Traveling (basketball)

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In basketball, traveling (travelling in Commonwealth English) is a violation of the rules that occurs when a player holding the ball moves one or both of his feet illegally. Most commonly, a player travels by illegally moving his or her pivot foot or taking two or more steps without dribbling the ball. A similar rule with the same name exists in the related sports of netball and korfball.

Traveling is sometimes also called "walking" or "steps" or "deucing" or "carrying," predominantly in a streetball atmosphere.

In basketball[edit]

Definitions[edit]

NCAA[edit]

Section 72. Traveling[1]

Art. 1. A player who catches the ball with both feet on the playing court may pivot, using either foot. When one foot is lifted, the other is the pivot foot.

Art. 2. A player who catches the ball while moving or dribbling may stop and establish a pivot foot as follows:

a. When both feet are off the playing court and the player lands:
1. Simultaneously on both feet, either may be the pivot foot;
2. On one foot followed by the other, the first foot to touch shall be the pivot foot;
3. On one foot, the player may jump off that foot and simultaneously land on both; neither foot can be the pivot foot.
b. When one foot is on the playing court:
1. That foot shall be the pivot foot when the other foot touches in a step;
2. The player may jump off that foot and simultaneously land on both; neither foot can then be the pivot foot.

Art. 3. After coming to a stop and establishing the pivot foot:

a. The pivot foot may be lifted, but not returned to the playing court, before the ball is released on a pass or try for goal;64 Rule 4 / definitions
b. The pivot foot shall not be lifted before the ball is released to start a dribble.

Art. 4. After coming to a stop when neither foot can be the pivot foot:

a. One or both feet may be lifted, but may not be returned to the playing court, before the ball is released on a pass or try for goal;
b. Neither foot shall be lifted, before the ball is released, to start a dribble.

Art. 5. It is traveling when a player falls to the playing court while holding the ball without maintaining a pivot foot.

NFHS (National Federation of State High School Associations)[edit]

The NFHS traveling rule is almost identical to the NCAA rule, with an additional article clarifying restrictions regarding a player holding the ball while on the floor.

NBA[edit]

Section XIII—Traveling[2]

a. A player who receives the ball while standing still may pivot, using either foot as the pivot foot.

b. A player who receives the ball while he is progressing or upon completion of a dribble, may take two steps in coming to a stop, passing or shooting the ball. A player who receives the ball while he is progressing must release the ball to start his dribble before his second step.

The first step occurs when a foot, or both feet, touch the floor after gaining control of the ball.

The second step occurs after the first step when the other foot touches the floor, or both feet touch the floor simultaneously.

A player who comes to a stop on step one when both feet are on the floor or touch the floor simultaneously may pivot using either foot as his pivot. If he jumps with both feet he must release the ball before either foot touches the floor.

A player who lands with one foot first may only pivot using that foot.

A progressing player who jumps off one foot on the first step may land with both feet simultaneously for the second step. In this situation, the player may not pivot with either foot and if one or both feet leave the floor the ball must be released before either returns to the floor.

c. In starting a dribble after (1) receiving the ball while standing still, or (2) coming to a legal stop, the ball must be out of the player’s hand before the pivot foot is raised off the floor.

d. If a player, with the ball in his possession, raises his pivot foot off the floor, he must pass or shoot before his pivot foot returns to the floor. If he drops the ball while in the air, he may not be the first to touch the ball.

e. A player who falls to the floor while holding the ball, or while coming to a stop, may not gain an advantage by sliding.

f. A player who attempts a field goal may not be the first to touch the ball if it fails to touch the backboard, basket ring or another player.

g. A player may not be the first to touch his own pass unless the ball touches his backboard, basket ring or another player.

h. Upon ending his dribble or gaining control of the ball, a player may not touch the floor consecutively with the same foot (hop).

PENALTY: Loss of ball. The ball is awarded to the opposing team at the sideline, nearest spot of the violation but no nearer the baseline than the foul line extended.

FIBA[edit]

The FIBA rule is similar to the NCAA rule but it has two minor differences.

First, there is no paragraph 4.a of Section 72. Therefore, it is a violation if the player, after coming to a stop and establishing the pivot foot, lifts it before the other foot without a dribble.

Second, when player falling, lying or sitting on the floor:

  • It is legal when a player falls on the floor while holding the ball or, while lying or sitting on the floor, gains control of the ball.
  • It is a violation if the player then rolls, slides or attempts to stand up while holding the ball.

Penalty[edit]

The ball becomes dead and a throw-in is awarded to the opposing team out of bounds nearest the point where the violation took place under NCAA and NFHS rules.[3] Under NBA rules, the ball is awarded to the opposing team at the nearest spot but no closer to the baseline than the free throw line extended.[4]

Examples[edit]

  • Any action where the pivot foot is lifted and returned to the floor, or dragged along the floor.
  • Lifting the pivot foot, taking multiple steps, or shuffling the feet before starting a dribble. See example videos.
  • While holding the ball, jumping and returning to the floor without releasing the ball.
  • While holding the ball on the floor, attempting to roll over or stand up.
  • NCAA and NFHS only: Falling to the floor while holding the ball, even if it was caught while airborne.[5][6][7][8]

Clarifications[edit]

  • It is impossible to travel while dribbling.[9] The height of the dribble or number of steps taken per dribble is irrelevant.[10]
  • It is impossible to travel during a throw-in.[11] While there are space restrictions for a throw-in, the thrower is not required to maintain a pivot foot or observe any of the other restrictions of the traveling rule. A referee who signals traveling on a throw-in violation is in error.
  • A player must have control of the ball to travel. For instance, a player who bobbles[jargon] a pass may well take several steps legally—the traveling rule is not in effect until he has secured control of the ball.[12]
  • A player who dives and catches a loose ball on the floor may legally slide as far as his momentum carries him. This is not a travel.[13][14][15] However, once he stops he may not roll over or attempt to stand.
  • Lifting the pivot foot alone does not constitute a travel; a player may pass, shoot, or request a timeout in that position. It is a travel once the foot is returned to the floor, or if a dribble is started.
  • In the NBA, a player who attempts a field goal may not be the first to touch the ball if it fails to touch the backboard, basket ring or another player.[16] In College (NCAA) rules, there is no longer possession or team control once the ball is in flight for a shot attempt.[17] It is up to the referee's discretion as to whether or not a legitimate field goal attempt was made. In High School (NFHS) rules being the first to touch the ball in one of the previously described situations is not specifically defined as a traveling violation. Alternatively, such action is not specifically described as being legal play. Thus, while the NBA has defined this action as travelling, and NCAA rules have language that may be interpreted as the opposite, NFHS rules do not comment on such action, leaving any ruling completely to the discretion of the official judges..

In netball[edit]

Netball rules do not permit players to let their landing foot touch the ground again if it is lifted at all while in possession of the ball, so players can take 1.5 steps while holding the ball. Pivoting does not count as a step.[18] Players are entitled to balance on the other foot if the landing foot is lifted. An infraction of this rule is usually called travelling (or steps) as in basketball.

IFNA Rule 14.3 states:

A player in possession of the ball may not:-
(i) drag or slide the landing foot;
(ii) hop on either foot;
(iii) jump from both feet and land on both feet unless the ball has been released before landing.

A free pass is awarded to the opposing team where the infringement occurred.

In korfball[edit]

In korfball, either foot can be used as pivot, no matter which foot touches the ground first. This means that in practice, one can take 2.5 steps, e.g. landing on the right foot, putting down the left and displacing the right. The left foot is the pivot in this case. The left foot can then be lifted, but may not be repositioned.

References[edit]

  1. ^ NCAA Rules for Men's and Women basketball, for seasons 2011-12 and 2012-13
  2. ^ Official Rules of the National Basketball Association 2014-2015 Rule 10, Section XIII, Page 37. Retrieved June 19, 2015 from NBA.com
  3. ^ 2009-2011 Men's & Women's Basketball Rules Rule 9, Section 15, Article 1. Retrieved July 26, 2010
  4. ^ NBA Official Rules (2009-2010) Rule 6, Section I, g(1). Retrieved July 26, 2010
  5. ^ NCAA 2009 Basketball Rules: Rule 4, Section 66, Article 6
  6. ^ http://phillyref.com/basketball/travelcases.html#nfhs NFHS Basketball Casebook - Section 4.44.5 Situation A
  7. ^ http://www.fiba.com/pages/eng/fc/news/lateNews/p/newsid/24352/arti.html FIBA rule changes for 2008
  8. ^ http://www.phillyref.com/articles/basketball/travel.html#gotchas "Player controls a rebound and falls to the court"
  9. ^ http://utahareasports.org/uploads/NFHS_BB_Rules_Fundamentals.pdf NFHS Basketball Rules Fundamentals
  10. ^ http://www.ihoops.com/training-room/officials/officials-guide-secction-15-seven-basketball-rules-myths.htm Seven Basketball Rules Myths
  11. ^ http://utahareasports.org/uploads/NFHS_BB_Rules_Fundamentals.pdf NFHS Basketball Rules Fundamentals
  12. ^ http://www.ihoops.com/training-room/officials/officials-guide-secction-15-seven-basketball-rules-myths.htm Seven Basketball Rules Myths
  13. ^ http://phillyref.com/basketball/travelcases.html#nfhs NFHS Basketball Casebook - Section 4.44.5 Situation B
  14. ^ http://phillyref.com/basketball/travelcases.html#ncaa NCAA Basketball Approved Ruling 113 (3)
  15. ^ http://phillyref.com/basketball/travelcases.html#fiba FIBA traveling rule cases
  16. ^ NBA Official Rules (2009-2010) Rule 10, Section XIII, F. Retrieved July 26, 2010
  17. ^ [1] Rule 4, Section 15, Article 4c
  18. ^ Murrary 2008, p. 186