a work permit and passengers with a special permission issued by the government of Azerbaijan.[143]
  •  Armenia: Passengers are not allowed to enter Armenia until 14 May 2020.[144]
  •  Albania: Closed borders on 15 March and all commercial flights on 22 March.[145] Therefore, travel between Albania and Montenegro, Kosovo, North Macedonia, and Greece is prohibited, unless for the transportation of goods.[146]
  •  Georgia: The Georgian government imposed a ban on all foreign citizens entering the country and closed its borders. Georgia also halted all air travel with other countries on 20 March. These restrictions were set to end on 21 April, but were then extended until 10 May.[147][148]
  •  Isle of Man: The Isle of Man closed its borders for all incoming transport on 25 March.[149]
  •  Moldova: Closed its airspace and terrestrial borders for all foreigners, except for diplomats and permanent residents, effective from 00:00 (UTC+02:00) 17 March 2020.[150]
  •  North Macedonia: Closed its borders on 17 March.[151]
  •  Russia: Borders closed to foreigners with some exceptions, effective 18 March and until the end of the coronavirus epidemic in the country.[152][153]
  •  Serbia: Closed its borders on 16 March.[154]
  •  Turkey: Effective 28 March, Turkey is suspending all international flights to and from Turkey, amid COVID-19 outbreak. Turkey also closed its borders with all its neighbours.[155][156]
  •  Ukraine: Starting 15 March, Ukraine has closed its border for foreigners for two weeks. Returning Ukrainian citizens will be required to submit to health observation procedures.[157] Effective 17 March, Ukraine is suspending all commercial passenger services, including flights, trains and passenger buses, to and from Ukraine for a period of two weeks.[158]

Oceania[edit]

  •  Australia: Borders closed to all non-citizens and non-residents of Australia from 21:00 March 20.[159]
  •  Marshall Islands: Passengers are not allowed to enter Marshall Islands until 5 May 2020.[160]
  •  New Caledonia: Passengers except parents of a French minor and spouses of a national of France are not allowed to enter New Caledonia. Flights to New Caledonia are suspended until 31 May 2020.[161]
  •  New Zealand: Borders closed to all non-citizens including the previously exempt Pacific Islands or temporary visa holders (such as students) from 23:59 March 19.[162][163]
  •  Fiji: Borders closed to all non-citizens.[164]
  •  Tuvalu: Tuvalu's borders are closed.[165]
  •  Vanuatu: Vanuatu ports of entry are closed from 20 March 2020.[166]

Non-global restrictions[edit]

Many countries have implemented measures that affect citizens of, or recent travelers to, a particular country or set of countries. Many of these countries later expanded their restrictions, with some later implementing global restrictions that may be listed above.

  •  Bahrain: Visa on arrival has been suspended. This does not apply to passengers with a diplomatic, an official, a service or UN passport. Passengers who have been in Austria, Belgium, China (People's Rep.), Czechia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Iran, Iraq, Korea (Rep.), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and USA in the past 14 days are not allowed to transit and enter Bahrain. Passengers who have been in Hong Kong (SAR China), Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Malaysia, Singapore or Thailand in the past 14 days must have a valid visa prior to arrival.[167]
  •  Botswana: Visitors from Austria, Belgium, China (People's Rep.), Denmark, France, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Korea (Rep.), Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, USA or United Kingdom are not allowed to enter or transit Botswana.[95]
  •  Bulgaria: A temporary ban on entry imposed on all persons arriving from Italy, Spain, France, the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Austria, Belgium, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg and non-EU/Schengen countries. Visitors from some countries can transit through Bulgaria to return home.[168]
  •  Cambodia: Visitors from France, Germany, Iran, Italy, Spain or USA are not allowed to enter Cambodia.[95]
  •  Gabon: Visitors who have travelled through Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, China (People's Rep.), Croatia, Cyprus, Czechia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Ireland (Rep.), Japan, Korea (Rep.), Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, USA or the United Kingdom in the past 14 days are not allowed to enter or transit Gabon.[95][169]
  •  Germany: Effective 16 March 2020, Germany has partially closed its borders with Austria, Denmark, France, Luxembourg, and Switzerland. However, goods will continue to flow between the countries to curb panic-buying.[170] Non-essential travel from Austria, Denmark, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Spain, Switzerland, and non-EU/Schengen countries is banned.[171]
  •  Greece: Initially suspended all passenger flights to and from Italy on 14 March, excluding cargo and sanitary ones.[172] On 16 March, Greece closed its borders with Albania and North Macedonia, only permitting the transportation of goods and the entry of Greek nationals and permanent residents, suspended ferry services to and from Italy and air links to Spain and prohibited all cruise ships and sailboats docking in Greek ports.[173] The same day it was announced that a 14-day home restriction will be mandatory for those who enter the country.[174] On 23 March, Greece suspended all passenger flights from the UK as well as all air, sea, rail and road connections with Turkey, with an exception for Greek citizens and those who have residence permits, as well as trucks and ships that transport goods.[175] On 28 March, Greece suspended all commercial flights to and from Germany and the Netherlands[176] and on 15 April the Hellenic Civil Aviation Authority extended, until 15 May, the ban on passenger flights to and from Italy, Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Germany. Exemptions include cargo, sanitary, humanitarian, state, military, ferry and Frontex flights, as well as flights in support of the Hellenic National Healthcare System, those for repatriation of Greek citizens and emergency flights.[177][178]
  •  Japan: Passengers who have been in Albania, Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bahrain, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China (People's Rep.), Congo (Dem. Rep.), Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czechia, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong (SAR China), Hungary, Iceland, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Korea (Rep.), Kosovo (Rep.), Kuwait, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macao (SAR China), Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Moldova (Rep.), Monaco, Morocco, Montenegro, New Zealand, North Macedonia, Oman, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Vatican or Viet Nam in the past 14 days are subject to an entry ban (foreign citizens incl. residents of Japan) or quarantine (Japanese citizens and Special Permanent Residents).[179]
  •  Macau: Entry denied to all travelers except residents of mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, or Taiwan.[180] Previously, restrictions were implemented for travelers coming from a smaller set of countries.
  •  Portugal: Closed its border with Spain to non-essential travel such as tourism on 16 March.[181]
  •  South Korea: Effective 13 April 2020, citizens of countries that restricted visa-free travel for South Koreans will not be allowed visa-free travel in South Korea.[182] Visas issued on or before 5 April are invalidated.[183]
  •  Sweden: Beginning 15 March 2020, there is an entry ban which applies to all foreign citizens attempting to enter Sweden from all countries except those in the EEA, the UK and Switzerland.[184]
  •  United States: On 31 January 2020, the United States declared the virus a public health emergency. Starting 2 February, all inbound passengers who have been to Hubei in the previous 14 days will be put under quarantine for up to 14 days. American citizens who have travelled to the rest of mainland China will be allowed to continue their travel home if they are asymptomatic, but will be monitored by local health departments.[185] As of 2 March, foreign nationals who have travelled to Iran within the past 14 days are denied permission to enter the US.[186] American citizens and permanent residents returning to the United States who have travelled to Iran within the previous 14 days must enter through an approved airport.[186][95] Suspended incoming travel from the Schengen area in Europe, beginning at 23:59 ET on 13 March.[187] The official proclamation states that this restriction applies only to foreign nationals traveling to the United States, if they have been to a country within the Schengen area in the past 14 days. The ban does not apply to for example legal permanent residents and most immediate family members of U.S. citizens.[187] Also, cargo and trading goods are not affected.[188][189] On 14 March, Trump administration extended the ban to include United Kingdom and Ireland.[190] The restrictions will reportedly be in place for 30 days,[191] however the official proclamation does not contain that time limit, stating; "This proclamation shall remain in effect until terminated by the President."[187] The move was criticised by EU leaders.[192] Effective May 29, foreigners coming from Brazil are restricted from entering the US.[193]

Countries and territories implementing global quarantine measures[edit]

  •  Australia: The Australian Government has announced that any person – regardless of citizenship or residency status – travelling to Australia from any international destination will be required to undergo a compulsory 14-day quarantine, beginning from their date of arrival. The regulations, effective from 16 March 2020, also ban cruise ships arriving from international waters from docking at any Australian port.[194]
  •  Benin: 14-day quarantine.[95]
  •  Canada: Effective midnight 25 March 2020, the Canadian government announced an Emergency Order under the Quarantine Act that requires any person entering Canada by air, sea or land to self-isolate for 14 days whether or not they have symptoms of COVID-19.[195]
  •  Chile: Will not permit cruise ships to dock as of 15 March. Travelers who have been to countries of concern are subject to examination or quarantine upon arrival.[196]
  •  Ethiopia: Mandatory 14-day quarantine at the traveler's expense.[95]
  •  Fiji: After the lockdown of Lautoka on 20 March 2020, no person regardless of citizenship is allowed to leave the confines of the city.[197]
  •  Guernsey: Imposed a requirement on all persons arriving in the Bailiwick from anywhere in the world (including Jersey and the UK) to self-isolate for 14 days on arrival. This is a legal requirement, and failure to comply is a criminal offence.[198]
  •  Hong Kong: Effective 19 March 2020, all persons arriving in Hong Kong who have been to Mainland China or any overseas countries/territories (excluding Macao and Taiwan) in the past 14 days, regardless of whether they are Hong Kong residents, are subject to compulsory quarantine.[199] Effective 25 March 2020, all persons arriving in Hong Kong, regardless of whether they are Hong Kong residents, are subject to compulsory quarantine.[200]
  •  Ireland: Any person entering Ireland from abroad, including Irish citizens and residents of Ireland, must self-isolate for 14 days upon arrival. This includes Great Britain but not Northern Ireland.[201][202]
  •  Israel: From 9 March, Israel instituted a blanket 14-day quarantine on all visitors and returning citizens.[203]
  •  Jersey: From Friday 20 March, all travelers arriving in Jersey must now self-isolate for 14 days. This includes the UK, Guernsey, Europe and the rest of the world.[204]
  •  Malta: Tourists entering Malta from any country from 13:30 on 13 March 2020 onwards must spend 14 days in mandatory quarantine, which 14 days start from the last day that they were in any of these countries. This is enforceable by law. Failure to observe this obligation will result in fines of €1,000 for each time it is breached.[205]
  •  New Zealand: beginning 15 March 2020, any person entering New Zealand from overseas, including New Zealand citizens, will be required to self-isolate for 14 days following entry, except for those travelling from the Pacific Islands unless they are displaying symptoms. All cruise ships have been banned until 30 June 2020.[206] Beginning 23:59 19 March 2020, New Zealand refused entry to non-citizens or permanent residents (with limited exceptions).[207]
  •  Norway: beginning 17 March 2020, Norway introduced a quarantine obligation for all who arrive in Norway.[208]
  •  Singapore: Effective 20 March 2020, all arrivals from abroad will be issued Stay-Home Notices lasting 14 days.[209]
  •  South Korea: Effective 1 April 2020, all passengers are subject to mandatory self-quarantine for 14 days. This does not apply to airline crew.[210]
  •  Taiwan: All passengers arriving from outside Taiwan are subject to a 14-day home quarantine.[211]
  •  United Kingdom: From the 8th of June, other than for certain exemptions and passengers from the common travel area, anyone arriving in the UK will have to self isolate at home or at government provided acoomodation for 14 days and fill out a locator form before travel. [212]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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